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which was reprinted with the permission of the Massachusetts Historical Society, from a copy in the collections of The New York Public Library Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations
Ecclesiastical history of Massachusetts 1
Account of the religious societies in Portsmouth, N. H 37
Topographical description of Brewster 72
Account of Halifax [Nova Scotia] 79
Estimate of the inhabitants of Nova-Scotia 81
Note on Southborough 82
Account of Stow 83
Account of Westborough 84
Memoir of Sudbury 86
Account of Harvard 88
Note on Marlborough 89
Memoir of Marlborough association ib.
History of Guilford 90
Memoir of the Pequots 101
Additional memoir of the Pequots 102
Number of the Nyhantic indians 103
Number of king Ninegret's tribe 104
Indians on Connecticut river ib.
Account of the Montauk indians 105
Memoir of Block island 111
Account of the Stratford indians ib.
Number of the Potenummecut indians 112
Mashpee indians 113
Monymoyk indians 114
Saconet indians ib.
Eastern indians ib.
Account of the indians in Acadie 115
Number of indians in Connecticut, 1774, 117
Number of indians in Rhode-Island, 1774, 119
Account of the several nations of southern indians ib.
Indians at a treaty, A. D. 1764 121
Estimate of the indian warriors employed by the British
in the revolutionary war 123
Estimate of the number of indians in the battle of Miami ib.
Eliot's account of indian churches in New-England, 1673 124
Account of Rawson and Danforth's indian visitation, A. D. 1698 129
List of indians in Natick, 1749 134
Numbers in the Mohawk language 137
Numbers in the Norridgwog language ib.
Account of the surprise and defeat of a body of indians near
Edwards' letter, relating to the indian school at Stockbridge,
Chauncy's sketch of eminent men in New-England 154
Barnard's sketch of eminent ministers in New-England 166
Life of President Chauncy 171
Memoirs of Edward Tyng, esq. 180
Memoirs of hon. William Tyng, esq. 183
Anecdote of John Eliot of Roxbury 186
Grant made to William Hubbard for writing his history 187
John Adams the author of an essay on feudal and canon law ib.
Bill of mortality for Middleborough 188
Memoir of Andrew Eliot ib.
Memoir of Thomas Pemberton 190
List of resident members 191
List of corresponding members 192
General table of contents of the ten volumes 193
Chronological table of the most remarkable events recorded
in the ten volumes 202
General index to the ten volumes 230
Index of authors 307
Laws of the society 310
Officers of the Society 313
List of deceased members 314
Errours corrected ib.
MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Ecclesiastical History of Massachusetts. 1
Continued from Vol. IX. p. 49.
Account of the New-England Platform; of the attempts made to convert the Natives ; and the state of Religion, and order of the Churches from 1648, during the commonwealth in Great-Britain.
IN the earliest period of our history, the churches of New-England enjoyed religious freedom beyond what could be expected by their brethren in Europe, and were subject to their own religious discipline and order. The clergy aimed not at much power, but were highly respected by the magistrates, who asked their advice upon the most important occasions. From this it has been supposed they had great influence upon the affairs of the community. But what influence they had was more owing to their character, than their office. The magistrates, as members of the churches, were able to give a check to clergymen who thought too highly of them. selves. They also were well versed in the scriptures, and had more knowledge of ecclesiastical history than most preachers of the gospel.
If we look into the church at Plymouth, how very able ought a teacher to be, when governour Bradford and elder Brewster were among the church members ? And such great men as Cotton and R. Williams not only looked with respect upon governour Winthrop, as their magistrate, but also considered . . .
72 Topographical Description of Brewster.
A Topographical Description of Brewster, in the County of Barnstable. January, 1806.
by Rev. John Simpkins.
Brewster is a township on Cape-Cod, situated S.E. and by S. from Boston, from which it is distant by water 23 leagues, and 84 miles by land, according to the circuitous route usually travelled before the erection of the several turnpikes recently formed, which shorten the distance from Plymouth to Boston.
Harwich, the town to which it formerly belonged, was incorporated Sept. 14th, A.D. 1694. The first church in Harwich was gathered A.D. 1700. The meeting-house stood about half a mile from the north shore. Another parish was formed in the south part of the town, and incorporated as the second south parish, 1747.*
* The Act of the Legislature, incorporating the town of Harwich, states, that it comprizes "the inhabitants settled on a tract of land called Satucket, from the head of Bound brook to the head of Mamskeket, being about 10 miles in length, and 7 in breadth extending from sea to sea." The two Indian names here mentioned are in very common use at the present day, and familiarly appropriated by the inhabitants, the former to the west, and the latter to the east, part of the town of Brewster.
The following sketch, selected from the report of a viewing committee appointed by the Legislature to repair to Harwich, in 1801, gives a pretty clear view of the local situation of the two parishes. "It extends across the Cape from shore to shore, and is divided into two parishes by a line running E. and W. very nearly through the centre of the town. The committee, in viewing the town, found that a very great proportion of the inhabitants have placed themselves down very near the north and south shores ; particularly those in the North Parish. They found that on the line of separation of the parishes, there is a chain of narrow ponds, extending probably two-thirds of the whole length of the line, and on each side of these ponds, and nearly the whole length of the town, is an extent of unsettled and uncultivated poor land, consisting mostly of pitch pines and shrub oaks." [footnote spans pp72-73.]
