capecodhistory.us, 19th century publications, Dwight's Cape Cod section


TRAVELS
IN
NEW-ENGLAND AND NEW-YORK:


BY

TIMOTHY DWIGHT, S. T. D. LL. D,



LATE   PRESIDENT  OF  YALE   COLLEGE ; AUTHOR   OF

THEOLOGY EXPLAINED AND DEFENDED IN FOUR VOLUMES.



NEW-HAVEN: PUBLISHED BY TIMOTHY DWIGHT.

S. CONVERSE, PRINTER.
1821-1822.

republished in 1969 by the John Harvard Library, Belknap Press of Harvard University, edited by Barbara Miller Solomon, with the assistance of Patricia M. King



CHAPTERS

Volume I
Introduction, by Barbara Miller Solomon    ix
A Note on the Text    xlix
Author's Preface    1
Journey to Berwick    13
Notes    381
Map: following page lxii

Volume II
Journey to Berwick   (continued)    1
Journey to the White Mountains    30
Journey to the Canada Line    196
Journey to Vergennes    253
Journey to Provincetown    357
Notes    371
Map: following page    xv

Volume III
Journey to Provincetown  (continued)    1
Journey to Whitestown    101
State of New York (continued)    185
Journey to Long Island    198
First Journey to Lake George    236
Second Journey to Lake George    273
Notes    377
Map: following page xv
 
Volume IV
Journey to Niagara    1
First Journey to Lake Winnipesaukee or Wentworth    95
Second Journey to Lake Winnipesaukee or Wentworth    109
Journey to Utica    122
The Iroquois    129
Remarks on European Travelers in America    150
Language of New England    195
Learning, Morals, Etc. of New England    206
Religion of New England    258
Characteristics of the Men and Women in New England    327
Manufactures of New England    338
Massachusetts    351
Prospects of the United States    361
Notes    375
Index    399
Map: following page xv
 

