New England Farmer and Horticultural Journal,
containing essays, original and selected,
relating to agriculture and domestic economy;
with engravings, and the prices of country produce.
Vol. VIII

Thomas G Fessenden, editor.
Boston: John B. Russell
July 1829 - July 1830


EXCERPTS

19th Century articles, my book reviews, my Cape Cod library


pages 12-13 (No. 2, July 31, 1829)

The Sandwich Wolf


   The Barnstable Journal gives many particulars (4 or 5 columns) concerning the wolf lately killed in Sandwich, in this State, of which the following is an abstract. A great proportion of Plymouth, Sandwich, Barnstable, and Falmouth is still covered with forest, and this forest is connected together so as to form one extensive uncultivated region, which affords wide range for deer and other animals. The inhabitants of these towns are not exclusively seamen as is commonly thought ; the greater part are farmers, who get their living out of the ground ; one of the principal objects of their attention is sheep, which they drive into the woods after shearing, where the animals find sufficient food during the summer. In 1827, many sheep were found dead in the woods much mutilated about the throat, and some were found wounded, but not killed ; at length, the tracks of some unknown animal were discovered, and soon after, a strange beast resembling a large dog was seen. When the sheep returned to their owners in the fall of 1827, some farmers did not find more than half their number, and more or less were missing from almost every flock. During the winter of 1827-8, the unknown animal visited the enclosed fields and barn yards, and killed some sheep in almost every fold, in the vicinity of the woods ; his tracks were seen in the snow, and the citizens united in hunting matches to destroy him, but he escaped unharmed. In the summer of 1828, he killed many sheep both in the pastures and in the woods, and several carcasses of deer were discovered ; he was frequently seen, and many times pursued by the hunters, but always escaped. He was once seen in the road by two young women ; after they shouted at him several times, he deliberately jumped over the fence into a field and killed a lamb. Prey was abundant, and he seldom took more from a sheep than the blood, the milk glands of ewes, and a few mouthfuls from the hindquarters ; many sheep were found alive, cruelly wounded, and a few recovered. During the winter of 1828-9 he continued his usual habits, and many a general turnout of the people was made after him, but they could neither kill nor capture him. Dogs were afraid of him and would not follow his track. Each of the towns of Sandwich and Falmouth offered a reward of $100 for his destruction within their bounds. At length, on the tenth of June last, a party discovered him in Barnstable, and Joseph Hoxsie severely wounded him with a charge of buckshot ; he was pursued about three miles to a swamp in Sandwich, where a second charge of buckshot killed him.. He proved to be a wolf, weighing 68 pounds, and measuring 6 feet from the nose to the tip of the tail. It is supposed that he was brought to Plymouth from Labrador by a fishing vessel, a few years ago.— The vessel had three whelps on board, one of which escaped to the woods, and the others died ; they were supposed to be young foxes, but it is now believed that they were wolves. It was a season of great rejoicing when the animal was slain. He had destroyed more than one thousand sheep in Sandwich, and perhaps an equal number in other towns. About forty years ago a wolf from Vermont made great destruction among the sheep in Barnstable, and Plymouth counties where he remained two or three years ; he was killed in Middleborough.—Hamp. Gazette



   Hemp.—We have seen several stalks of hemp six feet in length, from the field of Mr Hibbard, at Hadley upper Mills, and are informed that the hemp on about two acres was from five to six feet in height, in six weeks from the time the seed was sown.—Ibid.



page 16 (No. 2, July 31, 1829)

   Impostors.—A foreigner, who pretends that he has been robbed by pirates, has been soliciting charity in Worcester county. He is an impostor. Almost all of those who are begging about the country are vile cheats, imposing in the credibility of the public. Their stories are feigned, and their papers forged.



page 24 (No. 3, August 7, 1829)

NEW ENGLAND CHARACTER.

A justice of the peace, for the time being,
   They bow to, but may turn him out next year ;
They reverence their priest, but disagreeing
   In price or creed, dismiss him without fear ;
They have a natural talent for forseeing
   And knowing all things ; should Park appear
From his long tour in Africa, to show
The Niger's source, they'd meet him with—"we know.'

They love their land, because it is their own,
   And scorn to give aught other reasons why ;
Would shake hands with a king upon his throne,
   And think it kindness to his majesty ;
A stubborn race, fearing and flattering none,
   Such are they nurtured, such they live and die,
All—but a few apostates, who are meddling
With merchandize, pounds, shillings, pence, and peddling.

But these are their outcasts. View them near
   At home, where all their worth and pride is placed,
And there, their hospitable fires burn clear,
   And there, the lowliest farm house hearth is graced
With many hearts, in piety sincere,
   Faithful in love, in honor stern and chaste,
In friendship warm and true, in danger brave,
Beloved in life, and sainted in the grave.