Topographical Description of Brewster. 73
The first, or North Parish, (excepting a few remonstrants against a division of the town, who had liberty to belong either to Harwich or Brewster) was incorporated as a town, Feb. 19th, 1803, and took the name of Brewster, in honourable remembrance of elder Brewster, one of the principal characters among the first settlers of Plymouth colony, who was justly held in high repute for his wisdom amd virtues, by the venerable fathers of New-England.
It is bounded E. by Orleans ; S. by Harwich ; W. by Dennis ; N. by Barnstable bay. It is about 8 miles in length. Its breadth is various ; the average may be about 3 3/4 miles. It holds a central situation in regard to the Cape, being about 36 miles from Provincetown at the lower end, the same distance from Falmouth the S. W. extremity, and 25 miles from Sandwich at the upper end.
The face of the country is diversified by a mixture of hilly and level land. In travelling the county road that runs through the town, you pass over several eminences which afford a pleasant and extensive view of the town. The eye, passing over the lands at the northward of the road, beholds the waters of the Atlantick ocean rolling into the Bay, and is presented with the form of the Cape, as it bends round to Provincetown. A very sudden curvature commences three or four miles below Brewster, where the Cape becomes so narrow as to give the traveller a fair prospect of the waters on either side, and enables him to discern, at one view, vessels that are passing round the Cape, and those which are sailing up the Bay.
74 Topographical Description of Brewster.
This curvature, which, at the point above mentioned, maybe considered as the inner side of the elbow of the Cape, throws also into view to the inhabitants of Brewster the meeting-house, and other buildings in Eastham, at a distance of eight and ten mites ; and at certain seasons, the reflection of the sun upon the windows of the houses in Wellfleet and Truro is discernable by the naked eye, at a distance of eighteen miles and upwards on the county road.
In or near the centre, as it respects the east and west boundaries of the town, is erected on a gentle rise of ground a convenient house for publick worship; which, being enlarged A.D. 1796, is 72 feet by 45. It is a wooden building, but handsomely painted and ornamented, with a well proportioned tower and steeple at the west end, which rises to the height of 110 feet.
In 1799, Lombardy poplars were planted at a convenient distance in front, and at each end of this building, which, with a grove of willows in a bottom adjacent, and several thriving orchards in the vicinity, give to this spot a very rural aspect, agreeably enlivened by a water prospect.
From the meeting house to the western bounds, and north of the county road, the land is for the most part either of a clayey or heavy loamy soil, capable of a high state of cultivation, and may be called the good land. This excepted, there is comparatively but little land in the town suitable for upland mowing. Upon passing to the southward of the county road, and especially to the eastward of the meeting-house, the soil rapidly depreciates, and becomes in general thin and sandy, though in some parts tolerably adapted to tillage. During the revolutionary war betwixt Great-Britain and America, lands of this description received great, and in some instances irreparable injury. Interrupted in their maritime pursuits, and deprived of employment in the fisheries, many of the inhabitants were compelled to resort to the land for subsistence. They were driven by necessity from year to year to diminish the value of their lands by severe tillage, breaking up a large quantity at a time, giving it little or no manure, until a soil, naturally free for grain, became reduced to the extreme of poverty. In some parts of the Cape, which lie open to the full rake of the north and north-west winds, the sands being once set in motion, have rapidly encroached on the adjoining
Topographical Description of Brewster. 75
territory, cutting away or burying up the soil, and spreading devastation over acres of once valuable land. This has been largely experienced in Eastham, a neighbouring town, and has been in some degree witnessed in this place. But even land thus destroyed is capable of being made conducive to the support of cattle in grazing, by setting out beach grass, which speedily takes root in the sand, and, if enclosed for a time, forms at length a firm and compact covering, and serves as an effectual barrier against further encroachments.
Lands, which have been greatly impoverished, though not completely destroyed, by means above mentioned, have since been greatly recruited by the hand of cultivation. Experience has taught the inhabitants to adopt a different mode of husbandry. Less land and less is broken up, and more plentifully manured, and the cultivator reaps his reward in a crop proportionably liberal. Some valuable improvements have of late been made in the cultivation of low swampy lands, which form the best resource for grass, not being so liable to suffer by draughts, by which our upland is sometimes severely affected.
More attention is also now paid to orchards, which had heretofore been greatly neglected. Twelve or fifteen years ago, about the time the writer commenced his residence here, the idea seemed to be generally prevalent, that the most must be made of the orchards which remained, as the attempt to raise others would be fruitless. The attempt however was made, and has abundantly succeeded. In April, 1793, about sixty apple trees were set out, and have flourished beyond the most sanguine expectations, producing plentifully fruit both large and fair. Since that time several other orchards have arisen ; and in general a young man, who erects a dwelling-house, if he have a sufficiency of land, thinks as much of setting out an orchard, as of laying out a garden. It is judged expedient, however, to break the force of the sea breezes by a border of trees.