 
Detailed CONTENTS
Volume I
Preface    1
JOURNEY TO BERWICK
LETTER I
Boundaries of New England— Its coast, harbors, and lakes— General divisions— Population— Mountains— Rivers— Brooks, etc.    13
LETTER II
Soil— Mineralogy— Forest trees— Native and cultivated fruits— Flowering shrubs— Vegetables— Products of the field—  Quadrupeds— Birds, insects, and fishes of New England    19
LETTER III
Climate and seasons— Northwest winds— Opinions relative to the causes of these winds examined— Facts proving that the climate has not be come milder— Successive periods of cold and heat— Causes of the cold produced by the northwest winds    38
LETTER IV
Climate of New England continued— Account of the most remarkable tempests which have been known in this country — Thunderstorms—  Droughts— Enemies to vegetation    49
LETTER V
Frequent changes of temperature— Pleasant months— Seasons: time of their commencement—  Variations of thermometers—  Atmosphere— Quantity of rain    54
LETTER VI
Healthfulness of New England— Longevity of the inhabitants— Principal diseases— Epidemics— Tables showing the comparative health-fulness of New England and some of the southern states— Observations respecting the longevity of the inhabitants in the large towns       58
LETTER VII
Earthquakes which have been known in New England— Storms of wind— Rain and hail    66
LETTER VIII
Soil of New England— Misrepresentations relative to the country and its inhabitants— Forests: the manner in which they renew themselves— Husbandry— Produce of different crops— Defects in the husbandry— Face of the country beautiful    73
LETTER IX
General account of the Indians of New England— Divisions of their nations or tribes— Their character, passions, and manners— Their wigwams, agriculture, wars, treatment of captives, government, knowledge of medicine, religion, morals, and language— Considerations relative to their origin    78
LETTER X
Discovery and colonization of New England— Mr. Robinson and his church escape from persecution in England and take refuge in Holland— They embark for America and settle at Plymouth— Settlement of Salem, Charlestown, and Boston; of Hartford, Windsor, etc. in Connecticut; of Portsmouth, etc. in New Hampshire; and of Providence in Rhode Island— Feeble attempts to plant towns in the District of Maine    93
LETTER XI
Difficulties encountered by the colonists of New England— Wars with the Indians— Hostility of King James II— Troubles arising from the neighborhood of the French in Canada— Opposition of the British government to the rights of the colonies— Oppressive measures of Parliament which terminated in the Revolutionary War and in the independence of the United States    103
LETTER XII
Charges preferred against the colonists of New England examined: viz., their separation from the Church of England, their superstition, their rigidness, their observance of the Sabbath with Jewish rigor, their adoption of the municipal law of the Jews, their resistance to the British government, their oppression of the aborigines    115
LETTER XIII
Excellencies of the colonists of New England: viz., their enterprise and industry— Their love of science and learning— Their love of liberty— Their morality— Their piety    121
LETTER XIV
General view of Connecticut— Its counties, towns, cities, congregations of different denominations of Christians— Number of schools and scholars    125
LETTER XV
Commencement of the journey to Berwick in 1796 from New Haven— Account of New Haven, its harbor, soil, squares and streets, build ings, churches, inhabitants, commerce, and places of burial— Character of its inhabitants— Market and prices of provisions— State of society— Population    129
LETTER XVI
History of the establishment and progress of Yale College    143
LETTER XVII
Account of Yale College continued— Its principal benefactors— Course of studies— Medical institution— Examinations—  Annual commencement— Degrees conferred— Government of the college— Its parental character— Number of its alumni    149
LETTER XVIII
Northford— Tenure of lands— Durham— Rev. Dr. Goodrich— Middletown— Beautiful prospects— Account of great speculations in stocks and lands    155
LETTER XIX
Stepney— Prospect from Rocky Hill— Wethersfield— Story of William Beadle— Hartford— Its public buildings— Soil—  Commerce and population— Rev. Thomas Hooker    162
LETTER XX
Government of Connecticut— Duties and privileges of counties and of towns    174
LETTER XXI
Observations on the constitution of towns— Schools of public business— Their measures, sources of political knowledge, and stability in the government    179
LETTER XXII
Original constitution of Connecticut— Observations on it and on its influence    183
LETTER XXIII
Elections of Connecticut— Advantages of them— Inroads made on their purity    186
LETTER XXIV
General election of Connecticut    194
LETTER XXV
Legislature of Connecticut    196
LETTER XXVI
Judicial courts of Connecticut    198
LETTER XXVII
Penal system of Connecticut— Newgate Prison    301
LETTER XXVIII
Executive of Connecticut— Observations concerning the system of government 205
LETTER XXIX
Benefits derived by the American colonists from their origin— Defects of the government of Connecticut 214
LETTER XXX
Journey to Springfield— Windsor— Hardships encountered by the first settlers— Hon. Mr. Ellsworth 217
LETTER XXXI
Change of forest vegetation— Suffield— Major General Lyman— Military adventures    322
LETTER XXXII
Springfield— Indian attack on Springfield— Chicopee— South Hadley Canal— South Hadley    231
LETTER XXXIII
Northampton— Character of its inhabitants— Rev. Solomon Stoddard— Hon. John Stoddard— President Edwards— Hon. Joseph Hawley— Manner of settling towns in New England    238
LETTER XXXIV
Northampton records 248
LETTER XXXV
Hadley— Gov. Hopkins' donation— Goffe and Whalley— Prospect from Mount Holyoke255
LETTER XXXVI
Belchertown— Ware— Western— Brookfield— Their troubles from the Indians— Spencer— Leicester— Worcester 261
LETTER XXXVII
Shrewsbury— Hon. Artemas Ward— Northboro— Rabbi Judah Monis— County of Worcester— Its surface, fertility, agriculture, and productions— Failure in its crops of wheat— List of its towns and population 268
LETTER XXXVIII
Marlboro— The barberry bush destructive to the cultivation of wheat— Lakes of New England uniformly healthy, being supplied with water by subjacent springs— Diseases in the neighborhood of standing waters, occasioned by animalcular putrefaction— Stow—  Concord— Expedition of the British at the commencement of the Revolutionary War to this town and Lexington— Reflections on this subject    276
LETTER XXXIX
Bedford— Billerica— Tewksbury— Middlesex Canal— Andover— Phillips Academy— Theological institution— Lieutenant Governor Phillips— Bradford— Haverhill— Bridge over the Merrimack at Haverhill— Dry rot in timber— Canal from the Merrimack to Lake Winnipesaukee— Depredations of the Indians— Story of Mr. and Mrs. Dustin    285
LETTER XL
Plaistow— Kingston— Exeter: its academy— Effect of easterly winds— Piscataqua Bridge and River— Dover, cruelty of the Indians; death of Major Waldron— Story of Mrs. Heard— Somersworth— Berwick, attacked by the Indians; death of Robert Rogers— View of the White Mountains— Inns of New England    301
LETTER XLI
Portsmouth— Greenland— Northampton— Hampton— Hampton Falls— Salisbury— Newbury— Newburyport—  Rowley—  Ipswich— Hamilton— Wenham— Beverly— Salem— Its public buildings, harbor, enterprise and industry of the inhabitants—  Rev. Dr. Prince— Hugh Peters— Commerce of Salem— Danvers— Account of the witchcraft of that place, and reflections    311
LETTER XLII
Marblehead —  Lynn —  County of Essex —  Maiden —  Dr. Thacher — Charlestown    332
LETTER XLIII
Battle of Breed's Hill— Major General Warren— Burning of Charlestown by the British— Hon. James Russell    338
LETTER XLIV
Cambridge— Harvard College— Its buildings— List of its presiding officers— Number of students— Terms of Admission—  Board of Overseers and Corporation— Library, etc., etc.— Distinguished inhabitants of Cambridge    346
LETTER XLV
Boston: the chief town in New England— Its streets laid out in an unfortunate manner— Its ancient and modern houses— Its public buildings and bridges    359
LETTER XLVI
Boston— Its commercial institutions— Its literary and charitable societies — Its common schools, police, commerce, and manufactures    360
LETTER XLVII
Character of the inhabitants of Boston    365
LETTER XLVIII
Fashionable education    370
LETTER XLIX
Boston surrounded by pleasant towns and villages— Prospect from the statehouse— Distinguished men— Governor Bowdoin    376

