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Making of America at University of Michigan

 From Wikipedia DeBow's Review   and the University of Virginia's Uncle Tom's Cabin & America Culture project

DeBow's Review was a highly influential and widely circulated magazine of  "agricultural, commercial, and industrial progress and resource" in the American South during the middle of the 19th century. It bore the name of its first editor, James Dunwoody Brownson DeBow (1820-1867).  He began the magazine in New Orleans in 1846 as the Commercial Review of the South and West. He moved it to Washington, D.C., between 1853 and 1857 (during his tenure as Head of the U.S. Census). By the start of the Civil War it was the most widely circulated southern periodical.

Publication History

    The magazine was published from 1846 until 1884, when it was absorbed into the Agricultural Review and Industrial Monthly. The magazine's publication was disrupted during the American Civil War after August 1864, but resumed publication again in January 1866.


    DeBow wrote much of each issue himself. Born in Charleston, S.C., he was an ardent [obsessed] champion of slavery. The magazine defended slavery in response to abolitionism and even published an article in the 1850s that urged the South to resume the African slave trade. His review advocated southern nationalism and had a secessionist perspective in the late 1850's and early 1860's as the Civil War approached. Before the Civil War the journal contained everything from agricultural reports, statistical data, and economic analysis to literature, political opinion. and commentary. After the war, the magazine resumed publication on commercial, political, and cultural topics, supported Reconstruction,  and even printed articles from former abolitionists.

Whaling, 1859
Sperm Oil Prices, 1866
Whale Fishery in 1865
American Fisheries history, 1866
American Fisheries, 1866   The American Fisheries. General facts. Cod, Herring, Alewives, Shad, Mackerel, Salmon, White Fish, Halibut, Sturgeon, Lobsters, Oysters, Clams, Whale Fishery, Etc.

March 1859

Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources.  Vol 26 (3): 323

The whale fisheries of the North still continue to show evidence of decline The whole number of vessels now employed is, 500 ships, 19 brigs, 45 schooners. We learn from the Whaleman's Shipping List the following :


Ships and Barks.     Tonnage
New-Bedford  316 107,931
Fairhaven   45 16,144
Westport   18 4,233
Dartmouth   10 2,807
Mattapoisett.   13 3,654
Sippican ..... 698
Wareham    1      373
       Dis. of New-Bedford  403 135,811

43 16,755
Nantucket 30   11,037 
Sag Harbor 16 5956
Edgartown 16 5696
Warren 15 4,851 
Provincetown 5 3,099
Mystic 6 2,040
Greenport 4 1,657
Cold Spring 4 1,606
Stonington 4 1,394
Falmouth 3 1,106
Newport 3 986
Orleans 1
Beverly 2
New-Haven 1
Fall River 2
Holmes' Hole 1
Salem 1
Sandwich   1     165
        Total, Jan. 1,  1859 561* 195,115
*The aggregate tonnage includes 19 Brigs and 45 Schooners, distributed between the ports.

Showing a diminution of 26 ships and barks and 4 schooners; an addition of one brig, and a diminution of 8,033 tons. Of the above is owned in the States of—

Ships and Barks. Brigs. Schrs. Tonnage
Massachusetts 465 14 32 159,303
Connecticut 54 3
New-York 24
Rhode Island 18
..... ..... 5,837

___ ___ ___ _______
Total 561

May 1859

Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources. Volume 26 (5): 290
New Orleans [etc.]: J. D. B. DeBow


Estimated value of the 661 whale vessels sailing from the United States, including their outfits, provisions, and the advances made to seamen on the day of sailing, at the rate of $25,000 each.   $16,525,000
Six per cent. per annum, interest on the same
Ten per cent. per annum, allowed for wear and tear
Two and a half per cent. insurance
Fresh supplies purchased by the masters, equal to about $1,200 per annum each
Amount of money paid to masters, officers , and crew being their shares of the oil taken, equal to one third of the gross value of the products
Total amount of money invested, including interest, &c.
Value of the annual amount of oil taken, showing a clear yearly profit of 46 per cent.
Difference between the whole capital invested and the yearly profit

Sept 1859

Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources.  Vol 26 (3): 344
J. D. B. DeBow. New Orleans [etc.]


The number of vessels, number of seamen, and value of oil and bone, in whaling vessels sailing from the United States, the average term of voyage being four years.
To what ports belonging. Tons.
Sperm vessels
Seamen employed
Sperm oil taken annually.
Whale oil taken annually.
Whalebone taken annually.
Total value.
New-Bedford 109,845 320
$1,930,477 $612,500 $5,960,727
New-London 18,733 65
724,500 356,107 113,050 1,193,657
Fairhaven 16,530 47
1,175 551,250 224,910 71,400 847,560
Nantucket 11,829 36
Provincetown 3,314 31
236,250 299,880 95,200 631,330
Westport 4,252 20
315,000 ......
Sag Harbor 5,929 20
236,250 93,712 29,750 359,712
Matapoisett 3,701 19
18,742 5,950 323,942
Edgartown 5,757 18
450 173,250 131,197 41,650 346,097
Warren 5,512 16
23,800 157,500
Portsmouth 2,805 10
157,500 ......
Sundry small ports 14,855 59

203,062 661 480 16,370 $7,571,812 $3,392,392 $1,076,600 $12,040,805

Jan 1866

Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources. (new series) Vol. 1 (1): 96-97

In view of the unprecedented fall short in the import of Crude Sperm Oil this year, and of its probable still further reduction for the year 1866, we give a few statistics touching the supply and demand for a period of ten years past, which cannot fail to interest both consumers and producers:

Stock on hand. No. of Import   Exports

bbls. vessels. bbls. bbls.
Jan. 1,
1856...... 14,000 635 80,941 20,052
" 1857..... 30,000 655 78,540 37,231
" 1858...... 38,000 654 81,941 33,666
" 1859...... 17,176 625 91,408 52,207
" 1860...... 13,429 509 73,708 32,792
1861...... 15,888 564 68,932 37,547
1862...... 16,132 433 55,641 27,976
1863...... 16,038 362 65,055 18,366
1864...... 31,200 304 64,372 43,362
1865...... 20,382 276  * 33,000 + 7,000
Oct. 18,
1865...... 13,000 259 _____
Average import for 9 years, ending 1864
bbls 73,382
Smallest     " "

Average export "

Smallest     " "

Average consumption for the same period, including export: 72,695

Stock on hand Oct. 18, 1865.............
Estimated arrivals   for balance of year

Estimated imports for 1866.............

        * Estimated.                  
        + Exports from Jan. 1 to Oct. 18, 1865.

    This amount, 37,000 bbls., is the estimated supply for 14½ months, ending Dec. 81, 1866, for both this country and Great Britain.
The figures for the latter country, where nearly as much Sperm Oil is consumed as here, are as follows:

Cleared in London Total receipts in the

for consumption. United Kingdom.
1860. .........bbls.  41,600
1861. ................. 33,700
1862. ..................27,100 42,720
1863. .................26,500 86,050
1864. ..................33,300 57,400

    The average consumption in Great Britain for 1862, '63, and '64, was about 39,000 bbls.
    The facts thus disclosed are very significant. The import of Sperm Oil this year will not exceed 33,000 bbls., against 64,372 bbls. last year; while it is safe, judging from the imports of the last 9 years, to estimate that the imports of 1866, the entire catch on board whalers now being only about 17,000 bbls., will not vary much from 20,000 bbls. It is to be borne in mind, that not only has our fleet been reduced, but many sperm whalers have been sent north. The consumption for the next 14½ months, taking the average for 9 years past, will be about 85,000 bbls.; to supply this demand, we shall have but 37,000 bbls., while England herself will require, at least, 39,000 bbls. The increased activity in cotton manufactures, and the immense cotton sales in England (one week 30,000 bales daily, valued at £12,000,000), indicate that the demand for Sperm Oil must increase. England, after receiving nearly 50,000 bbls. from our catch last year, has commenced supplying her wants from this market; though as yet she has received but 7,000 bbls. The shipments heretofore made from our whalers at English ports must almost entirely cease, as must the imports from English colonies. England must look here for her supplies.
    It must be a matter of surprise, upon considering the above facts and figures that the price of Sperm Oil rules so low. In 1855 the average price in gold was $1.77 1-5 ; equal, as exchange now is, to $2.60. Now, with not only a brisk demand, but with a frightfully diminished supply, it is selling at about $1.61 in gold.—New Bedford Mercury.

February 1866

Debow's review  (new series) Vol 1 (2):. 173-178

Petroleum. Van Benthuysen, W. A.

    The falling off in the production of Petroleum and the dying out of the excitement in regard to it, coincident with the cessation of the late civil war and the restoration of commercial relations with the Southern people, will render most welcome to a large class of our readers some record of the discovery, development and great wealth of this marvelous product. Like a sudden discovery of a mine of fabulous wealth, it added immensely to the resources of the North during the most critical period of their financial contraction, renewing confidence in the midst of depression, bringing wealth in the period of greatest losses by the destruction of the shipping interests, and turning the balance of foreign exchange largely in our favor when the military situation seemed to promise an almost interminable conflict of arms. Now that the old commercial relations are being reestablished between North and South, and those who have so long been separated from an acquaintance with each other's productions by the lines of hostile armies again meet on common ground, this wonderful product has taken a minor place in the public interest, and attention is little called to it except by those directly interested in it, or of that numerous class who have lost so largely in their wild speculations.