Sea-weed, which not long since was almost neglected, is now diligently collected by the farmer, and carted into the barn-yard, to be trampled by cattle, or thrown into heaps to rot, by which means much valuable manure is made. Sometimes it is carted from the shore to be spread over the surface of the land, and turned under the furrow by the plough.
It is asserted in Dr. Morse's Geography, that "there are
76 Topographical Description of Brewster.
few or no stones below Barnstable," This is an errour ; as no small portion of the land in this town is enclosed or fenced by stone wall.
From eighty to ninety tons of English hay are cut in this place, which is a much greater quantity than was formerly made here, and the quantity is annually increasing, as more land is sown with grass seeds, and better cultivated. But the inhabitants depend chiefly on fresh meadow and salt hay for fodder. Considerable quantities of Indian corn and rye are raised, but not sufficient of the former for the consumption of the inhabitants.
The wood land is for the most part owned by a few individuals, which, with the general scarcity of the article, the distance of conveyance, and the high price of labour, has raised it to seven dollars per cord for oak, six dollars for pine. The scarcity of fuel, however, is at length happily remedied by the discovery of peat,which greatly abounds in swamps, that are liberally interspersed throughout the town. Several families make use of it in some degree the present winter ; but it is expected that large quantities will be dug up another season, and those in needy circumstances relieved from all apprehensions of being distressed through want of fuel.
Of ponds there is no scarcity. There is in the south-west part of the town, a chain of ponds, about 2 1/4 miles in length, and on an average about 1/3 of a mile in breadth, which give birth to a considerable stream, that affords a never failing supply of water to a grist-mill and fulling-mill, which are nearly opposite to each other, contiguous to the county road, about two miles west of the meeting-house, and one from the sea. In the months of April and May, alewives make their way up this stream into the mill-pond.
Another chain of ponds, about 3 2/3 miles in length, run nearly east and west, and form no inconsiderable part of the line that divides Brewster from Harwich, the line of division passing through the centre of these ponds. Other ponds are, Pine pond, the Slough pond, Wing pond, White pond, Foster's pond, Sheep pond, Baker's pond, Clift pond, Myrick's and Freeman's pond, &c, In some ponds and springs are found excellent eels. The flats extend about one mile into the sea, A middling course of tides gives about eight feet of water at full sea. There is no harbour, but the town lies open to the
Topographical Description of Brewster. 77
full swell of the sea in Barnstable bay, except that it is in some measure broken by a bar, which borders upon the flats one mile from the shore. It is supposed by judicious persons, that a convenient shelter might be formed for vessels by erecting a pier at the expense of about $10,000, and a complete one for 30,000.
The number of inhabitants in the town of Harwich, previous to its separation from this town, was, according to the last census, 2857. The census preceding gave but 2392 ;* leaving an increase of 465, notwithstanding from Brewster, the then north parish, several had emigrated, and during one or two years many had fallen a sacrifice to disease in the West Indies. This statement speaks favourably of the climate as conducive to health ; and the small number of deaths that annually occur upon the land abundantly confirms it. Of 2857 inhabitants in Harwich, A.D. 1801, 1353 were in the north, and 1504 in the south parish. It may here be observed, that the sea-faring men in the south almost universally devoted their attention to the fisheries, while a great proportion of those in the north were employed in foreign voyages, and even many of the fishermen in the winter sailed either to the southern states, or West Indies.
The inhabitants are industrious, enterprising, hospitable, and social. Social intercourse with each other is free and frequent. No persons appear to have a greater relish for the social circle and domestick pleasures. They are not in the habit of frequenting taverns, unless on publick occasions. I know not of a proper idler or tavern-haunter in the place.
Neatness is conspicuous within and around their buildings, Their houses in general consist of one story, with a roof so constructed as to give room for two convenient chambers. They have usually two good rooms in front; bed-rooms, kitchen, wash-room, and other convenient apartments in the rear. Their houses, though the greater part of them be low, are well finished ; in some instances handsomely furnished. Some, belonging to the more affluent, are in a style of elegance.
More than three-fourths of the inhabitants, as they come forward upon the stage, are employed at sea. The greater
* In 1764, there were in Harwich 1772 inhabitants (including 91 Indians) ; and in 1776, 1865 inhabitants.
78 Topographical Description of Brewster.
part of these enter on board merchantmen. There are more masters and mates of vessels, who sail on foreign voyages, belonging to this place, than to any other town in the county.
There are but two fishing vessels owned here, though some of our fishermen sail from other places. The fishery has given way to merchant voyages, and the erection of salt-works, of which we have now from 60 to 70,000 feet, reckoning according to their usual mode, 1 foot in length, and 10 feet in width to be a foot. There are some coasting vessels and packets.
The inhabitants are desirous of procuring a good school education for their children, and have for some years maintained a man's school throughout the year. They readily subscribed $3,000 towards the support of an academy, on condition that the Legislature would locate it in this town, and furnish them with the usual grant of eastern lands for their assistance.
We have a social library, consisting of 151 volumes, which cost $137,53 cts.