Notes    381
 
Volume II
JOURNEY TO BERWICK [continued]
LETTER L
Carver—  Middleboro— Taunton: its manufactures— Halifax— Bridgewater— Honorable Hugh Orr— Raynham— Longevity of the Leonard family— Philip, King of the Wampanoags— Attleboro— Rev. Habijah Weld— Rehoboth— Indian depredations—  North Providence    1
LETTER LI
Providence— College— Public buildings— Major General Greene— Commerce of Providence    15
LETTER LII
Rhode Island turnpikes— Johnstown— Scituate— Coventry— Sterling— Plainfield    20
LETTER LIII
Preston— Lisbon— The Shetucket— Quinebaug and Thames Rivers— Norwich— Governor Huntington    23
LETTER LIV
Montville— Mohegan tribe of Indians— Uncas the chief sachem— Return    26

JOURNEY TO THE WHITE MOUNTAINS
LETTER I
North Haven— Wallingford— Meriden— Berlin— Mount Lamentation— Manufacture of tinware    30
LETTER II
Hatfield— Whately— Deerfield— Battles with the Indians at Bloody Brook and Hatfield— Deerfield River— Burning of Deerfield, and captivity of Rev. Mr. Williams and many of the inhabitants    35
LETTER III
Progress of vegetation— Greenfield— Bernardston— Gill— Battle with the Indians, called the Fall Fight— Northfield—  Attacks of the Indians   46
LETTER IV
Hinsdale— Indications of a volcano in West River Mountain— Defeat of the Indians by Captain Hobbs— Capture of Bridgman's fort— Account of the captivity of Mrs. Howe, her sufferings, and return to New England    51
LETTER V
Chesterfield— Westmoreland— Walpole— Colonel Bellows    57
LETTER VI
Bellows Falls— Cavities worn in the rocks by the river— Canal— The first bridge over Connecticut River erected at this place by Colonel Enoch Hale— Governor's meadow    59
LETTER VII
Charlestown— Indian depredations— Gallant conduct of Captain Phineas Stevens    65
LETTER VIII
Claremont— Cornish— Windsor— Ascutney— Luminous spot on the mountain— Hartland— Plainfield— Lebanon— Lebanon Falls    68
LETTER IX
Origin of Dartmouth College— Rev. Sampson Occom— Funds of the college— Its number of students and officers— Its course of studies and buildings— Extreme difficulty of educating Indian youth— Dartmouth— Hanover    73
LETTER X
Lyme— Orford— Piermont— Haverhill    78
LETTER XI
Lower Ammonoosuc— Bath— Concord— Girdled trees— Log houses— Letter of Rev. Mr. Patten— Dangerous state of the roads and bridges in the new settlements— Littleton    81
LETTER XII
Public roads— Dalton— Lancaster: slow progress of its settlement— Climate of this region— Snowstorms and prevailing winds singularly affected by the proximity of the White Mountains— Extensive and beautiful landscape    88
LETTER XIII
Character and enterprise of Rosebrook    95
LETTER XIV
Notch of the White Mountains— Headwaters of the Ammonoosuc and the Saco— Appearance of an American forest when affected by frost— Magnificent appearance of the White Mountains    97
LETTER XV
Bartlett— Politician— Conway    103
LETTER XVI
Fryeburg— Hiram— Observations on Mount Washington— Standish— Gorham— Falmouth    107
LETTER XVII
Portland— Its buildings and commerce— Attacks from the Indians— Wantonly destroyed by Captain Mowat in 1775    113
LETTER XVIII
Story of General Wadsworth— Attack on his house— His capture    117
LETTER XIX
Story of General Wadsworth concluded— Major Burton    124
LETTER XX
Vernon— Tolland— Stafford— Mineral spring— South Brimfield— Kittery— York— Wells— Kennebunk— Portland    136
LETTER XXI
Falmouth— North Yarmouth— Freeport— Brunswick— Bowdoin College 142
LETTER XXII
Bath— Woolwich— Dresden— Pittston— Gardiner— Augusta— Hallowell— Litchfield— Topsham— The Androscoggin—  The Kennebec    146
LETTER XXIII
Tornado— Scarboro— Saco— Biddeford— Arundel    152
LETTER XXIV
Maine— Its climate— Coast— Soil— Manner of settlement— Difficulties encountered by the first settlers— Their character    156
LETTER XXV
Madbury— Epping— Chester— Londonderry— Nottingham West— Dunstable, N.H.— Dunstable, Mass.— Lovewell's Excursions— Groton— Indian depredations    167
LETTER XXVI
Shirley— Lancaster— Captivity of Mrs. Rowlandson— Mr. Sawyer— Sterling— Princeton— Rutland— Oakham— New Braintree— Brimfield— Monson— South Wilbraham   174
LETTER XXVII
County of Hampshire— Rev. Dr. Backus    183
LETTER XXVIII
Ellington— East Windsor— Fragment of Indian history— East Hartford 191