April 1866

Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources. (new series) Vol. 1 (4): 420-422



    The Whalemen's Shipping List of New Bedford gives the following statement of the whale fishery for 1865 :
    "The past year will prove an eventful one in the history of the whale-fishery. The wanton destruction of so many valuable ships by the pirate steamer Shenandoah, in the Arctic regions, was a sad blow to the whaling interest—particularly that of New Bedford—on whose merchants a large portion of the loss has fallen. But the injury does not stop here. Besides the destruction of the twenty-three American ships and outfits, whose value exceeds a million of dollars, there is the loss to the officers and men of those vessels—some losing their all. and all suffering from loss of their time, and their effects necessary for the prosecution of such voyages. Then add to these the loss of the season's catch, not only of the ships burned, but also of those bonded by the Shenandoah and sent into port with the crews of the vessels destroyed, and of those who were driven from the grounds for fear of being captured, and we have an amount exceeding two million dollars, that have been taken from the pockets of the whaling interests of the country, on which about $600,000 was insured with the war clause—much of it at the enormous premium of fifteen per cent. But notwithstanding these reverses, those engaged in the business—particularly in New Bedford—were not disheartened. After the reception of the news of the havoc made by the Shenandonh, a number of ships were purchased at enhanced prices, and were immediately furnished and sent to sea—partially filling up the gap made by those destroyed ; and the probability is that a number more will be purchased the coming spring, if suitable vessels can be found, and added to the fleet.
    "The whole number of vessels employed in the whaling business January 1, 1863, is 263 against 276 in 1865—with a reduction of 11,112 tons—a portion of which reduction is owing to the difference in the reimbursement of vessels.
    "The North Pacific fleet of 1865, exclusive of those burned, and the two wrecked in the ice, consisted of 71 vessels, including 59 American and 12 foreign. Of these, 50 American and 6 foreign cruised in the Arctic Ocean, and took the season 34,930 barrels of oil and 565,400 pounds of bone—an average of 624 barrels of oil and 10,096 pounds of bone; and in the Ochotsk Sea, 9 American, and 6 foreign vessels took 11,600 barrels of oil, and 155,100 pounds of bone—an average of 774 barrels of oil and 10,340 pounds of bone. Total catch of the Northwest fleet, 46,530 barrels of oil and 720,500 pounds of bone—average catch of each vessel, 655 barrels of oil and 10,148 pounds of bone.
    "By the above it will be seen that the average is an improvement on that of 1863, yet but for the advanced prices from those of 1863, and the still further advance caused by the work of the pirate, the business could not be carried on with the present exorbitant prices of fitting ships.

Imposts of Oil from 1846 to 1866
Imports of 1865,   gallons 33,243 76,238 619,350
" 1864, 64,372 71,863 760,450
" 1863, 65,055 62,974 488,750
" 1862, 55,641 100,478 763,500
" 1861, 68,932 133,717 1,038,450
" 1860, 73,708 140,035 1,337,650
" 1859, 91,408 190,411 1,923,850
" 1858, 81,941 182,223 1,540,600
" 1857, 78,440 230,941 2,058,900
" 1856, 80,941 197,890 2,592,700
" 1855, 72,649 184,015 2,707,500
" 1854, 76,696 319,837 3,445,200
" 1853, 103,077 260,114 5,652,300
" 1852, 78,872 84,211 1,259,900
" 1851, 99,591 328,483 3,966,500
" 1850, 92,892 200,608 2,869,200
" 1849, 100,944 248,492 2,281,100
" 1848, 107,976 280,656 2,003,000
" 1847, 120,753 313,150 3,341,680
" 1846, 95,217    207,493 2,276,930

Exports of Sperm Oil, Whale Oil and Whalebone
from the United States
for the last Seven Years:
20,108 1,660 202,100
45,000 12,000 530,000
18,306 11,297 279,394
27,976 68,583    1,004,981
37,547 49,969 1,145,013
32,792 13,007 911,226
52,007 8,179 1,707,929

        Vessels Employed
The number of vessels and amount of tonnage employed
 since 1844, have been as follows:

Ships and Barks.     Brigs.
Jan. 1, 1866
199 8
Jan. 1, 1865
226 7
Jan. 1, 1864
258 5
Jan. 1, 1863
301 10
Jan. 1, 1862
372 10
Jan. 1, 1861
459 14
Jan. 1, 1860
508 19
Jan. 1, 1859
561 19
Jan. 1, 1858
587 18
Jan. 1, 1857
593 22
Jan. 1, 1856 585 21 29 199,141
Jan. 1, 1855 584 20
Jan. 1, 1854 602 28 38 208,399
Jan. 1. 1853 599 30 32 206,286
Jan. 1, 1852 558 27 35 193,990
Jan. 1, 1851 502 24 27 171,971
Jan. 1, 1850 510 20 13 171,484
Jan. 1, 1849 581 21 12 196,110
Jan. 1, 1848 621 22 16 210,663
Jan. 1, 1847 670 31 21 230,218
Jan. 1, 1846 678 35 22 283,189
Jan. 1, 1845 643 35 17 218,655
Jan. 1, 1844 595 41 9 200,147

September 1866

Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources. (new series) Vol 2 (3): 225-236
    (only the sections relevant to the fisheries are here, pp. 227, 228, 232, 233)

Progress of American Commerce —The Fisheries. by J. D. B. De Bow, [The Editor]

     There was one department of our maritime industry which demanded the earliest attention of government, and we think its general interest will be a sufficient apology for such space as we may allot to its consideration- THE FISHERIES.
    Mr. Jefferson, in 1791, then Secretary of State, furnished an admirable report upon the subject, which we proceed to analyze. As early as 1520 there were fifty ships upon the Newfound land coasts at one time, prosecuting the cod fisheries. In 1577 the French had 150 vessels there, the Spaniards 100, the Portuguese 50, and the English 15. The French fisheries began early to decline. In 1768 the Americans took but little less than the English, and the French took the least of all. In 1789 England obtained double the quantity of both America and France combined. During the Revolution the American fisheries were almost entirely abandoned, and Mr. Jefferson left it to the wisdom of Congress to decide whether they should not be restored, by opposing prohibitions to prohibitions, and high duties to high duties, on the fish of other nations.
    The whale fishery was prosecuted by the Biscayans as early as the fifteenth century. The British began its encouragement in 1672 by bounties. The Americans opened their enterprises in 1715. They succeeded early in the discovery, in the Southern Seas, of the spermaceti whale, which they attacked instead of the Greenland, hitherto known to navigators. In 1771 we had 204 whalers. During the war, England held out the largest bounties to the trade, and so irresistible were these in the depressed condition of our fishermen, that it is said many of them were on the eve of removing to Halifax, to prosecute the business there, and were only deterred by a letter from Lafayette, declaring that France would abate her duties upon oil. The little island of Nantucket is the great heart of these fisheries. "A sand-bar," said Mr. Jefferson, "fifteen miles long and three broad, capable by its agriculture of maintaining twenty families, employed in these fisheries, before the Revolution, between 5 and 6,000 men and boys, and contained in its only harbor 140 vessels. In agriculture, then, they have no resource, and if their fisheries cannot be pursued from their own habitations, it is natural they should seek others from which it can be followed, and principally those where they will find a sameness of language, religion, laws habits, and kindred."
    In 1803 Mr. Huger stated to Congress, in his report, that it would seem the cod fisheries had gained ground since the Revolution, but that the whale fisheries, on the contrary, have  been, for some time past, on the decline. The war of 1812 was most disastrous to the fishermen, but they soon after recovered their prosperity, and on the first of January, 1844, we had 644 vessels engaged at sea, of the value, including catchings, of $27,784,000. On the first of January, 1846, there were 680 ships, 34 brigs, 21 schooners, and 1 sloop; tonnage, 233,149; manned by about 20,000 seamen and officers, consuming over three million dollars annually of American produce. The proceeds of whale fisheries were $9,000,000 per annum, of which only $2,000,000 were reexported.
    In 1844 Mr. Grinnell stated in Congress:

This fleet of whaling ships is larger than ever pursued the business before. Commercial history furnishes no account of any parallel. The voyages of those engaged in the sperm fishery average three and a half years; they search every sea, and often cruise three or four months with a man at each mast-head on the look-out, without the cheering sight of a whale. They are hardy, honest and patriotic, and will, as they did in the last war, stand by their country when in danger; they will man our ships, and fight our battles on the ocean.

    Mr. Clayton remarked in 1846:

We have at this time a commerce of 2,417,000 tons of shipping; England has 2,420,000 tons; so that we are nearly, nay, it is my opinion, we are completely on a par with her. I doubt, sir, whether England has a greater commercial marine, or greater interests to protect. We have more than 700 whale ships in the Pacific, an extensive Indian commerce, and a great and daily growing commerce with China. (Brown's Whaling Cruise and Hist. Whale Fishery

    But we have been anticipating other divisions of the subject, led on by the interest which is so readily excited here. At the close of the last century there were many causes which tended to add a vast importance to the commerce of the United States. For several years this commerce enjoyed unparalleled, and almost unmeasured prosperity. Scarcely admitted into the family of nations, we found the whole civilized world engaged in the fiercest and most sanguinary conflict. A wise and indeed "masterly" neutrality was of course the true policy of the country. The carrying trade of the world fell at once into our hands. We supplied the mother countries with the products of their own colonies. The East and West Indies alike were opened to our shipping. Their rich products filled our warehouses, supplying consumption and re export. Prosperity such as this, however, was fated to be brief. The conflicting powers sacrificed everything to their mutual hatred, and minded little the rights of a nation they had not even learned to respect. Protestation ended in war, and the rights of our hardy sailors were established forever.  (Brown's Whaling Cruise and Hist. Whale Fishery, 1846, p. 539)


    The fisheries to which we have referred have continued to grow in importance, until, under the influence of bounties and  other protection, they have become an important branch of American commerce. Our exports of these were as follows:

Dried Fish.
Pickled Fish. 
383,237 57,726
400,818 55,999
392,726 60,388
514,549 56,670
280,864 34,674

The exports of spermaceti oil, bone, and candles reached, as early as 1807, nearly six hundred thousand dollars.