The first church was formed Oct. 16, A.D. 1700, the covenant signed by eight males, including Rev. Nathanael Stone, who was ordained as their pastor on the same day. He was a man of piety, of talents, and of firmness ; much revered and beloved by the people of his charge. He was born at Water-town, 1667; graduated at Harvard College, 1690 ; and was married, Nov. 15, 1698, to Reliance Hinkley, daughter of Governour Hinkley. She was baptized on the day of the memorable swamp fight at Narraganset, when the English, with whom her father was present, completely routed the Indians ; and received from Rev. Mr. Russell, minister at Barnstable, the name of Reliance, in token, as he said, of a firm reliance on Divine Providence. He published a small volume, A.D. 1731, entitled, "The wretched state of man by the fall," &c. and a sermon before the first Supreme Judicial Court holden at Barnstable. He died Feb. 1755, aged 88. Although Calvinistick in his sentiments, he was firmly opposed to the itinerant preachers who were so highly caressed by many in his day ; and a church censure was passed on one of his people, who undertook to preach, and being very illiterate, was rebuked for undertaking an office for which he was no ways qualified. No sectarian society has ever existed here,
Account of Halifax. 79
and the people, with a very few exceptions, have ever been firmly attached to the congregational society in this place. It is even at the present day considered as quite unfashionable not to attend the publick worship.
Rev. Isaiah Dunster was born at Cambridge, where he received the degree of A. B. 1741; ordained as colleague with Rev. Nathanael Stone, 1748 ; died January, 1791, aged 72. The author of this history is the present minister, and was ordained October, 1791 ; being but the third minister settled over this society since A.D. 1700.
AN ACCOUNT OF HALIFAX. IN A LETTER FROM MR. ALEXANDER GRANT TO REV. MR. STILES, DATED AT HALIFAX, MAY, 1760.
Your esteemed favour of the 11 March is just now delivered me, and you have my best thanks for the very particular account it contains of the publick affairs of New-England, and of my friends and acquaintance in Newport. Before the receipt of your's I had procured a map of Nova-Scotia, which comes to you by Mr. Mumford, with the magazines for August and September last ; a vessel which had them aboard for me down to February, was blown off to the West-Indies and taken. If you expect any useful or curious observations on the place of my present residence, I shall disappoint you. It furnishes none, and my time has been engrossed in another way. The bearer can give you all the information I am master of, which is not much.
This place is divided into three towns : Halifax, Irish town, and Dutch town. The whole may contain about one thousand houses, great and small, many of which are employed as barracks, hospitals for the army and navy, and other publick uses. The inhabitants may be about three thousand, one third of which are Irish, and many of them Roman catholicks; about one fourth Germans and Dutch, the most industrious and useful settlers among us ; and the rest English, with a very small number of Scotch. We have upwards of one hundred licenced houses, and perhaps as many more which retail spirituous liquors without licence ; so that the business . . .
88 Account of Harvard.
An Account of Harvard, In a Letter from Rev. Joseph Wheeler to Rev. Nathan Stone,
dated Harvard, February 24, 1767.
I have lately received a letter from you, informing me of Dr. Stiles's desire to know the state of the towns and churches in our association. As to Harvard, I find that it was taken from three other towns, viz. Lancaster, Groton, and Stow. It had no Indian name peculiar to itself. It was incorporated July A.D. 1732 ; and was supposed to contain about sixty families at the time of its incorporation. In October, 1733, a church was gathered in Harvard, consisting of thirty male members, and Rev. Mr. John Seccomb was ordained to the pastoral care of the church, who continued that relation until September, 1757, when he was dismissed by a vote of the church, upon his own request, and by the consent of an ecclesiastical council. The church continued vacant until December 12, 1759, at which time I was ordained to the pastoral care of the church. The present number of inhabitants is reckoned at two hundred families ; the number of communicants one hundred and ninety-five. I know of no remarkable occurrences which have happened in the town, that would be worth mentioning. The land is mountainous, yet fruitful. We have one farmer, who annually sows upwards of ninety acres of English grain, chiefly wheat. There are two ponds in the town ; one of them above three miles in circumference, and famous for the abundance of fish that are catched in it. Fronting the house that was built by Rev. Mr. Seccomb is supposed to be the longest row of elm trees in New-England, set in exact order, and leading directly toward the meeting-house.
Note on Marlborough 89
This is all that I think of at present worth mentioning, and therefore shall conclude by subscribing myself, &c.
Rev. Mr. Nathan Stone, Southborough.
Note on Marlborough. by Rev. Aaron Smith, A.D. 1767.
When the church was gathered is not known, the inhabitants of the town being driven off by the Indians, A.D. 1676. Rev. Mr. William Brimsmead was ordained 3 October, 1666,* and died commencement morning, 1701. The number of communicants  male 79, female 85. [See A Description of Marlborough, in Coll. Hist. Soc. iv. 46-50.]
MEMOIR OF MARLBOROUGH ASSOCIATION. BY REV. NATHAN STONE.