And minds have there been nurtured, whose control
   Is felt even in their nation's destiny ;
Men who sway'd senates with a statesman's soul,
   And look'd on armies with a leader's eye ;
Names that adorn and dignify the scroll.
   Whose leaves contain their country's history,
And tales of love and war—listen to one
Of the Green Mountains—the Stark of Bennington.

When on that field his band the Hessians fought,
   Briefly he spoke before the fight began—
"Soldiers ! those German gentleman are bought
   For four pounds eight and seven pence per man,
By England's King—a bargain, as is thought.
   Are we worth more ? Let's prove it now we can—
For we must beat 'em, boys, ere set of sun,
Or Molly Stark's a widow!"—It was done.



page 32 (No. 4, August 14, 1829)

   Mr. J. Loring, of Yarmouth C. C. sowed some turnip seed on the first of June, and on the first of August he picked one which seemed bent upon pushing its humbler brethren off the ground. It weighed 8 lbs. and was 15 inches round.



page 33 (No. 5, Aug. 21, 1829)

ECONOMICAL AND GOOD BEER.


Take 7 quarts of good Molasses,

$0,63

      12 oz. Hops,

12

      1 pint of brewer's yeast,

3

 

——

 

$0,78


   The above is the proportions of each article for twenty gallons of hop beer.—Put 12 ounces of hops into about 7 gallons of water, boil one hour, or till the leaves settle at the bottom—put 7 quarts of good molasses into a 20 gallon cask—then put in the liquor that the hops were boiled in, (and strained)—then add some cold water, and give it a good shaking—add a pint of brewer's yeast, and shake and stir it well—then fill up the cask with cold water, put in the bung, and give it another shaking and rolling—then place the cask where it is to stand, take out the bung, let it remain out 24 hours,—then bung it up tight, and let it remain one week, when it will be fit for use.—If bottled, so much the better.
The actual cost of the article is less than one cent per bottle.
Charlestown, Aug. 11.



page 35

NEW PLOUGH.

   ZEEBEDEE COOK, Jr., Esq. has left at the Hall of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, two miniature models of ploughs, made by Mr FREDERICK KNIGHT of Rowley. In the place of a mould board is fixed a piece of wood of a conical form, the largest end of the cone uppermost, and turning on pivots, inserted in timbers, composing a part of the frame of the plough. This revolving mould board receives the furrow slice as it rises from the share, and appears to be calculated to open and turn over the soil with less friction than is necessary in ploughs of the common construction. One of the models is furnished with double mould boards of this description, one on each side of the beam.


NATIVE GRAPES.

   MR FESSENDEN—I learn with pleasure, from reading your valuable New England Farmer, and from conversation with individuals, that considerable attention is now paid to the culture of the best varieties of our native grapes. I am not without hopes, that in a few years, many families will produce a reputable and pleasant beverage from them, without the addition of any spirit, which shall be superior to our domestic currant wine, and worthy to be used on festive occasions, at the marriage feast, or the communion table.
   In many towns in New England, there are doubtless now growing wild native grapes sufficient to make barrels of this domestic wine: which could easily be done, by the aid of information obtainable from the best books on the subject, such as the Emporium of Arts, Adlum on the Vine, Loubat's Vine Dresser's Guide, Berneaud's Manual of the Vine, the Domestic Encyclopedia, &c.
   I should be pleased to be informed, through your columns, by such persons as possess old books, and by aged people, whether the varieties of native wild grapes has not been increasing without design, from being dropt and scattered by laborers in the fields, &c.
   Among the very vigorous old vines, which are now growing wild, I am told there are some very remarkable for their vigor and productiveness on Apple Island, in Boston harbor. Perhaps some of your subscribers could procure specimens of the fruit and cuttings this fall, when perfectly ripe, for exhibition at the Hall of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.

W.

Boston, August 19, 1829.



   There is a stocking factory at Newburyport, which employs a capital of $3000, and has thirty frames for weaving stockings, all wrought by females. The stockings manufactured at his establishment are made of Sea Island Cotton, are three-threaded, and meet with a ready sale.


   The Worcester county Agricultural Society has 800 members, and a permanent fund of $5000.


page 39

   A person under the signature of A Farmer, is writing in the Salem Observer, in favor of rail roads. There is much sound sense in No. 4, that we have looked over. We are glad that a voice from the County of Essex is to be heard in favor of internal improvements, from that quarter where so much doubt, not to say oppugnation, has existed.—Lancaster Gaz.


page 56 (No. 7, Sept. 4, 1829)

   Another Copperas Mine.—A bed of sulphuret of Iron, according to the Worcester Ægis, has recently been opened in the town of Hubbardston, in the county of Worcester. The specimens which have been produced indicate the existence of the mineral in great abundance and purity.



pages 58-59

NEATNESS IN A DAIRY.