JOURNEY TO THE CANADA LINE
LETTER I
New road from New Haven to Hartford— Whitney's cotton gin and manufactory of firearms— Guilford—  Brattleboro—  West River    196
LETTER II
Dummerston —  Putney —  Westminster —  Rockingham —  Bethlehem — Wentworth Mountains— Hardships endured by the first settlers— Notch of the White Mountains— Jefferson— Fine view of two cascades    202
LETTER III
Northumberland— Little Moosilauke— Upper Ammonoosuc— Stratford— The Peaks— Wales's location— Cockburn—  Colebrook—  Road to Hallowell— Grand Monadnock— Canaan— Settlements beyond the line on the St. Francis—  Enterprise of the New England people         208
LETTER IV
Stewart— Salmon— Vegetation and products of this region— Account of maize— Native animals— Return to Lancaster    213
LETTER V
Weather in the country about Lancaster— Prospect at Newbury— Vegetation at Lancaster    216
LETTER VI
Connecticut River    219
LETTER VII
Valley of the Connecticut    224
LETTER VIII
Inhabitants of the Connecticut Valley    229
LETTER IX
Newbury— Observations on the blasting of wheat— Bradford— Fairlee   233
LETTER X
Keene    239
LETTER XI
Swansey— Winchester— The Ashuelot— Millers River and Falls— Montague— Sunderland— Mount Toby— Cave    242
LETTER XII
Shutesbury— Ephraim Pratt— Amherst— Judge Strong    247

JOURNEY TO  VERGENNES
LETTER I
Woodbridge— Salem— Waterbury— Watertown— Litchfield— The late Governor Wolcott— Goshen— Cornwall—  Canaan—  Sheffield— Taconic Mountain— Great Barrington— Monument Mountain— Stockbridge— Rev. John Sargeant—  Mahican or Stockbridge Indians— Tradition concerning their origin, etc.— Lenox— Pittsfield— Lanesboro—  New Ashford    253
LETTER II
Saddle Mountain— Williamstown— Col. Williams— Williams College    270
LETTER III
Donations for the promotion of learning— Insect— Rev. Mr. Swift         273
LETTER IV
Pownal— Bennington— Grasshoppers— Shaftsbury— Violent rain— Arlington— Sunderland— Colonel Ethan Allen—  Manchester—  Dorset— Harwich— Wallingford— Clarendon    279
LETTER V
Rutland— Judge Williams— Pittsford— Brandon— Leicester— Salisbury — Middlebury— Marble quarry— Middlebury College— Woodstock— Barnard— Stockbridge— Rochester— Hancock— Ripton    287
LETTER VI
Weybridge— New Haven— Vergennes— Settled by Colonel Allen— Prospect from the statehouse    293
LETTER VII
Ferrisburg — Charlotte —  Shelburne —  Burlington —  College —  Prospect from Burlington— Colchester—  Milton— Georgia— St. Albans— Swanton— Highgate    295
LETTER VIII
Essex— Jericho— Bolton— Waterbury— Observations on the attempts of modern philosophers to disprove the Mosaic era of the creation— Onion River    299
LETTER IX
Montpelier— Fixed upon as the seat of government— Berlin— Williamstown— Brookfield— Randolph— Royalton— Sharon— Hartford    303
LETTER X
New Haven Falls— Panton— Addison— Forests— Hickory— Equivocal generation of plants— Major General Strong— Rev. Dr. Swift    307
LETTER XI
Crown Point fortress— Conduct of the French government toward the colonists of the United States, and reflections on its character    311
LETTER XII
Lake Champlain— Healthfulness of its borders— Trade— Bridport—  Shoreham— Cornwall— Orwell— Benson— West Haven— Fair Haven   315
LETTER XIII
Account of the state of Vermont— Mode of forming new settlementst— Character of the settlers    319
LETTER XIV
Manner of forming new settlements, and character of new settlers continued    325
LETTER XV
State of Vermont— Its settlement— Account of its government    329
LETTER XVI
Hampton— Poultney— Granville— Westfield— Kingsbury— Sandy Hill— Glens Falls— Queensbury— Schenectady— Union College— Attack of the French and Indians on Schenectady in 1690— Rev. Dr. Romeyn— Rev. Dr. John B. Smith— Rev. Robert Smith    334
LETTER XVII
Albany— Settled by the Dutch— Observations on public taste— Trade of Albany— Major General Schuyler— Greenbush—  Schodack—  Stephentown— New Lebanon    344
LETTER XVIII
Richmond— West Stockbridge— Salisbury— Cataract at that place— Sharon— Amenia— Washington    351

JOURNEY TO PROVINCETOWN
LETTER I
East Haven— Branford— Guilford— Its burying ground— Whitefish used as a manure— Killingworth— Saybrook— Its settlement and fortresst— Lady Fenwick's monument    357
LETTER II
Lyme— New London— Invasion and burning of New London and Groton by Arnold and Eyre— Murder of Colonel Ledyard    365