This Association of Ministers was formed at Marlborough, June 5, 1725, "with design and aim herein to advance the interest of Christ, the service of their respective charges, and their own mutual edification in their great work." They agreed to meet four times in a year ; choose a moderator and clerk, from time to time, &c. The articles were then signed by
John Swift, pastor in Framingham, Job Cushing, Shrewsbury, Robert Breck, Marlborough, John Gardner, Stow,
John Prentice, Lancaster, Eben. Parkman, Westboro', Israel Loring, West-Sudbury.
In process of time the Association became "so numerous," by the addition of pastors of other churches, and the members
were . . .
* The Rev. Mr. Packard, in his Description of Marlborough, says, "Mr. Brimsmead was minister to this religious society, September 20, 1660." He might at that time be unordained ; and the two accounts reconciled by a remark of Dr. Stiles : "The times of gathering the churches, especially the ancient ones, do not indicate the first formation of the congregation. Anciently among the first new parishes arising from population, they had religious assemblies, and constant preaching for years before the church was gathered, or the minister ordained. And a minister would often be invited to preach statedly, and continue four or five years before his ordination."
112 Account of the Stratford Indians.
An Account of the Potenummecut Indians.* Taken by Dr. Stiles, on the spot, June 4, 1762.
John Ralph, minister, 1
Isaac James 0
Richard Attoman 0
Joshua Pompmoh 0
John Ralph, jun. 1
Account of the Mashpee Indians. 113
perhaps 2 or 3 children, say 0
3 David Quonsit 2
Joseph Toby 1
Micah Ralph, perhaps 2
Samuel Cuzzen, perhaps 2
Sarah Cuzzen, Ętat. 80 0
Sarah George 0
Dorcas Quonsit 0
Mercy Attomon 0
Mercy Tom 0
Suse Francis 0
Hester Attomon 0
Margery Pompmoh 1
Hope Oliver 0
Hannah Tom 0
Lydia Pierce 0
Beck Francis 0
Ruth Ralph 0
Hester Jethro 0
Suppose as many wives
Total souls in the tribe
"Forty years ago, at a wedding were counted seven score Indians at Potenummecut." "A great plague among the Indians at Potenummecut first before the English came."
* This tribe was seated near Harwich, in Old Plymouth colony. See Coll. Hist. Soc. i. 197.
Mashpee Indians, A. D. 1762.
Mr. Hawley [Missionary] has about 75 Indian families at Mashpee ; not 4 to a family at a medium. [We have generally
114 Account of the Eastern Indians.
followed the several MSS. in the orthography. Rev. Mr. Hawley, in his last letter to the Society for propagating the Gospel, observes, "Massapee is the true spelling." Edit.]
Monymoyk Indians,* A. D. 1762.
The sachem was Samuel Quasson, aged 60 years. The tribe called Quasson "now not 30 men, women, and children."
* Seated at Chatham, on Cape Cod. Spelt by Gookin Manamoyik. See Coll. Hist. Soc, i. 197.
Awaushunks, squaw sachem of Saugkonnet, had two sons ; the youngest was William Mommynewit, or Maummynuey. Plymouth court ordered the grantees to buy off the oldest. Maummynuey was put to grammar school, and learned latin ; designed for college, but was seized with the palsy. He sold some land.
The bounds of the Saconet tribe were a line from Pachet Brook to the head of Coaxet. About 60 years ago, or A. D. 1700, there were 100 Indian men of the tribe, and the general assembly appointed Numpaus their captain, who lived to be an old man, and died about a dozen years ago, since the taking of Cape Breton, 1745. Mr. Ebenezer Davenport says, he has heard his father say, that he knew 100 Indian men there.
A. D. 1710, there were computed about 300 warriors westward of Penobscot. The Indian war with the eastern Indians began about A. D. 1702, and ended July 1713 ; opened again 1722, and closed 1725. Dr. Mather, speaking of their numbers about A. D. 1710, says, "their numbers at first (among the several tribes) were computed 450 fighting men from Penobscot, westward ; they were now reduced to about 300." Hist. Wars N. Eng. p. 60. I suppose (subjoins Dr. Stiles) this includes all the tribes from Boston to Penobscot. Itinerary, Vol. I.
Account of the Indians in Acadie. 115
Governour Dummer, in a speech to the assembly of Massachusetts, May 26, 1726, observed : "The Penobscot tribe and those of Kennebec are generally removed to St. Francois, and other parts of the river St. Lawrence."
Indians in Acadie, A. D. 1760.Extract of a letter from Col. Frye to his excellency the governour of Nova Scotia, dated, Fort Cumberland, Chignecto, March 7, 1760.
"I informed your excellency in my last of 10th December, of the submission of the French peasants residing at Merimichi, Rishebucta, Bouetox, Percondiack, and Memevamcook, made by their deputies sent here for that purpose. On the 30th of January last Mr. Manach, a French priest, who has had the charge of the people at Merimichi, Rishebucta and Bouetox, with a number of principal men of those places, arrived here, when they renewed their submission in a formal manner by subscribing articles, &c.