   I know not how it is, Mr Editor, but some of our dairy women, who would be highly offended by the slightest imputation of negligence or want of cleanliness in their work, and who pride themselves on their personal neatness, are, nevertheless, in the careless habit of trusting to combs, more or less in number, to keep up their hair ! forgetting, that however well it may be put up in this way, yet the exertion of cutting curd, beating and washing butter, &c. &c., will soon disarrange it, and subject the otherwise tidy housewife to the imputation of slovenliness : for what can be more disgusting than to see a stray hair dragging out its full length upon the edge of your butter knife, or to trace the same filthy line through half a dozen slices of cheese?
   I believe the character of may a dairy has been ruined by such an accident, and the sale of its produce injured ; it is therefore matter of astonishment, that the practice is not universally followed, which I have seen adopted by our thoroughly neat women, of always binding their hair up closely under a handkerchief before they enter upon the work of the dairy. Should any of your readers feel safe under cover of a cap, from these strictures, they are mistaken.
   I would further observe that children should never be allowed to hang round those who are engaged in the dairy, particularly young girls who wear long hair, much to their own inconvenience in warm weather, and to the annoyance of all around them ; for it is either hanging about their face in a most slovenly manner, or they are forever taking it down and putting it up. I have absolutely seen a child go through this operation half a dozen times in the room where the work of a reputedly nice dairy was going on, unnoticed and unreproved.
   "Thinks I to myself," if I must "eat my peck of dirt," at least let it be in any other shape but this.

A SUBSCRIBER.

Bristol County, Sept. 8, 1829.



pages 60-61 (No. 8, Sept. 11, 1829)

   Fruit Stealing.—The strong arm of justice finds its way into the smallest villages, as well as the largest cities of our country.—Passing the night last week in Greenfield, we were attracted by a crowd around the windows of one of the principal hotels, and curiosity, (and we Yankees have a modest share of it,) led us to the scene. It appeared from the witnesses, that a young man had been detected in stealing fruit from a neighboring garden, an annoyance, if we can judge from the formation of societies for the prevention of which, in the towns on the Connecticut, and the lower parts of the state, is much complained of. He undoubtedly thought, as many presume to do, that it was no theft, and the gratification to him as much, and the loss to the owner so trifling, that probably it would never be discovered ; but we know of no such instances of petty theft which partakes so much of the aggravating character, as this kind of light pilfering. The young man was fined $20 and cost of court ; rather a severe punishment, but a caution which may prove salutary to others.—Berkshire American.




   Milkweed. (Asclepias Syriaca.)—Under GREENS, we have mentioned the young stalks of this plant, as an article of food. The plant is also called silk weed, on account of the pods it produces, which contain a valuable silk. This, adhering to to the seeds, is calculated to waft them by the wind in every direction.
   This plant has been considered as a troublesome weed, in much of the northern parts of this state ; but perhaps the use which may be made of the pods, of the leaves, and of the milk of the plant, may be found much more than sufficient to counterbalance any inconvenience to be suffered from it.
   We will first point out the use of the pods, in France, as communicated by Mr Genet :—
   'The silky substance collected from that plant, is used in France, with great advantage, and is cultivated under the name of houatte or wading. They card it, spin it, and manufacture it into velvets, cloth, and hose, with or without the intermixture of cotton or silk.
   'It is also used for wading to stuff quilts and counterpanes ; and for that purpose it is preferable to cotton, being warmer and lighter. To card it by itself, they expose it in bags to the steam of water ; but, mixed with silk or cotton, it does not require the intervention of the steam, to be made into rolls and spun. The velvets and other textures made of that vegetable silk, which I have seen in Europe, resembled, if not excelled, the brilliancy of the silk ; and, with proper mordants, had received the most elegant coloring.'
Mr Genet subsequently adds :—'I have been informed that a French gentleman, who attends the dyers' department of the manufactory of Mr Lynch, at Rome, has discovered that the leaves of the asclepias, and probably of all the apocinums, were an excellent substitute for woad.'
Dr Low, of Albany, has also observed 'that the milky pieces of the asclepias were equal, if not superior, in many respects, to the opium extracted from the white poppy.'
   Thus it appears that this plant affords food, clothing, medicine, and matter for coloring. Probably its cultivation may yet be found a matter of considerable importance.
   We have also seen the pods gathered, as a substitute for feathers, in making beds. We believe they might be most advantageously mixed with feathers, for that purpose.—Farmer's Assistant.



page 64 (No. 8, Sept. 11, 1829)

GOOD BEGINNING


   The Legislature of Delaware has wholly abolished militia trainings and reviews in that State. We hail this act as the first movement towards a most important national reform ; we mean the abolition of our present militia system : a system, which does more to interrupt the regular course of of industry, to burden and impoverish the community, to introduce intemperance, idleness, profanity, extravagance, and every species of vice, than all the other absurd institutions entailed on us by the inexperience of antiquity.—Con. Courant.