November 1866

Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources. (new series) Vol. 2 (5): 470-481
J. D. B. DeBow. New Orleans [etc.]




    WE introduced this subject and gave some of the earliest information in regard to it in our article upon the "Progress of American Commerce" in the April and September numbers of the REVIEW.  Drawing for our information upon the Reports of the United States Census, we append the following:

The American Fisheries           471

    The total product of the fisheries of the United States, including the whale fishery in 1860, according to the official returns, was upwards of thirteen millions of dollars, ($13,664,805)—an increase of more than thirty per cent. over their value in 1850. Considerably more than one-half of this amount, or $7,749,305, was the proceeds of whale fishing, and $4,183,503, or nearly one-third of the whole, represented the value of cod, mackerel, and herring, &c., taken in that year. The value of the white fish taken in the northern lakes was $464,479; more than half of which was returned from Michigan. The shad fishery yielded a product of $321,052—North Carolina being the largest producer. Of oysters, the value taken was $756,350, and $51,500 was the value of salmon caught, principally in the rivers of the Pacific coast.
    The statistics of the deep-sea and river fisheries, exclusive of the whale trade, embrace the products of 1,524 establishments, and amounted to $5,915,500. Of these, 1,053 belonged to the Eastern and Middle States, and employed an aggregate capital of $3,898,606 and 13,699 hands, the product of which was $4,756,766. The Western lake States returned 248 fishing establishments, with a capital of $294,219, which employed 1,274 hands, and yielded a return of $583,241. Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, Alabama, and Texas numbered 206 establishments, with a capital of $252,002, and an aggregate product of $400,556. California, Oregon, and Washington Territory reported seventeen concerns, having collectively a capital of $70,420 and 244 hands engaged in taking fish to the value of $174,937. Of the aggregate returns, $6,734,955, the product of the whaling business, and $2,637,604, the value of other branches, making together $9,163,842, or 70 per cent. of the total value, was the result of the maritime industry of Massachusetts alone. The latter sum was the product of 169 fishing establishments, whose capital amounted to $2,520,200; the raw material consumed amounted to $452,778, and the hands employed to 7,642, (twenty of them females,) whose labor was valued at $1,220,439.

    COD FISHERY.—The cod fishery, which has been an established industry of Massachusetts for more than two hundred years, employed annually, from 1765 to 1775, from twenty-one ports in that province, including Maine, an average of 665 vessels, a tonnage of 25,630 tons and 4,405 seamen. The annual exportation to Europe in that time was 178,800 quintals, which sold for $3 05 per quintal, and to the West Indies the quantity exported was 172,500 quintals, worth $2 06 per quintal. After the Revolution fishing was again resumed, and from 1786 to 1790 the number of vessels annually employed in this fishery was 539, the tonnage 19,185, the number of seamen 3,292, and the exports to Europe were 108,600 quintals, at $3 each, and to the West Indies 141,550, at $2 per quintal. Marblehead and Gloucester were the principal fishing ports. A memorial of the Marblehead fishermen to Congress, in 1790, stated that the average annual earnings of each schooner from that time had fallen from $483 in 1787 to $456 in 1788, and to $283 in 1790.

The American Fisheries           472

The average annual expenses, including insurance, was $416, showing a loss in the latter year of $143. A report of Mr. Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury, on this and similar petitions, advised a withdrawal from the fisheries of all support from the treasury. Congress, however, granted a bounty on the exportation of salted fish by way of drawback of the duty on imported salt, and an allowance in money was afterwards made to vessels employed for a certain number of months in this fishery. Thus encouraged and stimulated by the revival of trade and commerce under the newly organized government, the New England fisheries again entered upon a season of prosperity. In 1807 four vessels were fitted out at Newburyport for the Labrador cod fishery, and were the first vessels from the United States that made their fares in the Esquimaux bay. From 1790 until the embargo and the last war with Great Britain, the export trade in fish steadily increased and reached its greatest prosperity. The heaviest exportations were in 1804, when they amounted to 567,828 quintals of dried fish, worth $2,400,000, and 89,482 barrels and 13,045 kegs of pickled fish, worth $640,000. The product of the cod fishery has never since been as great, and in 1814 fell to 31,310 quintals of dry fish, valued at $128,000, and 8,436 barrels of pickled fish, worth $50,000. The lowest average price obtained for dried and smoked fish from 1806 to 1823 was $3 25 in 1809, and the highest price $4 80 in 1815, towards the end of the war.
    The principal markets for American codfish were the French, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, and Dutch West Indies, the Brazils, and the Catholic States of Europe. Hayti and the Spanish and Danish West Indies were the largest foreign consumers of pickled fish, but the greater part of the pickled fish of the United States is consumed at home.(McGregor's Statistics of America.) An active trade, which commenced in 1791, is carried on from Gloucester, Massachusetts, with Surinam or Dutch Guiana, and in 1856 employed 14 ships, barks, and brigs. About the year 1845, a prosperous trade was commenced between that town and the British American provinces, from which, in 1856, upward of 200 vessels arrived annually. Gloucester, in that year, had employed in the fisheries a fleet of 304 vessels, averaging 70 tons each, or 21,000 tons of shipping. The capital invested was $1,089,250, and the men employed in it 3,040. The town exported 72,000 barrels of mackerel, worth $500,000, and 98,000 quintals of codfish, worth $300,000, 650 barrels of oil, and 210 tons of smoked halibut, and consumed 250,000 bushels of salt. This was exclusive of the boat and shore fishery of the place. Boston, as the leading fish emporium, had, at the same date, about thirty houses engaged in the fish trade, whose aggregate capital was $1,100,000, and their sales for that year were nearly $6,000,000.(Third Annual Report of Boston Board of Trade, for 1857.) Massachusetts, in 1853, employed 51,425 tons of shipping in the cod fishery.
    An important branch of the domestic fishery, carried on

The American Fisheries           4713

in the bays, harbors and rivers of New England—the value of which is usually omitted in the published statistics of this industry — is the trade in fresh fish for the daily markets of the seaport and inland cities of the Union. This trade is of two kinds: one of these consists in supplying the several maritime towns with fresh fish of various kinds, brought in boats from the local fisheries in the neighboring waters; the other is for the supply of more distant markets. Boston is the principal seat of the latter business, which was commenced there upwards of twenty years ago. In 1844, several firms in that city were engaged in furnishing New York, Philadelphia, Albany, Troy, and other cities, between the first of December and the first of May, in each year, with large quantities of fresh codfish, haddock. and halibut, to the amount of 1,734,000 pounds. Of this amount one of the oldest and largest firms alone sent off 934,000 pounds of halibut, and 386,000 pounds of cod and haddock. The trade employed at that time about 60 vessels, of 3,000 tons, and 400 men, one-half engaged in the halibut, and the other in the cod and haddock fishery. They were chiefly owned at Cape Ann and Cape Cod, and varied from six to fourteen days in the length of their voyages. The fish are brought to the wharves alive, by a peculiar construction of the vessels, which admits the water into a part of the hold, and when landed they are packed in ice and shipped to their destination. This business is conducted independently of that which supplies the city market. The latter trade, in 1836, employed in Boston 15 or 20 small schooners and a large number of boats in catching fresh codfish for market. A single vessel of 25 tons with six men, during five months, took 194,125 pounds of fresh cod, worth $3,026, exclusive of the oil made from the livers, which sold for $15 per barrel. The price varied from five to twelve shillings per hundred. Large quantities of haddock were, in the same way, brought to market and sold for a few cents each. Lynn, in the same season, was supplied with 4,680,000 pounds of fresh fish. Duxbury had ten market boats and forty men employed, which took thirty-eight to forty thousand fresh fish. Provincetown had the same number of boats in the business. Rockport, in Essex County, in 1855, sold 1,050,000 pounds of fresh fish, worth $15,750. The sale of fresh codfish and halibut in Boston in 1856 was estimated at $300,000. The fish were shipped in a frozen state to all the neighboring States.