"With the French priest came two Indian chiefs, viz. Paul Laurence, and Augustine Michael. Laurence tells me he was a prisoner in Boston, and lived with Mr. Henshaw, a blacksmith. He is chief of a tribe, which before the war lived at La Have : Augustine is chief of a tribe at Rishebucta. I have received their submissions, for themselves and tribes, to his Britannick Majesty, and sent them to Halifax for the terms by governour Laurence. I have likewise received the submissions of two other chiefs, whom I dealt with as those before mentioned ; and was in hopes (which I mentioned to Mr. Manach) I had no more treaties to make with savages. But he told me I was mistaken, for there would be a great many more here upon the same business, as soon as their spring hunting was over : and upon my enquiring how many, he gave a list of 14 chiefs, including those already mentioned, most of which he said would come. Mr. Manach farther told me, they were all of one nation, and known by the name of Micmacks ; that they were very numerous, amounting to near three thousand souls ; that he had learned their language, since he had been among them, and found so much excellence in it, that he was well persuaded, if the beauties of it were know in ...
Account of an Indian Visitation. 129
Account of an Indian Visitation, A. D. 1698. Copied for Dr. Stiles, by Rev. Mr. Hawley, Missionary at Marshpee, from thePrinted Account Published in 1698.
The Rev. Mr. Grindal Rawson, pastor of the church in Mendon, and the Rev. Mr. Samuel Danforth, pastor of the church in Taunton, spent from May 30th, to June 24, 1698, in visiting the several plantations of Indians within this province" of Massachusetts, of which they gave the following account.
In pursuance of the orders and instructions given us by the Hon. Commissioners for the propagation of the gospel among the Indians in the American plantations, in New-England and parts adjacent: We have given the said Indians in their several plantations, in the province of Massachusetts Bay, a visit, and find as followeth :
At Little Compton we find two plantations of Indians, who keep two distinct assemblies for the worship of God, (according to the best information we could have) are constant therein. The first assembly dwells at Saconet ; Samuel Church, alias Sohchawahham, has for more than one year past endeavoured their instruction, and is best capable of any in that place to perform that service. He has ordinarily fourty auditors, many times more : of these above twenty are men. Divers here are well instructed in their catechisms, and above ten can read the bible. Here are likewise two Indian rulers, John Tohkukquonno and Jonathan George ; the first of which is a man well spoken of.
At Cokesit in Little Compton, Daniel Hinckley hath taught here four years ; twice every sabbath. Eleven families are his auditors ; most of the men here can read ; and many young ones (of whom we had an instance) can say their catechisms. Of this company three persons are in full communion with the church settled at Nukkehkummees. A person called Aham is schoolmaster here, and we are informed performs his work well. Here are also two persons improved as rulers. Preaching here, the two fore mentioned teachers, at our direction, prayed very soberly and understandingly. They gave very decent attendance, and were very handsomely cloathed in English apparel.
At Darkmouth we found two assemblies of Indians : at Nukkehkummees William Simons (ordained by Japhet of Martha's Vineyard three years since) is the pastor. In the church here are forty communicants ; part dwelling in Nukkehkummees, part in Assameekg, Cokesit, Acushnet, and Assawa-mipsit. Here are many that can read well. The word is preached here twice every sabbath. Twenty families, in which one hundred and twenty persons, at least, are for the most part constant hearers; almost all their children can read. Jonathan hath been their school master, but ceases now for want of encouragement. We propose his continuance, as a person well fitted for the employment. William Simons informs that here are four persons chosen annually as rulers. They are well clothed, and give good attendance whilst we dispensed the word to them. Their pastor praying with good affection and understanding ; and is likewise well reported of by the English.
At Acushnet, John Bryant their teacher for five or six years past. Here are fourteen families, unto whom William Simons once in a month ordinarily comes and preaches. Some of those who belong to the church at Nukkehkummees being here settled, viz. five men and ten women. We find that scandals among them are reflected upon ; if any exceed the bounds of sobriety, they are suspended until repentance is manifested. By the best intelligence we could arrive to from sober English dwellers on the place, we understand that they are diligent observers of the sabbath. They are generally well clothed, diligent labourers, but for want of schooling their children are not so well instructed as at other places ; though they earnestly desire a remedy.
Account of an Indian Visitation. 131
At Major Winthrop's Island, Mr. John Weeks, an Englishman, teaches them on the sabbath. An Indian named Asa, chief ruler among them, and a person well reported of, teaches them when Mr. Weeks cannot attend it. Here are about nine families, most of which can read well, are diligent in their callings and generally belong to the church whereof Japhet is pastor, at Martha's Vineyard. An Indian, called Sampson, attends their school every winter, and hath the reputation for the most able among them for that service, taking pains in catechizing their children every week. Men, women and children, are thirty persons in all. Half the Indian inhabitants of this island have died in a few years past. Three families living at Saconeset point do attend to the meeting at Mr. Winthrop's island. At an island, called Slocum's island, we hear of seven families, most of which can read, being lately moved thither from the Vineyard and other places.
We hear of some Indians at the furthermost island, formerly called Sandford's island, where there is an Indian teacher.