   Some of the Pennsylvania papers are discussing the expediency of abolishing the militia laws in that state. It is said that the expenses annually incurred in Pennsylvania to support the present militia farce, amount to three millions of dollars.



   Barnstable Wheat.—A quantity of good wheat has been raised at Barnstable, this year. Formerly it was as common a production in that county as rye. Corn promises well—vegetables in general are abundant, and onions super-abundant.



   London —The author of a recent and able Treatise on the Police and Crimes of London states, that there are probably seventy thousand persons in that metropolis who regularly live by theft and fraud. "Most of these," he adds. "have paramours, and their offspring, as a matter of course, follow the example of their parents, and recruit the general mass of mendicancy, prostitution and crime." The annual amount of depredations committed on property exceeds two millions sterling.



page 72 (No. 9, Sept. 18, 1829)

MILITIA SYSTEM.

   The state of Delaware has abolished their militia system altogether. The Philadelphia Aurora says that it is a creditable act, and we cherish the hope that Pennsylvania and other states will follow the example. It has been estimated that it costs the state of Pennsylvania and its citizens upwards of three millions of dollars to support the caricature of an army—to perpetuate a series of periodical nuisances ; to scandalize and bring into contempt the military art ; to corrupt the morals of the people, &c., without the least benefit, immediate or prospective, to the state. The Aurora farther says—
   "It has been established by the concurrent testimony of most of the eminent military men of the country, that the militia laws, as universally enforced and observed, in place of promoting military science and discipline, produce a direct contrary result. No dispassionate person, who has ever witnessed our militia musters, trainings, and battalion days, will for a moment doubt the correctness of the conclusion. As military displays, they are a ridiculous burlesque—as schools of vice, deplorable:—many a youth is there initiated into the practice of drunkenness, and the records of the courts bear testimony to the violence done to morality. Insubordination, disorder, and debauchery reign predominant and uncontrolable."



   There are about 50 paper mills in Massachusetts, six of which have machines for making paper ; they consume about 1700 tons of rags, junk, &c., and manufacture to the value of 700,000 dollars a year. It is supposed that the whole paper manufacture in the United States may amount to between 6 and 7 millions a year, and employ 10 to 11,00 persons. Great quantities of rags have been imported from Germany and Italy, but our own people now generally begin to save them, and their value is probably two millions dollars a year. So much for old rags. The mills built by Messrs Gilpin on the Brandywine, in Delaware, form one of the largest paper making establishments in any country. By the machines, a sheet of paper might be made an hundred miles long, were it convenient to reel and preserve it as it passes from them. It issues in a continued sheet, and is afterwards cut to the sizes desired.

page 73 (No. 10, September 25, 1829)

POTATOES.

   The Rogers potato, which is said to be from Connecticut, and the seed of which was purchased at the Seed Store of J. B. Russell, proves most excellent : numerous, not large, which is perhaps owing to the drought, but of a very fine quality. The early Georgas potato from Weston, purchased at the same place, is likewise abundant, and of a very superior kind. The Chenango, or otherwise Richardson potato is productive, early, and fine. Potatoes, we learn in Maine and New Hampshire, have been very much cut off by the severe drought. We can expect, therefore, but few supplies from the eastward.

S.N.

September, 1829.



page 75

WORCESTER CATTLE SHOW.