    HERRING. —On the coast of Newfoundland, where immense schools of herring appear early in the spring and furnish food for the cod, which pursue them close into the shore, they are chiefly caught by the resident fishermen for sale to the "bankers" and shore fishermen as bait for codfish. On the southern and western coasts of the island hundreds of barrels of live herring, of good quality, are often turned out of the seines in which they are taken, the people not deeming them worthy the salt and labor of curing. From this fishery, which is not pursued as a distinct branch of business, but might be made very profitable, our fishermen are excluded by the

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great quantity of ice in the Gulf until the season is past. In the Gulf of St. Lawrence herring are also found so soon as the ice disappears, and here, particularly at the Magdalen islands, the Americans have long carried on a profitable herring fishery. The herring arrive there in April to spawn, and during their stay, which lasts about ten days, the waters are nearly solid with them, while the beach, when the wind blows on shore, is in many places covered two or three feet deep with their spawn. During their sojourn any quantity can be taken, but they are at that season generally poor. Their offspring, which inhabit the bays and harbors, become quite fat, being protected from the larger fish by the shallow water, while they become the tyrants of the small. These herring, being poor, are easily preserved by being smoked or "dry-salted," and will keep in hot weather. They are not much used where the better qualities can be obtained, and are never compressed for their oil. They are principally sold in the West Indies or in South American markets. In 1839 Captain Fair, of the royal navy, found at the Magdalen islands, chiefly at Amherst and House harbors, on the 19th of May, about 146 sail of American fishing schooners, of from 60 to 80 tons, and each carrying seven or eight men. Among them were only about seven belonging to the British possessions, chiefly from Arichat, Cape Breton. The American schooners were computed to average nearly 700 barrels each, or in all about 100,000 barrels, valued at $100,000, as the product of 10,000 tons of shipping and 1,000 men, several of which by the 27th had completed their cargoes and sailed.
    The best quality of herrings are taken in the Bay of Fundy and Passamaquoddy bay, the waters of which in the spring are literally alive with young herring, which feed and fatten on the shrimps brought in by the full tides. The spring herring are of large size and full of spawn, which abound in the harbors of Nova Scotia and neighboring provinces in May, are lean, and less esteemed than the fat fall herring. A small variety, very fat and delicious, enter the Digby gut about the end of May, and are caught in great quantity on the shore of Clements, in Annapolis basin. They are smoked and cured as red herring, and packed in boxes of half a bushel each, containing about 200 in number. Of these, 100,000 boxes have been exported in some years, but are now less plentiful than formerly. Many herring are taken in St. Mary's bay and the basin of Minas. In 1805 and two following years an average of 10,410 boxes of smoked fish were exported from Nova Scotia. The provincial laws respecting the inspection of fish have given them a reputation in foreign markets. Of the several species of this fish taken in the waters of the United States, the principal is the Clupea elongata, the representative of the common herring, (C. harengus.)
    By the Dutch and English, herring are principally caught in drift nets, which the former make of coarse Persian silk, as being stronger than hemp, and 500 to 600 fathoms in length. These are blackened by smoke to disguise them, and in the evening are set, being buoyed

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up by empty barrels and stretched by weights, so that the upper margin floats just at the surface. The darkest nights, and when the surface is rippled by a breeze, are considered the most favorable. Fishing by day with these gill-nets is prohibited in England. The fish are sometimes attracted towards them by lanterns, and in the morning the nets are drawn in by a windlass. Great quantities are sometimes meshed in this manner.
    In American waters herring are at present principally taken in weirs, but formerly by "torching," or driving, which was as happy a union of business and pleasure as can well be imagined.
    The principal seat of the herring fishery of Maine is in Washington county, and the neighborhoods of Lubec, Eastport, and Machias. The total catch of the State in 1860 was reported at 525,974  boxes of smoked herring, valued at about $118,000, in addition to a few thousand barrels of pickled herring. Of the whole quantity, 398,174 boxes were returned by Washington county, which reported $301,517 as the value of all kinds of fishes taken by its fishermen. Sagadahoc returned 90,000 boxes, and Knox county 7,000 boxes. The average value was less than twenty-five cents a box.. In the State in 1850 there were returns of 29,685 boxes of herring taken. The total value of the smoked and pickled herring taken in the waters of Maine does not probably fall short of $200,000 annually. This is the value estimated by Mr. Hallowell, who includes also the value of oil made from the herring by compression. The annual catch in Passamaquoddy bay is computed to be equal to 75,000 barrels, the market value of which is $170,000. The quantity of herring taken being much in excess of the demand, about two-thirds of the catch, or 50,000 barrels, are now converted into oil, which sells at $20 to $25 per barrel at the manufactory. This manufacture of herring oil is of recent origin. The first press was introduced at Passamaquoddy in 1862 by U. S. Treat, Esq. At the present time almost every man engaged in the herring fishery has them. The market value of the oil has almost doubled in price since the first year. It is thought that fully 50 per cent. of the fish taken in future will be compressed for oil, which will cause a falling off in the number of boxes of smoked fish prepared for market. When herring are to be compressed they are red-salted in the same way as for smoking, but without being scaled, and are allowed to lie three or four days. The apparatus, including two presses, two screws, a kettle holding 70 gallons, &c., costs $50. With this, two men will make from 35 to 40, or, if the herring be very fat, about 70 gallons of oil in a day. Fourteen presses, of five gallons each, is, however, an unusual day's work; three gallons each being the average of a season. The pomace or refuse of the press is used for manure, and sells for $4 per ton. The poggy is preferred for the manufacture of oil, and considerable quantities of poggy oil are made in Maine, but that fish is now much less plentiful than formerly.

    ALEWIVES.—The alewife, (Clupea vernales,) belonging to the same family with the common herring, and forming a link between it and

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 the shad, though less valuable than either, ascends our eastern rivers in great abundance in the spring. Unlike the herring, it deposits its spawn in fresh water. In former years more of this fish were taken and packed in Massachusetts than of any species of the same family. The quantity inspected in 1832 was 1,730 barrels; in 1833, 2,266 barrels, and in 1835, 5,600 barrels. Many were taken in the Charles river, at Watertown; the inspections in ten years preceding 1836 averaging 700 barrels annually. They were first pickled, then salted, barreled, and sent to the West Indies, where they sold for $1 50 to $2 per barrel. Twenty-five years before they were so abundant there as to be sold for twenty cents the hundred, and were shipped in greater quantities. The building of dams and factories on the rivers caused their partial disappearance. In 1854 Massachusetts employed 485 men in taking alewives, shad, and salmon to the amount of 52,278 barrels and 4,802,472 in number, the total value of which was $73,156. They were principally taken at Watertown, Cambridge, Medford, Middlebury, Tisbury, Berkeley, Dighton, Gloucester, and Lynn. Upwards of half a million alewives were returned in 1860 by Sagadahoc county, in Maine, chiefly by Bowdoinham. Many of these fish from our eastern ports are sold in Baltimore for more southern markets, where they are in demand on account of their cheapness, being sold at $3 50 to $4 50 per barrel in ordinary seasons. But on account of their inferior value as a commercial article, much of the catch of these fish is not reported. Many alewives are also taken on the eastern shore of Maryland, St. Mary's county employing in 1860 eighty hands and eight seines, which caught about 16,000, valued, in the fresh or green state, at $4,000. The season begins in September and lasts about two months.

    SHAD. —In the rivers at the head of the Bay of Fundy, where many fine shad are taken, the gill-nets are sometimes made stationary and placed transversely to the stream, on a flat or bar, over which the tide flows many feet in depth. The shad are always meshed in the ebb of the tide. In the deep, narrow rivers at the head of the Bay of Fundy, where the tide ebbs and flows fifty or more feet in depth, seines are sometimes extended entirely across the channel from bank to bank. Daring the influx of the tide, they lie flat upon the bottom of the river, the upper margin directed up stream, and on the turn of the tide, at high water, they are sprung to a vertical position by means of boats and buoys, thus intercepting the return of nearly all the fish in the stream. Many thousands are thus taken in a single tide, although the sturgeon often opens vast rents in the seine, admitting a pretty general escape. Many shad are also taken in weirs, in Penobscot bay. The town of Richmond, in 1860, returned 32,000 as having been taken in four weirs. Large numbers of these fish were formerly taken in the Charles river, at Watertown, Massachusetts, and sold in Boston market for twenty-five cents each. Many were also caught at Taunton, where they were sometimes sold from the seines as low as fifty cents a hundred.

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Large numbers of shad and manure fish are taken in the harbors and rivers of Long Island sound, by the fishermen of Connecticut, and in the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers. In 1850, Connecticut returned 243,448 as the number of shad, exclusive of white fish used as fertilizers caught in the State. North Carolina returned the same year 56,482 barrels of shad and herring.
    The total value of shad fishery of the United States in 1860 was $433,671. Of this amount North Carolina produced upwards of one-fourth, or $117,259; Florida, $68,952; New Hampshire, $64,500; New Jersey, $38,755; and Virginia, $68,210. The average value returned in many places was about $12 per barrel, and $7 per hundred for fresh shad.
     Of the alosa menhaden, an inferior species, known by the several local or popular names of mossbunker, pauhagen, hardhead, white fish, and bony fish, large numbers are caught for mackerel bait, and still larger quantities for manure. In former years they have been sold as bait to Massachusetts fishermen at $2 to $4 per barrel. Many of them are also packed and sold as food. For that purpose 1,448 barrels were inspected in Massachusetts in 1836. As fertilizers these fish have been caught and hauled upon the land in the neighborhood of Cape Cod for upwards of twenty years. A single fish of medium size has been considered equal, as a fertilizer, to a shovel-full of barn-yard manure. Their use for this purpose is now very extensive on the seaboard, especially in Connecticut, along the sound. In 1850, Connecticut returned nearly 37,000,000 of white fish, caught chiefly for that purpose, and Rhode Island reported 187,000 barrels of-menhaden taken. In 1860, Middlesex, New Haven, and New London Counties, Connecticut, together returned about 27,000,000 of white and manure fish taken, valued at $288,589, in addition to fish converted into $31,500 worth of oil and fertilizers in New London county. At the average reported value of one dollar per thousand, these would make an aggregate of about 60,000,000 of mossbunkers taken in the State in the year, but the actual value is nearly $2 per thousand. Vast numbers of these are taken at Sag Harbor and the shores of Long Island. In 1849 an attempt was made at New Haven, by Mr. Lewis, to manufacture a portable manure from the whitefish, and a quantity of the fertilizer, containing, according to the analysis of Professor Norton, of Yale College, an equivalent of 12.42 per cent. of ammonia, was put into the market. For some reason the enterprise was abandoned. In 1851 or 1852 a second effort was made by a Frenchman, named De Molen, who had, in 1856, an establishment near the Straits of Bellisle, employing 150 men in manufacturing taugrum, or fish manure, from herrings or herring refuse, large quantities of which were shipped to France. Pettit & Green, in England, also engaged in the manufacture of fish manure, by a patent process, involving the use of sulphuric acid. By the more simple process of De Molen, and we believe of Lewis, the fish were boiled or steamed into a pasty mass, from which oil was then expressed and economized, and the cake or