At Martha's Vineyard, viz. at Chilmark alias Nashanekammuck : Here is an Indian church of which Japhet is pastor ; a person of the greatest repute for sobriety and religion, and diligent in attending his ministerial employment: Unto whom is adjoined Abel, a ruling elder, who likewise preaches to a part of the church, living at too great a distance ordinarily to attend Japhet's ministry ; although they come together to attend church administrations. In this place we find two hundred and thirty one persons ; three score and four in full communion. Their children are well instructed, as we find by our examination of them in their catechisms.
At Ohkonkemme, within the bounds of Tisbury, are three score and twelve persons, unto whom Stephen and Daniel, who are brothers, are preachers ; well reported of for their gifts and qualifications. Here we spent part of a sabbath, and were joyful spectators of their Christian and decent carriage ; the aforesaid Daniel praying and preaching not only affectionately but understandingly : unto whom also we imparted a word of exhortation in their own language, to their contentment and declared satisfaction.
At Seconchqut in aforesaid Chilmark also, which belongs to the inspection of the aforesaid Stephen and Daniel, are thirty
132 Account of an Indian Visitation.
five persons, to whom, for their greater ease, either the one or the other dispenses the word.
At Gayhead, Abel and Elisha are preachers, to at least two hundred and sixty souls ; who have here at their charge a meeting house already framed. We find that the Indians here, as also may be affirmed of most of the Indians belonging to Martha's Vineyard (Chaubaqueduck excepted) are well instructed in reading, well clothed, and mostly in decent English apparel.
At Edgar town, viz. at Sahnchecontuckquet, are twenty five families amounting to one hundred and thirty six persons ; Job Russel is their minister.
At Nunnepoag about eighty four persons ; Joshua Tackquannash their minister, Josiah Thomas their school master.
At Chaubaqueduck about one hundred and thirty eight persons ; Maumachegin preaches to them every sabbath. Josiah by birth is their ruler or sachem.
At Nantuckquet, we find five congregations. The preachers unto which are Job Muckemuck, who succeeds John Gibs deceased ; John Asherman, a person well reputed of ; Que-quenah, Netowah a man greatly esteemed by the English for his sobriety, Peter Hayt, a well carriaged and serious man. Also Wunnohson and Daniel Spotso, Codpoganut and Noah (a person never known to be overtaken with drink, but a zealous preacher against it). These are their constant teachers. Amongst these are two churches, who have ordained officers, in each of which are twenty communicants at least; in which a commendable discipline is maintained, as persons of good reputation on the place have informed us. The whole number of adult persons here amount to about 500. Three schools were upheld among them, though at present none, for want of primers. A good meeting house is building here ; the frame whereof, at their desire and charge, is already procured by the worshipful captain Gardner. Here we preached to them in their own language, twice in one assembly, unto which they were generally convened on the Lord's day. Three of their principal preachers were improved by us in prayer, that we might discover something of their abilities ; in which we found them good proficients ; the whole attending with diligence and great seeming affection.
At Sandwich, here we find two assemblies of Indians ; to
Account of an Indian Visitation. 133
one whereof captain Thomas Tupper an Englishman preaches every sabbath day. Here are likewise Indian preachers, whose abilities in prayer we tried, viz. Ralph Jones (a person well reputed of for sobriety) and Jacob Hedge. There are in number 348 persons; men, women and children generally well clothed. Preaching among these, in a small meeting house, built for them after the English fashion, we experienced their good attention, and had their thankful acknowledgments. Their Indian rulers here are William Nummuck, Ralph Jones, Jacob Hedge, and John Quoy.
At Mashpah, belonging to Sandwich, we found another assembly of Indians, among whom the Rev. Rowland Cotton frequently dispenses the word, unto whose good progress in the Indian language we cannot but subjoin our attestation, having heard him dispense the word to them ; among whom also we left a word of exhortation. They are in general well clothed, being in number 57 families, in which are from ten years old and upwards 263 persons, divers of whom have the character of very sober men. The Indian preacher here is Simon Papmonit, a person suitably qualified as most among them for that work. Their rulers are Caleb Papmonit, Caleb Pohgneit, Sancohsin, James Ketah. Here they want a schoolmaster.
At Eastham and Harwich, Eastharbor, Billingsgate, and Monimoy are (as Mr. Treat informs us) 500 persons. At Ponanummakut, Thomas Coshaumag preacher and schoolmaster. Their rulers William Stockman and Lawrence Jeffries. Families 22. Moses teaches school here.
At Eastharbor and Billingsgate, Daniel Munshee, preacher ; Daniel Samuel, ruler. About 20 houses, in some of which two families.
At Monimoy, in which 14 houses, John Cosens preacher and schoolmaster. Rulers John Quossen and Menekish. ,At Sahquatucket, alias Harwich, 14 families, to whom Manesseh preaches. Joshua Shantam ruler. Many among these, almost every head of families, are persons capable of reading scripture, as we are informed.