Notes    371
 
Volume III
JOURNEY TO PROVINCETOWN [continued]
LETTER III
Groton— Account of the Pequots— War between the colonists and that tribe— Gallant attack and destruction of one of their forts by Captain Mason and his troops— Pursuit of the Pequots to Fairfield, and their final destruction— Death of Sassacus    1
LETTER IV
Stonington, cultivated partly by tenants— Indians still remaining here — Their degraded character and situation— The perfection to which man arrives in a state of nature— General observations upon the remnants of the Indian tribes now found in New England— Means of effecting their civilization    10
LETTER V
Westerly— Charlestown— South Kingston— Aboriginal tribes formerly inhabiting New England— Their population—  Number of warriors as estimated by General Gookin— War with the Narragansets— Attack and capture of their fortress— Gallant conduct of Captain Denison and others— Death of Nanuntenoo    20
LETTER VI
Conanicut Island— Newport: its buildings, harbor, and fortifications— Proposition of the French government relative to the occupancy of Newport— Remarkable cliffs and chasm— Enumeration of the fish brought to this market— Healthfulness and commerce of Newport— Its settlement    28
LETTER VII
Battle between the Americans under General Sullivan and the British commanded by Sir Robert Pigot— Stone bridge—  Tiverton— State of Rhode Island— Its boundaries and divisions— Original settlement— State of religion and learning—  Common schools    36
LETTER VIII
Helburne Woods— Westport— New Bedford— Its situation, commerce, and settlement— Attack on Fairhaven by the British in 1778— Gallant defense of the place by Major Fearing— Rochester— Wareham— Proposed canal across the peninsula of Cape Cod— Sandwich    42
LETTER IX
Country between Sandwich and Barnstable— Barnstable— Yarmouth— Saltworks of Cape Cod— Observations on the extent of this manufacture— Difficulties of Christianizing the Indians— Dennis— Harwich— Orleans    49
LETTER X
Eastham— Truro— Provincetown— Beach grass, its utility— Soil very thin and blown away from the white sand beneath—  Manners and habits of the inhabitants of Provincetown— Its fisheries and harbor— Wellfleet— Return to Harwich—  Innkeeper    57
LETTER XI
Return to Sandwich— Mission among the Indians at Mashpee— Visit to the Rev. Gideon Hawley, the missionary—  Description of the peninsula of Cape Cod— Its soil, population, etc.    67
LETTER XII
Plymouth: the first town settled in New England— Rock on which the colonists first landed— Their cemetery— Reflections on the care of Divine Providence over them— Fisheries and commerce of Plymouth   72
LETTER XIII
Kingston —  Marshfield —  Scituate —  Hingham —  Weymouth — Braintree— Quincy— Milton— Dorchester— Its early settlement— For tifications erected by General Washington— Roxbury— Rev. John Eliot, the Apostle of the Indians    78
LETTER XIV
Dedham— Hon. Mr. Ames— Medfield: attacked by the Indians— Medway— Bellingham— Mendon— Peculiar kind of sheep—  Uxbridge—  Douglas— Forests— Thompson— The Quinebaug and country on its borders —  Pomfret —  Ashford —  Mansfield —  Coventry —  Bolton— Willington— Gap in the Bolton Hills    85
LETTER XV
Brooklyn— Major General Putnam— Canterbury    95

JOURNEY TO WHITESTOWN
LETTER I
Tourney to New Lebanon— Shakers    101
LETTER II
Account of the Shakers continued 
LETTER III
Tourney from New Lebanon to Minden— Valley of the Mohawk— Canajoharie— Minden— Thoughts on religious persecution—  Palatines— German Flats— Utica— New Hartford— Brothertown— Brothertown Indians—  Observations on the differences of complexion in the human race    116
LETTER IV
Hamilton— Oneida Academy— Paris— Iron mine— The measures adopted for the support of religion in this state unhappy and the laws imperfect— Rome— Battle between the English and Indians under Sir John Johnson and the American militia under General Herkimer— Canal— Siege of Fort Stanwix    129
LETTER V
Story of Captain Greg— Whitesboro— Judge White— Herkimer— Canal at Little Falls— Captain Butler— Destruction of Cherry Valley— Canajoharoo— Canajoharie    137
LETTER VI
Story of Mr. Fonda— Sir William Johnson— Prospect from Tribes Hill— Johnstown— Amsterdam— Character of Hon. John Jay, and of William Pitt Beers, Esq.— Cohoes— Waterford— Half Moon— Stillwater— Saratoga    145
LETTER VII
Progress of General Burgoyne— Desertion of Ticonderoga— Battle of Hubbardton; of Battle Hill— Wise measures of General Schuyler—  Defeat of Colonels Baum and Breymann— Battles of September 19th and October 7th— Surrender of General Burgoyne—  Reflections         152
LETTER VIII
Saratoga— Fort Miller— Fort Edward— Cambridge— Argyle— The Batten Kill— Easton— Greenwich— Scotch settlers— Journey to Williamstown— Petersburg— Pownal— Excursion to the summit of Saddle Mountain— Natural bridge    162
LETTER IX
Journey to Pittsfield— Bursting of a cloud— Observations on forest trees— Difference in the quantity of snow falling in places near to each other— Curious origin of a thunderstorm and of a tornado— Account of moving rocks— White frosts—  Return    172