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pomace, after being dried in a current of hot air, was finally ground into powder. Fish manure has been somewhat extensively manufactured at Concarneau, in France, from the refuse of sardines and other fish; at Christiana, in Norway, and at Oldenburg, on the North Sea; the last principally from crabs, dried and ground, and thence called granet guano. More recently, commercial fish manure has been male in New Jersey from crabs, and called cancerine, and also by the Narragansett Company, in Rhode Island. The last of these made two manures, "fish guano," and "fish compost;" the former a concentrated article, made by "chemically treating, cooking, drying, and then grinding the fish to a powder;" the latter consisting of the cooked and dried fish mixed with equal quantities of street sweepings, and sold at $3 per barrel of 200 pounds. Each barrel of the latter contained the desiccated organic matter of two barrels of fish, with a variable amount of the fertilizing salts of ammonia, potash, lime, or their elements. In 1830 New London County, Connecticut, returned 31,000 bushels of fish guano, made at an average price of eighteen cents per bushel, and 2,120 barrels of oil from the same source, valued at about $12 25 per barrel, or $31,000 for the two articles.

    MACKEREL.—The mackerel fishery has long been carried on from the seaports of Massachusetts. In 1770 the town of Scituate had upwards of 30 sail engaged in it. In May, 1828, Congress authorized special licenses to be granted to vessels in the mackerel fishery, in order to keep them separate from those in the cod fishery. When not otherwise employed, they were allowed to fish for cod, but could not claim the bounty allowed to cod fishermen. But the law has not been rigidly enforced. The first separate returns were not made until 1830, when the enrolled and licensed tonnage employed in the mackerel fishery of the United States was 39,973 tons, from which it had declined in 1841 to 11,321 tons. In 1850 this branch employed 58,111 tons of shipping, nearly one-half of which, or 26,327 tons, belonged to Barnstable County, Massachusetts. That county in 1836 had 206 vessels in the mackerel fishery, 98 of which belonged to Provincetown. The State in 1855 had engaged in the cod and mackerel fisheries 1,145 vessels, measuring 77,936 tons, and employing 10,551 men and a capital of $3,696,436.
    The quantity of pickled fish, chiefly mackerel and herring, exported from the United States in 1790 was 36,804 barrels, valued at $113,165. In 1831 the quantity so exported was 91,787 barrels, 8,594 kegs, worth altogether $304,441. The mackerel fishery of Massachusetts reached its maximum productiveness in the year last mentioned, when the number of barrels inspected in the State was 383,559. During the next ten years it regularly declined to 50,992 barrels in 1840, which was the lowest production of any one year. The total product of pickled fish in the United States in that year was 472,359½ barrels, and the quantities exported were 42,274 barrels and 2,252 kegs, worth $179,106. By the census of 1850 Massachusetts returned 236,468 barrels of mackerel taken, Maine 12,681,

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and New Hampshire 1,096 barrels, of which the total exports. were 22,551 barrels, valued at $83,759. This branch of the fishery is subject to great fluctuations, and we consequently find the product of the mackerel fishery in Massachusetts in 1860 only reached 111,375 barrels, chiefly produced in Essex and Barnstable counties. The returns for Maine in that year footed up 23,653 barrels. Bristol County, Rhode Island, returned 15,000 barrels of mackerel.

    The SALMON FISHERY.—The waters of North America contain a greater number of species of the trout family (Salmonides) than those of any other country. They are all esteemed for their delicacy of flesh, and are found in nearly all of our northern rivers and lakes. The largest and most valuable of the several genera is the common or true salmon, (Salmo salar.) This beautiful fish, which is the delight of the angler, lives ten or twelve years, and in Europe often attains great size—the largest specimen on record having weighed 83 pounds. The largest salmon taken in our rivers have not exceeded 70 pounds—the average weight being considerably less, or from 12 to 20 pounds. A British author has ranked the salmon fishery next to agriculture as a source of food—an estimate less applicable to our country than to Scotland, the rivers of which alone have been computed to furnish salmon to the annual value of $750,000. This fish never enters the Mediterranean, but is found on the coast of Europe, from the Bay of Biscay to Spitzbergen. The salmon is taken in most of the rivers and estuaries of North America, from Greenland to the Kennebec, in Maine, on the eastern coast, and from the Columbia river northward, on the Pacific seaboard. It is found in all the tributaries of Lake Ontario, its further progress being arrested by the Falls of Niagara. It is very abundant in the Restigouche and the numerous other streams falling into the Bay de Chaleur, in the Saguenay, and all the rivers on the north of the St. Lawrence eastward to Labrador, and in the St. John's river and its tributaries below the grand falls. The St. John's furnishes nearly one-half of all the salmon brought to our markets, and its principal branch—the Aroostook—is the richest salmon fishery on the Atlantic coast. About 40,000 salmon were caught in the harbor of St. John in 1850, and shipped fresh in ice to Boston. From the British provinces the imports of pickled salmon in the same year were 8,287 barrels, valued at $78,989, in addition to considerable quantities of smoked salmon. The cold and limpid waters of many of the streams of British America, and the absence on most of then of dams, mills, steamboats, and other improvements, invite the presence of the salmon, which is a timid fish, and quickly forsakes its accustomed haunts when disturbed. For this reason these fish have now nearly forsaken the Merrimack, the Cumberland, the Thames, the Hudson, the Susquehanna, the Delaware, and other Atlantic rivers of the United States in which they were formerly found and taken in considerable numbers. Few are now caught south of the Kennebec. In 1818, 2,381 barrels of salmon were

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inspected in Massachusetts. They were formerly so abundant in the Connecticut that it is said one shad was considered equal in value to three salmon, and the day laborer stipulated that salmon should be served to him only four days in the week!
    The domestic salmon fishery of the United States is at present confined principally to the rivers of Maine and those of the Pacific States.
    The total value of the salmon caught in Maine at the present time is estimated by one of the principal dealers at $16,000 per annum, about three-fourths of which is supposed to be taken in the Penobscot, chiefly in weirs, and from April to August, inclusive. Bangor and Bucksport are the principal seats of this fishery. The average size of the salmon is 13 pounds, and the average price 20 to 25 cents per pound. Fresh salmon, in our eastern markets, have often been sold in the first of the season as high as $1 per pound, and when plentiful, at other seasons, sometimes as low as 8 or 10 cents per pound.
    The salmon fisheries of California are principally carried on upon the Sacramento and Eel rivers, though other rivers of the State abound in salmon. On the Sacramento, for a distance of fifty miles, extending south, from a point ten miles north of Sacramento city, during five months, from February to April, and from October to November, inclusive, in 1857, the catch was estimated at 200,000 salmon, of the average weight of 17 pounds, or an aggregate of 3,400,000 pounds, worth, at five cents per pound, $170,000. The amount of salmon packed in the same season, exclusive of fresh and smoked sent to market, was 1,500 barrels. The Eel river fishery, which yields salmon of superior quality and size, weighing 60 to 70 pounds, produced in September and October of that year 2,000 bar rels of cured fish, besides 50,000 pounds smoked for home consumption, principally in the northern mines. These fish are shipped to Australia, China, the Sandwich Islands, and to New York, and sold at remunerative prices. The exports from the State in 1857 consisted of 77 hogsheads, 1,745 barrels, and 608 packages.(California State Register for 1857.) The State returns of 1860 were from seven establishments, averaging ten hands each, and together employing a capital of $17,500, the annual product being $18,940, an amount probably below the actual value of this fishery.

    WHITE FISH.—The celebrated white fish of the Northern lakes belongs to a genus (Coregonus) of the salmonidae, in which are included many species found in our own lakes and those further north, as well as in Northern Europe. One of these (C. Otsego) is caught in the lakes of New York, where it is called Otsego bass. The white fish has been prized for its excellence since the early explorations of the French in the lake regions of the northwest. Michigan, on account of the extent of the lake shore of its two peninsulas, enjoys a valuable source of wealth in her white fishery, which has grown rapidly, but is still in its infancy. The American Fur

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Company many years ago engaged in the fish trade in this region. The quantities of fish shipped from the upper lakes in 1836 were 12,200 barrels; in 1837, 14,100 barrels; and in 1840, 32,005 barrels, principally white fish. At the average price of fish ($8 per barrel) during the preceding five years at Detroit, the value in the latter year was $246,040, added to the wealth of Michigan from this source. The census returns of 1850, which were doubtless defective, showed a catch in that State of 15,451 barrels of white fish. In 1860 the marshals reported 186 fishing establishments in Michigan—a greater number than any other State except Maine. Their united capital was $209,769, and they employed 629 male and 63 female hands, the product of whose labor was 67,444 barrels of white fish, valued at $456,117. In Wisconsin, the same year, 13,235 barrels of white fish and trout were taken by twelve fishing establishments, principally in Door County, and valued at $93,374. New York reported white fish caught to the value of $36,000, and Indiana to the value of $22,500, making the total value of this fishery in the United States to be $662,991. Many of these fish are also taken in the Pacific States. In addition to siskawits, Mackinaw trout, white fish, muskelunge, and pickerel, which are the most valuable, and are chiefly caught for pickling, the northern lakes abound in other fish, which are taken in less quantities. Among these are the pike or gar fish, roach, rock bass, white and black bass, mullet, bill fish, cat fish, &e.
    In consequence of the length of this paper, it will be necessary to defer its conclusion to our next. Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources.