At Plymouth, viz. at Kitteaumut or Moniment ponds, William Nummuck has preached some time, but has removed, and his return earnestly desired. Here are ten families. Joseph Wauno and John his brother, improved by major Bradford
134 A List of Indians in Natick, A. D. 1749.
to decide small differences among them. Esther, John's wife,has sometime been improvedhereas a school dame ; and is willing still to be useful in that way. Near Duxbury sawmills we hear of 3 or 4 families. A like number at Mattakesit. At Kehtehticut are 40 adults, to whom Charles Aham preaches, and teaches their children to read.
At Assawampsit and Quittaub are twenty houses containing 80 persons. John Hiacoomes preacher and constant school master. Also Jocelyn preaches at Assawampsit. At this plantation are persons belonging to the church at Nuk-kehkummees.
At Natick we find a small church of 7 men and three women ; their pastor Daniel Tokkohwompait (ordained by the Rev. and holy man of God John Eliot deceased) who is a person of great knowledge. Here are 59 men, and 51 women, and 70 children under 16.
At Hassinamisco* are 5 families, unto whom James Prinler stands related as teacher.
"A list of the names of the Indians old and young, viz. parents with the number of their children both male and female, which live in or belong to Natick; taken June 16, 1749." Found among the papers of the late Thaddeus Mason, Esq. of Cambridge, and presented by his eldest daughter to the Historical Society.
Deacon Ephraim, wife and her 3 children - 5
Isaac Ephraim - 6
Jacob Chalcom, wife and 3 children - 11
Jeremy Comacho, wife and one child - 14
Joseph Comacho, wife and one child - 17
Daniel Thomas, wife and one child - 20
Elizabeth, Ann and Unice Brooks - 23
Abram Speen, wife and one child - 26
Widow Comocho - 27
Judith Ephraim and 2 children - 30
Prince Nyar and wife - 32
5 children of Samuel Abram - 37
Widow of said Samuel Abram and one child - 39
Widow of Hezekiah Comacho and 2 children - 42
These 42 above named belong to the south side of Charles river by Dedham.
A List of Indians at Natick, A. D. 1749. 135
Peter Brand, wife and 2 children - 4
Peter Ephraim, wife and 4 children - 10
John Ephraim, wife and 3 children - 15
Thomas Awonsamug, jun. wife and one child - 18
Widow Rumnemarsh and Zipporah Peegun - 20
3 children of Solomon Thomas - 23
2 Widow Sooducks, Widow Tray and Thomas Scoggin - 27
Benjamin, Jonas, Hannah and Mary Tray - 31
Joseph Sinee, wife and 3 children - 36
William Thomas and 2 children - 39
Mary George - 40
Nat Hill, wife and 7 children - 49
Widow Womsquon, and 4 children - 54
Solomon Womsquon, wife and 3 children - 59
Jonas Obscow - 60
Widow Pitimee, Ruth and Ruth's 2 children - 64
These 64 south of Sawpit Hill on Peegun Plain and nearer now to meeting than said hill is, unless there be a mistake in Sol. Womsquon.
Thomas Peegun, wife and 3 children. - 5
Josiah Sooduck and wife - 7
Widow Tom and one child and Sarah Francis - 10
5 Pogenits - 15
All before mentioned are within two miles and an half of our meeting house.
Nathaniel Coochuck, wife and child - 3
Josiah Speen, wife, child and grand child - 7
Moses Speen and child - 9
Widow Speen - 10
Betty Babesuck and her niece Rhoda - 12
Patience Pequassis - 13
Zachary son of Hannah 14
Daniel Speen - 15
Samuel Speen - 16
These 16 live west, or own land most of them west of Sawpit Hill, and it is to be noted that Deacon Ephraim's wife's 4 children, which by mistake are said to be 3, own land west of said hill, so doth Samuel Lawrance and it may be Mary Peegun.
Ester Thomas and child - 2
Thomas Awonsamug, wife and 3 7
Sarah Rumnemarsh - 9
Samuel Lawrance, Thomas and Hannah Waban - 11
136 A List of Indians in Natick, A. D. 1749.
Widow Mary Peegun and 5 children - 17
Oliver Sooduck, Job Speen's child - 19
Bethia Cole - 20
Mary, daughter of Sarah Womsquon - 21
Joseph and Joshua Brook - 23
Hannah Peetimee's child - 24
Esther Sooduck - 25
Elizabeth Wages - 26
The most of the last 26 usually resided on the south east of Peegun plain, and so are accommodated as the meeting house now stands.
Having carefully considered the within list, and being well acquainted with Natick, we hereby signify that we are well assured it may be depended on as a true one, except that perhaps we have not thought of every one, and we hope some may be alive who have been soldiers or at sea, not here named.
JOSEPH x EPHRAIM. his mark.
In 1651, an Indian town was formed at Natick.
In 1660, an Indian church was embodied there.
In 1670, there were two teachers, John and Anthony, and between 40 and 50 communicants. Hutchinson.
In 1753, in Natick 25 families, beside several individuals.
In 1763, 37 Indians only ; but in this return, probably the wandering Indians were not included.
In 1797, the Rev. Mr. Badger, of Natick, estimated the number of "clear blooded" Indians, then in this place, and belonging to it, to be "near twenty." The number of church members was then "reduced to twenty three."
See Coll. Hist. Soc. iv. 180, 181, 195, and v. 43.