STATE OF NEW YORK, continued
LETTER I
State of New York— Its extent and population— Account of what has been done for the support of learning and religion— The different sects into which it is divided    185
LETTER II
Constitution of the state— Legislature— Electors— Executive— Courts— Council of Appointment and Supreme Court of Errors so constituted as to affect the state in a manner unfortunate and mischievous    193

JOURNEY TO LONG ISLAND
LETTER I
Passage from Norwalk to Huntington— Lloyd Neck— Town of Huntington— Smithtown— Setauket—  Brookhaven— Riverhead— Its courts — Southold— Oyster Point— Fishers Island— Plum Island    198
LETTER II
General observations on the northern parts of Long Island, and on the stones and sand of which it is composed— Influence of the Gulf Stream in depositing sand on the eastern coast of the United States— Cultivation of wheat— Account of the Hessian fly— Forest trees— Fruit trees— Improvement in agriculture— Scarcity of brooks and millstreams— Fisheries    204
LETTER III
Shelter Island— Sag Harbor— The peninsula of Montauk— Indians who inhabit it— Lighthouse— East Hampton— Manners of the in habitants— Honorable efforts of the people to maintain the government of law and to discountenance vice— Settled from New England— Suffolk County— Gardiners Island— Bridgehampton— Southampton— Canoe Place—  Westhampton— The Fireplace    214
LETTER IV
Isliip— Hempstead   plain— Grouse   plain— Huntington— Oyster   Bay— Hempstead— North Hempstead— Flushing— Mr. Prince's fruit yard— Jamaica— Ride from Jamaica to Brooklyn— Vegetation on different parts of the island affected by the prevailing winds—  Bushwick    234
LETTER V
Brooklyn— Prospect from the heights— Battle between the British under Gen. Howe, and the Americans under Gen. Putnam— Retreat of the American army to New York— The East River— Kings County settled by the Dutch— Character of the inhabitants— Quakers— Return    230

FIRST JOURNEY TO LAKE GEORGE
LETTER I
Journey through Goshen, etc. to the head of Lake George— Voyage across the lake— Excursion to Ticonderoga— Return to the head of the lake— Manner of hunting deer— Huntsman— Overtake a buck swimming on the lake— Fort William Henry— Bloody Pond    236
LETTER II
Description of Lake George— Prevalent winds— Fish— Water of the lake uncommonly pure and supplied by subjacent springs— Mills and forges— Fine scenery of the lake— The water— Islands— Shore and mountains— View while returning from Ticonderoga    244
LETTER III
Battle of Lake George— General Johnson wounded— Gen. Lyman takes the command of the English army and defeats the French— Vindication of Gen. Lyman's character— Hendrick, chief of the Mohawks— Baron Dieskau    252
LETTER IV
Attack on Fort William Henry— Gallant defense by Col. Monroe— Capitulation and massacre— Gen. Webb's expedition to Ticonderoga— Retreat of the English army— Journey continued— Dalton— Partridgefield—  Worthington—  Chesterfield—  Westhampton    263

SECOND JOURNEY TO LAKE GEORGE
LETTER I
North Milford— Derby— Manufactory at Humphreysville— Housatonic River— Oxford— Southbury— New Milford— Lakes anciently existing in the courses of rivers    273
LETTER II
Indian monument— Kent— Major General Swift— Journey from Salisbury Cataract to Lake George— Caldwell—  Northumberland— Moreau— Saratoga Springs— Ballston Springs— Lansingburgh— Troy — Albany— Hudson—  Livingston— Clermont— Rhinebeck—  Clinton— Poughkeepsie— Fishkill— Philipstown    282
LETTER III
Colonel B. Robinson— Prospect in the Highlands— Visit to Forts Mont gomery and Clinton— Expedition of the British up the Hudson— Peekskill— Cortland— Prospect of the Hudson and its shores below the Highlands— Mount Pleasant—  Greenburgh— Yonkers— Capture and death of Major Andre— The river Hudson and its tributary streams    301
LETTER IV
City of New York— Its settlement and extent— Its streets, churches, and other public buildings— City Hall—  Hospital—  State prison— Bridewell and city prison— Old and new almshouse— Political and benevolent societies—  Columbia College— College of Physicians and Surgeons— Elgin Botanic Garden— Schools— Literary societies— Orphan asylum—  Markets— Banks and insurance companies— Commerce— Exports and amount of duties    314
LETTER V
Origin of the inhabitants of New York— Their industry— Rapid increase of the city— Economy of the citizens— Their hospitality— Respect for religion— Intelligence— Language— Amusements— Religious character— Police— Receipts and expenditures of the treasury— Water— Ferryboats— Appearance of the city and the adjacent country — Distinguished men    329
LETTER VI
Island of Manhattan— Country seats— Roads— Battle of Harlem—  Surrender of Fort Washington— Harlem Bridge—  Westchester— Army of General Howe— Eastchester— New Rochelle— Mamaroneck— Rye — Mr. Jay— County of Westchester— Appearance of this country in 1777    337
LETTER VII
Greenwich— Putnam's hill— Stamford— Hon. Abraham Davenport—  Rev. Dr. Wells— Hon. James Davenport—  Shippan—  Middlesex—  Rev. Dr. Mather— Burning of Norwalk— Fairfield— Expedition of the British troops to Danbury—  General Wooster— General Silliman— Rev. Mr. Hobart— Burning of Fairfield— Reflections— Burning of Greens Farms    346
LETTER VIII
Stratford— Bridgeport— Rev. Dr. Johnson— County of Fairfield— Its boundaries, surface, soil, divisions, healthfulness, etc.— Milford— Rev. Samuel Andrew— Milford marble— Long Island Sound— Hell Gate, or Hurlgate    363
LETTER IX
State of New York— Its boundaries— Mountains— Rivers and agriculturet— Iron ore and marble— Gypsum— Inhabitants, whence derived — New England settlers— Their character— Irish, German, and Scotch colonists— French Protestants    370