January 1867

Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources. (new series) Vol. 3 (1): 39-49
J. D. B. DeBow. New Orleans [etc.] Jan 1867

ART. VI.—THE AMERICAN FISHERIES. (Concluded from November number, 1866.)


  SMELTS.—Smelts are taken in great numbers in our rivers in spring and autumn, and often during the winter. During the latter season many are taken in Lake Champlain, where they collect, by cutting holes in the ice. At Watertown as many as 750,000 were taken annually in scoop nets from the first of March to the first of June. They are mostly taken at night by torch light. The returns from Sagadahoc county, Maine, include twenty six tons of smelts, valued at about $100 per ton, and seven tons of frost-fish, worth together $150. These little fish are taken in most of the rivers of that State, and though not reported, we are informed that the quantity annually shipped from Hampden, six

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miles below Bangor, on the Penobscot, probably exceeds the amount above mentioned. A species of smelt or salmon, called shrew, and so fat that, according to Captain Wilkes, when dried without salt and set fire to they will burn like a torch, were formerly very abundant in the Columbia river, on the Pacific, and are taken in vast quantities by the Indians in the northern waters of Oregon and Washington Territories.

    HALIBUT.--A large number of schooners are employed in catching halibut at St. George's Banks, in the vicinity of Cape Ann and in Long Island sound. This fish, sometimes called the American turbot, has been taken of the weight of 500 and 600 pounds, but its average weight is not above 50 pounds. Before railroad communication was opened with Cape Ann they were very abundant, and being considered unfit for pickling, were comparatively little valued, many being cut loose by the fishermen and cast back into the sea. In 1837 Cape Ann had 80 large schooners, of from 60 to 80 tons burden engaged in catching halibut for the Boston market, where they were sold fresh and smoked. In 1839 about 16,000 of these fish were taken there, equal to 800,000 pounds, which, at the average price then paid to fishermen, at two cents a pound, amounted to the value of $16,000. About that time they were discovered to exist in large shoals and of large size at St. George's Banks, and vessels were sent thither. They are sent to all our large cities both in the fresh and preserved state. In New London county, Connecticut, in 1860, there were returned 1,712 tons of halibut taken, worth about $100 per ton, or five cents per pound, $171,200. In Gloucester, in Essex county, Massachusetts, in 1855, there were caught 210 tons of halibut, valued at $25,200. Two establishments in that county, in 1860, returned an aggregate of 1,113,132 pounds, or upward of 556 tons, of which the value was $36,828.

    STURGEON.—Sturgeon fishing is carried on in the Delaware to a considerable amount annually. They are caught in nets thrown from the boats, and sold to men who skin and cut them for the Philadelphia market, which employs about fifty boats. They sell for three to four cents a pound.

    LOBSTERS.—The county of New London, Connecticut, returned about 178 tons of lobsters, taken in 1860, valued at $11,700, and in Maine, 200,000 of these fish were taken at Cushing, valued at $700, in addition to upwards of $38,000 worth of canned and preserved lobsters. The markets of most of our maritime cities and towns are supplied with these crustacea, the value of which seldom appears in official returns. Boston receives annually some 200,000 lobsters, which are caught along the coast of Maine by fishermen sent out from Gloucester, from March to June in each year, and thence sent in well-boats to the city, where they sell at an average of five cents each.

    OYSTERS.— This valuable shellfish, which is widely distributed throughout the world, has been esteemed as an article of food

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from a very remote period. It was much prized by the Romans, who obtained it from their own waters, from the mouth of the Hellespont, and from the shores of Britain, where oysters were early discovered to be very abundant and of superior quality. They were imported thence during the winter packed in snow. According to Pliny, the propagation of oysters in artificial oyster pits was first introduced by the wealthy and luxurious patrician, Sergius Aurata, who derived much revenue from his oyster-beds at Baise, in the Bay of Naples, and was also the first to show the superiority of the shell-fish of the Lucrine lake to those of Britain, which his country men considered the finest. So vast is the number of these fish annually caught that the oyster is only saved from extermination by reason of its rapid multiplication. As many as 50,000 to 60,000 ova are said to be contained in the spawn of a single oyster. A late report to the British Association roughly estimates them at about one million, and others still higher. These ova, moreover, are very tenacious of life. The time of spawning is from May to August, during which time the oyster is said to be "in the milk," and fortunately, but erroneously, is deemed unfit for the table. Hence the notion, still prevalent, that it is only during the months which contain an r, that oysters are edible. They cannot inhabit fresh water; but those oysters are preferred for food which are grown near the mouths of rivers where fresh water mingles with the salt, and also those which are of medium size. Oysters are usually found in tranquil water from two to six fathoms deep, particularly in the estuaries of large rivers, where they feed and fatten upon the confervœ, or upon several kinds of infusioria. Certain species of these last are said to impart to the oyster the green color so much esteemed in the British oyster from the Orkneys and Western islands. As many as 60 to 80 species of the true oyster are enumerated. But the common edible oyster of Europe (Ostrea edulis) is represented in our markets by two principal species. These are the Virginia or York river oyster (O. Virginica) found in the Chesapeake bay southward, and occasionally as far north as the Gulf of St. Lawrence; and the northern New York or York bay oyster, (O. borealis,) formerly very abundant in Massachusetts bay. The former is much the most common at the present time, and is principally propagated for the supply of our markets, being transplanted from the York river in March to artificial oyster-beds near the large cities, upon which they are dumped from schooners of 100 tons and under. The oyster attains its full size in from three to five years in its native beds, but grows more rapidly when transplanted. In either case they are often fit for the table at eighteen months or two years. The British oyster trade formerly employed about 200 vessels, of from 10 to 50 tons each, and 400 to 500 men and boys in dredging for them. It supplied 14,000 or 15,000 bushels yearly to the London market. At present it is much greater, the supply of oysters

The American Fisheries           42

from artificial beds being estimated at 30,000 bushels, and of sea oysters at 100,000 bushels, annually. In 1852 the island of Jersey, in the English channel, employed 370 vessels, of 34,000 tons besides many large boats, and about 1,500 men and as many women and children, chiefly in the oyster fishery of its southeastern coast.
    Many oysters are also taken on the shores of France, where the natural beds some years ago became exhausted in consequence of overdredging. In this emergency M. Coste, by order of the French government, instituted some six or eight years ago, in the Bay of St. Brieue, a system of artificial oyster culture, similar to that so long practiced at Lake Fusaro, on the peninsula of Baiæ. He planted 3,000 acres with about three million breeding oysters, and in less than six months he found each fascine of brush-wood laid down to arrest the spat, though not larger than a wheat sheaf, was covered with 20,000 young oysters, which in eighteen months more would be fit for the table. His success induced M. Coste to propose to stock not only the whole coast of the empire proper, but also those of Corsica and Algeria, with oysters. He estimated the cost of covering 12,000 acres with oysters to be only $2,000. Experiments in oyster-farming, made near the same time at the Isle de Ré, in the Bay of Biscay, have rendered that vicinity a principal seat of the oyster culture. There are now upwards of four thousand parks and clares upon the fore-shores of the island. At Marennes, on the Seudre, are extensive oyster farms and clares, devoted to the production of the celebrated green oysters, which derive their peculiarity from feeding in the turbid waters of the Seudre. Oyster-farming is also carried on extensively at Whitstable and Faversham, in England, by joint stock companies, and elsewhere in English waters.
    It is from artificial oyster-beds of this kind that Boston is principally supplied with these testacea, and the daily market of New York derives a considerable part of its immense consumption from similar sources. The poles which mark the position of these oyster-farms or preserves and the proprietary boundaries on the flats, form conspicuous objects on the approach to Boston and some other maritime cities from the sea. The oysters are dredged up by means of an instrument resembling a large iron rake, drawn behind a boat under full sail or pulled by rowers.
    About 150 sail of schooners of 100 tons, and manned by four or five men, were formerly engaged in transporting oysters from Virginia to the planting-grounds near New York, whence they were brought to the city, in their season, by about 300 market boats. Many small oysters for summer use are also brought down the North river from near Sing Sing and planted as "seed" oysters in the East river, in Newark bay, and along the Sound, where they are left for two or three years to grow. The Fulton Market, in New York, is always supplied with the choicest oysters to be found, and many local and fancy names are given to them by the retailers. The prices paid for common oysters by the few dealers

The American Fisheries           43

who control the trade, previous to the war, were $3 to $12 per thousand, and for very fine lots as much as $120 per thousand has been paid. These were so large that 100 of them filled a barrel. They were planted oysters from the head of the Sound near Sand's Point and City Island. Some of the East river oysters, as the "Saddle Rocks," are very large, and at the present time sell for $2 50 to $5 per 100. Various coves and creeks on both sides of Long, Island furnish oysters which are named from the localities that produce them. Many of these, especially the smaller ones, are either sent to the west in the shell or put up in cans, pickled or fresh. Many are thus annually prepared on board the oyster scows in the harbor and in regular establishments, particularly at New Haven, Connecticut.
    The oyster trade of the United States employs many persons and a considerable amount of tonnage. The census of 1850 returned 177,930 bushels as the product of the oyster trade of Virginia in the preceding year. The total value of the oyster fishery of the Chesapeake bay in 1858 has been estimated as high as $20,000,000, at the rate of one dollar per bushel, which was doubtless an overestimate, both of the amount and average price. The chief inspector of Virginia stated the export of oysters from that State between the first of October, 1858, and 30th of June, 1859, at 2,301,719 bushels, all of which were taken from the waters of the York river, Rappahannock, Potomac, and Hampton Roads. Large quantities were shipped from other points, of which no account was furnished. The returns of 1860 make the value of oysters taken through the Union to be $1,419,761, which was doubtless below the actual value of this branch of the fishery. Connecticut was by far the most productive of any State in oysters, having returned a value of $610,450, or nearly one-half of the whole. The immense number of bays, sounds, inlets, and lagoons which indent the coast of New Jersey everywhere abound in oysters of the best quality, some of which, as the "Shrewsburys," from the vicinity of Long Branch, are by many esteemed the finest in the market. Great Egg Harbor abounds in fine oysters. The New Jersey oyster trade, in 1860, employed 160 establishments, with 564 hands, and a capital of $186,875. Of these, 107 establishments and 382 hands were returned by Cumberland county alone, of which number only 78 concerns reported the quantities taken. These amounted to 69,440,000, of.the value of $214,530. Middlesex county returned 23,500 bushels of oysters, valued at $19,500, or about 83 cents per bushel, and Ocean county 5,000 bushels of market oysters, worth $2,500, and 100,000 planted oysters, valued at $1,200, or about $1 20 per 100. The value of oysters returned by New York was $93,270; by Maryland, $43,825; by Virginia, $139,232; by North-Carolina, $2,100; by Texas, $5,553; by California, $77,000, and by Washington Territory, $44,597.
    The numerous estuaries, bays, and inlets of the Chesapeake,

The American Fisheries           44

like those of New Jersey, are very prolific of oysters of the finest description. Those of Norfolk, Virginia, and its vicinity, have long been noted for their excellence. The oysters of Delaware bay are also much esteemed in Philadelphia.
    In 1860, Virginia, according to the official returns, had 130 oyster fishing establishments, employing a capital of $96,000, and Maryland, 63 firms have invested $26,925, and employing 198 hands. These figures imperfectly represent the magnitude of this growing trade. St. Mary's county, in Maryland, reported 168,000 bushels of oysters, worth $26,000, or 15½ cents per bushel, as having been caught by 15 oyster vessels, employing 150 hands. The oyster fishery of Virginia has since been almost totally suspended by the war.
    The large oyster trade of the Chesapeake centres in Baltimore, which distributes oysters, fresh, canned, and pickled, to every part of the West, and to foreign countries. During the year 1840 there were forwarded from Baltimore to different places, by wagons, in the shell, 170,000 bushels, and after being opened and pickled. 320,000 bushels. These went as far west as Wheeling, Virginia, and the trade, which was then in its infancy, received a great impulse by the opening of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad and its connecting lines. The quantity consumed in the city at that date was estimated at 220,000 bushels, making a total of 710,000 bushels. The commercial statistics of Baltimore, for the year 1860,  (The Eleventh Annual Report of the Baltimore Board of Trade) give the number of oyster-packing houses in the city as 30, and the number of bushels packed as 3,000,000. Their value, at 35 cents per bushel, was $1,050,000. The number of vessels employed was 500, the number of hands 3,000, and the total value of the trade was $1,800,000. About two-thirds of the oysters taken by the packers are put up in a raw state in ice, and sent to all the cities in the west. The balance is put up and sealed and sent in the same direction. St. Louis is the principal point for distribution throughout the extreme west, even to Nebraska. Besides those which are packed and pickled, large numbers were formerly put up in cans hermetically sealed and sent to California, Australia. and other countries. This trade is less extensive than formerly, oysters being now found abundantly in the waters of the Pacific States. The oyster business of Baltimore employed several hundred vessels, averaging 700 bushels each, and a crew of four men, in bringing them to the city. A large number of these were boats called "pungies," carrying from 200 to 500 bushels each. From 1,500 to 2,000 persons chiefly negroes of both sexes, were employed in "shucking" or opening the oysters. About 200 white men were engaged in making tin cans, to the value of $400,000 annually, and an equal number in soldering the cans, making boxes, and packing in ice, ready for shipment. Most of the oysters for packing and pickling were brought from

The American Fisheries           45

the rivers and inlets south of the Patapsco, and some of larger size and finer flavor than the river oysters from Norfolk. Of the 200,000 bushels consumed in the city, about 30,000 bushels were brought by the Norfolk steamers, and averaged 50 cents a bushel.
    In 1862 it was estimated that 33 oyster firms in Baltimore packed 1,500,000 bushels of oysters. The gross sales of oysters in the shell was estimated at $700,000. About 700 vessels were employed in catching in the tributaries of the Chesapeake, and about 300 in carrying them to market. The hands employed in these vessels and in catching oysters were computed at 10,000, the shuckers and packers at 1,500, and the tinmen at 200. The value of oysters packed during the year, which was one of more than ordinary success, was estimated at $1,200,000. The tonnage of oyster vessels which passed eastward through the Chesapeake and Delaware canal in 1839 was 11,038 tons, and in 1860 amounted to 16,668 tons. Very good oysters have also been obtained in past years from the vicinity of Charlestown, South Carolina, of which the original name, given at its foundation in 1672, was "Oyster Point Town."
    Many oysters are taken in the bays and rivers of New England and of other Atlantic States, which are not fully reported. The oyster fishery in Providence river, Rhode Island, was estimated in 1840 to be worth $30,000 per annum, exclusive of the catch of 75 boats employed in Narragansett bay. The Point Judith and Westerly Ponds also furnished, respectfully, 500 and 250 tons of oysters. A single oyster-bed in Quinnipiac or Fair Haven river in Connecticut, in 1839, was estimated to contain over 30,000 bushels, worth $20,000, and employed 400 boats of all sizes in removing them on "oyster day," on which the law first permits it. The oyster trade of Fair Haven in 1860 included about one million bushels of oysters bought and sold, oysters opened one million gallons, and the manufacture annually of upwards of half a million tin cans and nearly half a million wooden kegs for packing and shipping oysters.
    The principal oyster fishery of the Pacific States is is Shoal-water bay, north of the Columbia river, in Oregon, where these shell-fish were originally found imbedded several feet deep, and upon being transplanted were found to be of excellent quality. At San Juan Island, in Puget Sound, and other inlets of that coast, oysters are found, and also quahaugs or clams, and other shell fish. These with salmon, constitute the principal food of the indolent coast tribes of Indians. Many are sent to San Francisco and markets of the Pacific.

    CLAMS.—These testacea, though of little value commercially, are of some local importance on many parts of our coasts as an article of food. The early settlers upon our rugged New England shores found them a valuable resource in times of dire extremity. The name of clam is applied to several species of bivalvular shell-fish. one of which, the soft clam, the Mya arenaria of zoologists, is abundant

The American Fisheries           46

along our New England seaboard, in New York harbor, and on the European shores of the Atlantic. These are much used along our northern shores as food, and also as bait for cod and haddock. They are found imbedded about one foot below the surface between high and low water-mark, and when dug out are "shucked" or shelled and salted down in barrels for the fisheries. As many as 5,000 barrels have been thus annually prepared and sold in New England at six and seven dollars a barrel.
    The hard clam, or Venus mercenaria, also inhabits both coasts of the Atlantic. In New England it is known by the name of  "quahaug," and in more southern markets is called clam. The pink colored margin of the inner surface of the shell of the V. mercenaria was used by the aborigines in the manufacture of their wampumpeag or shell money. It is the kind of clam most used in New York and other Atlantic cities, the market of the former city being supplied from Long Island sound and the East River. They are not usually dug up from the sand like the soft clam, but are raked up like oysters from water six to twenty feet deep in Oyster bay, Cow bay, Little Neck bay, and other noted Oyster fisheries, and from the bays and inlets of the Atlantic coast of New Jersey. The clams from the latter region are inferior to those of the East river, of which the Little Necks are the most celebrated. The clam fishery of New Jersey employs some 25 sloops, of 20 to 30 tons each, which carry from 100,000 to 150,000 clams at a load, and make from six to ten trips yearly. The clams sell at from $2 25 to $3 per thousand in New York, whence they are sent in barrels to all parts of the country. The East river clams bring from $1 to 1 50 per bushel, and employ about 100 boats and 150 to 200 men constantly in catching them. The southern coast of Long Island furnishes clams sufficient to employ some 30 sloops, which carry from 50,000 to 150,000 at each trip, which is made once in two weeks. The New York clam trade is in the hands of the oyster dealers, but that of New Jersey is an independent trade. In addition to those required for daily use, and large quantities shipped inwardly, many are pickled and exported, and the quantity annually brought to New York for these purposes is probably 200,000,000.