Notes    377
 
Volume IV
JOURNEY TO NIAGARA
LETTER I
Journey to Sheffield— White marble— Rapid descent of the streams which fall into the Hudson and into the Housatonic—  Egremont— Manor of Livingston— Claverack— Character of first settlers in little landing places—  Catskill— Canton—  Durham— Catskill Mountains— Bristol— Blenheim— Stamford—  Harpersfield—  Meredith— White pine tree— Franklin—  Sidney— Miserable inns—  Troublesome innkeeper— Unadilla— Oxford— Norwich— Jericho— Chenango River and valley — Sherburne— Hamilton— Cazenovia    1
LETTER II
Holland Company— Face of the country from Sullivan to Canandaigua — Manlius— Varieties of names given to townships—  Onondaga—  Salt springs— Marcellus— Early fall of snow— Skaneateles Lake— Aurelius— Cayuga Bridge— Account of lakes in this region— Junius— Geneva— Seneca Lake    18
LETTER III
Easton— Canandaigua— Bloomfield— Charleston— Hartford— Genesee River— Genesee flats— Oak plains— Their peculiar appearance, owing to fires kindled by the Indians— Their soil productive— County of Genesee— Buffalo— View of the lake, etc.— Beautiful collection of clouds    30
LETTER IV
Brief account of the Great Lakes which supply the river Niagara— Lake Superior— Its islands, rivers, etc.— River St. Marys—  Its only outlet— Opinion that there are subterraneous outlets examined— Lake Huron— Lake Michigan— Island of Mackinac— Huron River— Lake St. Clair— Lake Erie— Evidence that the waters of these lakes are lower than they formerly were    46
LETTER V
River Niagara— Properly called the St. Lawrence— Islands in the river— General appearance and character of this region— Cataract of Niagara    52
LETTER VI
A passage behind the sheet of water of the cataract practicable at some times and not at others— Explanation of this phenomenon—  Retrogression of the cataract considered    63
LETTER VII
Severe storm— General observations upon the western part of New York— Excessive value placed upon lands covered with vegetable mold— Climate and prevalent winds of this region— Western district of New York unhealthy— Diseases—  Fever and ague—  Goiters— Pulmonary affections rare    70
LETTER VIII
General observations upon the western part of New York continued— Want of stone for building and fencing— Defective supply and quality of its timber— Water impregnated with lime— Commerce— Different outlets for its commodities    83
LETTER IX
Return slowly along the Mohawk to Albany— Kinderhook— Hudson— Uncommon phenomena observed on Taconic Mountain    88

FIRST JOURNEY TO LAKE WINNIPESAUKEE OR WENTWORTH
LETTER I
Journey to Andover— Atkinson— Hampstead— Chester— Pembroke— Concord— Boscawen— Salisbury— Sanbornton—  Gilmantown— Meredith— Center Harbor— Winnipesaukee Lake— Its extent— Fed by subjacent springs— Its numerous and beautiful islands    95
LETTER II
Holderness— Squam Lake— Plymouth— Baker River— Rumney— Wentworth— Warren— Ryegate— Barnet— St. Johnsbury— Lyndon— Sheffield— Premature frosts— Lebanon Falls— Boating on Connecticut River— Governor Griswold    102

SECOND JOURNEY TO LAKE WINNIPESAUKEE OR WENTWORTH
LETTER I
Tourney to Andover through Providence— To Portsmouth through Newburyport— Rochester— Norway plain—  Middleton—  Wolfboro— Governor Wentworth— Tuftonboro— Moultonboro— Prospect of the Lake Winnipesaukee or Wentworth from the Red Mountain— Squam or Sullivan's Lake— Return    109
LETTER II
General remarks upon New Hampshire— Its population, soil, and agriculture— Form of government— Support of religion    115
JOURNEY TO UTICA
Description of the Catskill Mountains— Extensive prospect from the summit— Journey to Utica— Hamilton College—  Cavities worn by the Mohawk in the rocks at Little Falls— Return    122

THE IROQUOIS
LETTER I
Authorities consulted in the following account of the Iroquois— Their form of government— Their story relative to the creation of man— Their mythology as related by the Oneidas    129
LETTER II
Government of the Iroquois— Sachems— Customs and laws of the nation    136
LETTER III
Origin of the Iroquois— Their warlike character— Their faithfulness in keeping treaties— Their eloquence and language—  Mischiefs produced by ardent spirits— The effects of General Sullivan's march through their country— Feast or thanksgiving of the Senecas    141

REMARKS ON EUROPEAN TRAVELERS IN AMERICA
LETTER I
Volney    150
LETTER II
Weld    158
LETTER III
Duke de La Rochefoucauld    164
LETTER IV
Lambert    179

LANGUAGE OF NEW ENGLAND
LETTER I
The English language in this country pronounced more correctly than in England— Blunders in language customary in London— Reasons why the people of New England pronounce the English language with propriety    195
LETTER II
The inhabitants of this country charged with retaining obsolete words, with introducing new words, with annexing new significations to words— Alterations in language less in this country than in England for the last two hundred years—  Vindication of this conduct    199

LEARNING, MORALS, ETC. OF NEW ENGLAND
LETTER I
Schools— System of Connecticut— Schools of New England— Effects of this education on the people at large— Hon. Roger Sherman    206
LETTER II
Academies in New England— Colleges— State of these institutions in 1812— Law and theological seminaries— Medical, historical, and philosophical societies— Social libraries    212
LETTER III
Observations of Buffon, De Pauw, etc. relative to the deterioration of animals; of the bodies and of the minds of men in America— Genius, what and whence derived— Genius of Americans— Literature and science of the Americans— Men of learning— Causes why they are not numerous    217
LETTER IV
Opinion of the Edinburgh Review relative to the literature of America — President Edwards— Rev. Dr. Edwards— Dr. Franklin— Dr. Rittenhouse and other natural philosophers— Ingenious and useful inventions— McFingal— Progress of learning in Great Britain from the eighth century    227
LETTER V
Manners and morals of the people of New England— Executions during the Revolutionary War— Capital punishments in the county of New Haven in 175 years— Duels in New England since its settlement— Inhabitants all required to be in the possession of arms— The poor supported and educated— Public and private charities    235
LETTER VI
Various traits of character of the people of New England, compared with similar traits of the inhabitants of Great Britain—  Difficulties found by Englishmen in judging of the character and circumstances of the people of this country    239
LETTER VII
Modes of living— Amusements— People of New England fond of acquiring knowledge— Happy effects of this trait of character—  The Sabbath observed with sobriety and reverence— Marriages— Funerals 248

RELIGION OF NEW ENGLAND
LETTER I
History of religion in New England from the year 1755— Effects of the French and Revolutionary Wars— Evils arising from the introduction of foreigners into the country    258
LETTER II
State of religion after the peace of 1783— Effects of the French Revolution— Circulation of the writings of infidels    263
LETTER III
The effects of the principles avowed by the leaders of the French Revolution, counteracted and destroyed in a great measure by their cruelties and impiety, and by the miseries they brought on other nations— These effects likewise lessened by the efforts of the clergy and of many other respectable inhabitants, but principally by an extensive revival of religion—  Comparison of the religious and moral character of the first settlers with that of the present inhabitants        270
LETTER IV
Establishment of the public worship of God in Connecticut    279
LETTER V
Vindication of the establishment of the public worship of God by law    283
LETTER VI
Education of candidates for the ministry, and settlement of clergymen    291
LETTER VII
Influence of the clergy in Connecticut: its nature and derivation    295
LETTER VIII
Confession of faith and articles of church discipline agreed to at Saybrook in 1708 by the delegates of the churches—  History of the proceedings relative to this subject— Observations    299
LETTER IX
Comparison of the state of religion in England with that in New England— English representations of the state of religion here refuted 308
LETTER X
Articles of faith held by the first settlers of New England— Episcopalians, Baptists, Universalists, Methodists, and Antinomians—  Jemima Wilkinson— Roman Catholics— Friends— Sandemanians— Shakers        318
LETTER XI
Number of congregations and of ministers in Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Vermont— Churches distributed at small distances    322

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEN AND WOMEN IN NEW ENGLAND
LETTER I
The personal appearance of the inhabitants— Their gravity, etc.—  General remarks on the influence of theaters and plays on society       327
LETTER II
Opinion of a writer in the Quarterly Review relative to the women of this country examined— The features, manners, and employments of the women of New England— Their education    332

MANUFACTURES OF NEW ENGLAND
Extracts from the Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, April 19, 1810— General account of the manufactures of Massachusetts and of Connecticut— Account of the manufactures of Rhode Island, with a history of their origin    338

MASSACHUSETTS
LETTER I
The state of Massachusetts— Its boundaries, population, and government     351
LETTER II
Laws relative to schools and the qualifications of schoolmasters; concerning the maintenance of ministers and the establishment of public worship— Early laws for the support of Harvard College— Crimes punished by death— Militia    356

PROSPECTS OF THE UNITED STATES
LETTER I
Opinions of foreigners relative to the future prospects of our country— Bishop Berkeley's views of this subject in verse— Extent, waters, soil, productions, and population of the United States    361
LETTER II
Enterprise, ingenuity, intelligence, means of acquiring knowledge; laws, morals, language, and liberty of the people of the United States— Extent of country yet to be settled— Institutions of the country in a state of improvement— Increase of evangelical religion and Catholicism— Future prospects of the United States    365

Notes    375
Index    399