    WHALE FISHERY.—Whale oil is extensively employed in manufactures and machine shops. Cotton and woollen factories consume large quantities of sperm oil, each spindle using about half a gallon. The increased importation and consumption of olive oil and of tallow has at times much diminished the profits of the whale trade. From 1825 to 1830 the trade was seriously checked by the low price of oil and whalebone, which was virtually excluded from the English and French markets by heavy discriminating duties, designed to encourage the whale trade of those nations, and amounting in British ports to £26 12s. per ton on oil, and £95 per ton on whalebone. More recently the manufacture of lard oil and the discovery of petroleum or oil wells would

The American Fisheries           47

probably have greatly reduced the price of whale oil and spermaceti, had not the extraordinary increase of American industrial establishments and the foreign demand for these articles maintained the price of all oils at a permanently high figure.
    The whole number of vessels from American ports employed in the whale fishery on the 30th of June, 1840, was 498 ships and barks, 34 brigs, 7 schooners, and one sloop—total, 540 sail. The published returns of the national Census of that year gives only the quantity of spermaceti oil—which was 4,764,708 gallons separate from the products of other fisheries. A report of the Secretary of the Treasury gave the total tonnage employed in the whale fishery on the 30th of September, 1838, as 124,858 tons. In 1844 this industry employed 504 ships, 140 barks, 33 brigs, and 19 schooners—total, 696. The products were, of sperm oil 138,595 barrels, black or whale oil 267,082 barrels, and whalebone 3,015,145 pounds. In 1848, in consequence of losses and the withdrawal of many of the larger vessels from the right whaling fleet, particularly in the Atlantic ocean, the total number of vessels in the whale trade was only 193 ships and barks, and 23 brigs and schooners, or 216 sail, of which 100 were from the district of New Bedford. The product was 107,976 barrels of sperm oil, 280,656 barrels of whale oil, and 2,003,000 pounds of bone—a decrease of 13,000 barrels of sperm oil, 33,000 barrels of whale oil, and upwards of a million pounds of bone, from the importations of the previous year. The average arrivals during the nine years previous were, of sperm oil 141,242 barrels, of whale oil 235,456 barrels, and of bone 2,324,578 pounds. Massachusetts, in 1855, employed in this trade 492 vessels; tonnage, 154,061; capital employed, $14,546,548; number of hands, 11,364. The products were 2,063,809 gallons of sperm oil, valued at $3,059,018; right whale oil, 6,645,864 gallons, worth $3,905,605; whalebone, 2,037,300 pounds, value of same, $802,373. Of the whole number, 388 ships, of 127,542 tons, belonged to New Bedford.
    The table shows the total value of the whale fishery in 1860, when its product amounted to $7,749,305—a decrease of — — from the returns of 1850; since which time there has been a slow but gradual decline in the returns of this fishery. The number of establishments concerned in the trade, and representing the number of vessels employed, was 422, whose united capital was $13,292,060. They employed 12,301 hands, the annual cost of whose labor was $3,509,080, and of raw material—consisting of provisions and other outfits, computed at about 30 per cent. of the entire proceeds—$2,789,195. Of the entire number of vessels, 384 belonged to Massachusetts, 29 to Connecticut, 5 to Rhode Island, and 4 to California.
    Massachusetts had invested $12,468,660 in capital, employed 11,296 men, and received as the product $6,734,955. Bristol county alone returned 358 whaling concerns, or vessels, with a capital of $11,534,500; 10,458 hands, and a product of $1,225,285.

 The American Fisheries                                    48

This was the value of 94,178 barrels of sperm oil, 125,004 barrels of whale oil, and 1,263,872 pounds of whalebone. The greater part of this product was obtained by the whalemen of New Bedford.
    Connecticut employed 9 ships, 11 barges, 3 brigs, and 6 schooners, carrying 774 hands, and the proceeds of their voyages— averaging two years each—were 36,200 barrels of whale oil, 445 of sperm oil, and 214,000 pounds of bone, valued altogether at $731,000. The annual cost of labor was $250,380. This product all belonged to the district of New London.
    The Rhode Island whale fishery was carried on by 5 vessels, all owned in Bristol county, and carrying 183 hands. The product of their voyages was $246,350, which was the value of 20,550 barrels of whale oil, 1,140 of sperm oil, and 104,000 pounds of whalebone.
    The sperm whale fishery of the Pacific coast has been nearly exhausted of late years, but new fields for whaling ships have been found in Hudson's Bay and the sea of Ochotsk. In these and other seas there were employed on the 1st of January, 1864, 304 vessels. Their tonnage was 88,785 tons—a decrease of 49 vessels, and of 14,361 tons, since January 1, 1863. The average catch of the northern Atlantic fleet for the season of 1863 was 867 barrels of whale oil, and 12,416 pounds of bone, to each vessel. Seventeen American vessels at Ochotsk averaged only 457 barrels of oil and 5,593 pounds of whalebone to each, which was below the usual catch.
    The total imports of 1863 were, of sperm oil 65,055 barrels, of whale oil 62,974 barrels, and of whalebone 488,750 pounds. The average price of sperm oil in 1843 was 63 cents a gallon, in 1863 it was $1.61, and in 1864 $1.92 7/8 per gallon. Whale oil in 1831 sold for 30½ cents, in 1863 it averaged 95¼ cents, and now sells for $1.38¼ per gallon. The average price of northern bone in 1841 was 19 cents per pound, in 1863 $1.62, and at the present time $1.82½.
    The present high price of oil and whalebone has caused an increase in the number of vessels fitted out during the past year in the ports of New London and Sag Harbor, about sufficient to counterbalance a decrease of 27 vessels and 8,872 tons which, during the year, were withdrawn from ports outside of the district of New Bedford. In that district there was also a decrease of 27 vessels. The total decrease was small compared with that of several previous years. The aggregate tonnage now engaged in this fishery is 79,902 tons. In 1846 it was 230,218 tons.

        Imports of whale oil from 1855 to 1864.

Bbls. sp. Bbls. wh. lbs. bone.   | 

Bbls. sp. Bbls. wh. lbs. bone.
65,055 62,974 488,750 |
81,941 182,223 1,540,600
55,641 100,478 763,500 |
78,440 230,941 2,058,900
68,932 133,717 1,038,450 |
80,941 197,890 2,590,700
73,708 140,005 1,337,650 |
72,649 184,015 2,707,500
91,408 190,411 1,923,850 |

 The American Fisheries                                    49

Exports of sperm oil, whale oil, and whalebone from the United States.

Bbls. sp.
Bbls. wh. lbs. bone.   | 

Bbls. sp. Bbls. wh. lbs. bone.
1863. 18,360 11,297 279,394 |
1860. 32,792 13,007 911,226
1862. 27,076 63,583 1,004,981 |
1859. 52,207 8,179 1,707,929
1861. 37,547 49,969 1,145,013 |

Importations of sperm oil, whale oil, and whalebone into the U. S., in 1863.

Bbls. sperm. Bbls. whale. lbs. bone.
New Bedford........... 42,408 48,191 307,950
Fairhaven ........... 3,356 1,137 7,800
Westport.............. 3,874 195 .....
Mattapoisett........... 1,573 7 .....
Sippican............ .     308      26     .....
     District of New Bedford.  51,569 44,556 315,750

New London...........



Nantucket............. 3,823 557 4,950
Edgartown........... 1,170 100 900
Provincetown.......... 1,290 1,730 .....
Boston................. 4,916 5,037 88,900
Beverly.............. 210
Salem................ 200 40 .....
Sag Harbor............ 885 855 5,100
New York.............     969   7,351   37,600
Total.......... 65,055 62,974 488,750

Stock of oil and bone on hand on the 1st of January in the last seven years.

Bbls. sp.
Bbls. wh. lbs. bone.     

Bbls. sp. Bbls. wh. lbs. bone
1864. 31,200 9,344 148,980
1860. 13,429 96,480 380,600
1863. 16,038 23,019   91,500
1859. 17,176 82,376 400,000
1862. 16,132 58,378 295,600
1858. 39,307 91,193 235,500
1861. 15,838 80,469 418,700

Number of ships engaged in the north Pacific fishery for the last five years, and the average quantity of oil taken.
1859.  170 ships averaged   535 barrels 
  94,160  barrels.
1860.  121 ships averaged   518 barrels   62,678  barrels.
1861.  76 ships averaged   724 barrels   55,024  barrels.
1862.  32 ships averaged   610 barrels   19,525  barrels.
 43 ships averaged   857 barrels   36,010  barrels.


No. of
No. of Hands An'l cost
An'l value
STATES. establish'ts
Employed. of labor.
of product.

Males. Females

Connecticut........... 23 $115,550 147 * 696 $141,780 $610,450
New York............ 43 45,250 106 .....
27,744 92,270
New Jersey........... 160 186,875 564 ..... 158,532 394,470
Maryland............. 63 26,925 198 ..... 27,500 43,825
Virginia.............. 130 96,002 439 ..... 56,940 139,232
North Carolina........ 1 500 3 ..... 900 2,100
Texas ................ 4 2,150 6 3 2,580 5,553
California............. 2 7,000 9 ..... 3,780 77,000
Washington Territory..      1  18,000  100     .....  27,000     44,597
Total in the U. States   427    498,253   1,572  699   446,656  1,410,497
Ag. of all the fisheries 1,970 17,919,759 29,452 931 6,077,577 14,284,405

* Part of these oysters were "canned,"  hence the employment of females.