   The Worcester Cattle Show, &c. on the 7th of October, as stated in our paper of the 18th inst. In the handbill announcing the premiums, &c. it is stated that "The unsatisfactory mode of determining the relative excellencies of MILCH COWS, by mere inspections of them in the Pens, or from recollection of verbal representations made to the Committee at the moment of examination, has determined the Trustees in offering the above liberal premiums, [viz. $15 for the best, $10 for the next best, &c.] to require of the claimants, at the time of entry, to file their certificate in writing, of the product of milk, or of butter and cheese made from the Cow from the 1st to the 20th of June, and from the 10th to the 30th of September—ascertained in such a manner as may be entirely satisfactory ; also stating the time of the Cow's calving, the quality of the calf, and if the Cow has had any other keeping than by pasture, of what, and in what quantity it has been.And no person shall be considered by the Committee of Judges, a Competitor for either of the above premiums for Cows, who has not strictly complied with this rule. It is desirable also, although it is not made requisite to obtain a premium, that if the Cow is from a dairy stock, the certificate should contain a statement of the number and breed of the Cows kept together, and the produce in veal, butter and cheese ; and of the number of Swine kept as connected with the dairy, through the season to the time of the Show."
   Among the premiums are
   "For the best plantation of White Oak Trees, not less than one acre, nor fewer than one thousand trees per acre, to be raised from the Acorn, and which trees shall be kept in the best thriving state on the 1st day of Sept. 1830, the premium to be paid to the proprietor of the land on which said trees grew on that day, FIFTY DOLLARS.
   "To the proprietor of the best Nursery of Mulberry Trees, within the County, in number and quality on the first Wednesday of May, 1832, to be determined upon inspection and comparison, by a committee to be appointed by the Trustees for that purpose, upon the application of those who shall claim to be competitors, twenty days next preceding the said first Wednesday of May, SIXTY DOLLARS."



Diabolical Outrage.—On Sunday evening last some heartless scoundrel entered upon what is called the Waite farm, in Millbury, and girdled fifty young apple trees. Mr Heywood, of Worcester, has promptly offered one hundred dollars reward for the detection of the offender ; who it is hoped will not escape the punishment due to so detestable a crime.


page 93 (No. 12, Oct. 9, 1829)

   Our Militia system is falling into greater contempt every day. It is with difficulty that decent men can be induced to accept offices.—At a late review in Fitchburg, in this state, a company from one town was among the missing. The reason was, that every individual who had been chosen an officer, declined the offer. It was offered to the minister—but he, not being of the church militant, refused.—Salem Gazette.


page 123 (No. 16, Nov. 6, 1829)

THE MILITIA

   A law has been passed by the legislature of Vermont to have but one training day in the year, and that by companies. This is an example worthy of imitation. It secures the enrolment and equipment of the militia, which in the present situation of our country we believe is all that is requisite ; it relieves the community of the burdens of frequent trainings ; and by dispensing with the farce of annual musters, dries up a most prolific source of immorality and vice.



   How to have good Cider in the Spring.—If your Cider is well made, put into each barrel, as soon as there is any appearance of fermentation, half a pint of common mustard-seed, and immediately bung up the barrel. The fermentation will stop—the cider will retain its original sweetness, and will very soon become perfectly transparent..—Newburyport Herald.



   Large Radish.—A radish was recently pulled in the garden of Mr James Taunton, of Southbridge, of the following dimensions:—6 inches through the middle, 16 inches in circumference, 32 inches long, 9 feet from the tip of the root to the top of the branch, 13 branches about an inch in diameter—weight of the whole, 30 lbs.—Boston Traveller.



page 131 (No. 17, Nov. 13, 1829)

   Bears' meat has fallen to 4 cents per pound in Williamstown market. At North Adams the price is 5 cents.


   A bill has passed the Vermont Legislature reducing the number of militia trainings to one each year. Massachusetts, copy thou from thy younger sister who sitteth upon the Green Mountains.—Lancaster Gazette.


pages 145-146 (No. 19, Nov. 27, 1829)

CIGARS.

   MR EDITOR—In passing through the country, particularly in the vicinity of our market towns, and everywhere in taverns and country stores, I have noticed with no small regret, a most inordinate use of cigars. They are used by males of all ages, from 15 to 50 years. I have been led, as a matter of curiosity, to calculate what it will cost to one who begins smoking at 15, and leaves off at 50. I have supposed the moderate sum of one cent a day. It cannot, I think, be less. This, at compound interest, will amount exactly to $406.54. Now, Sir, of the classes of men most in the habit of smoking on the road, and in taverns, in the way I have mentioned, how many, suppose you, find themselves worth this sum of money at age fifty? Not one in a hundred, I venture to say.—Why, Sir, it is enough to buy a small farm. But his is by no means the worst side of the picture. In a moral view it is still worse.—incalculably worse. Smoking is a habit of most pernicious tendency. To the health of the young it is considered by all, as highly injurious ; and that it induces thirst in all, and thus leads to intemperance in drinking, that sin of modern times which most easily besets us, no one can doubt. The practice, too, is very insidious. There is something social about it. Man is a gregarious animal ; what he sees another do with a relish, if it be not positively sinful, he is apt to do himself. One inveterate smoker will make a dozen. This idea cannot be better illustrated than in this very thing of cigars. The desire is not a natural one. The taste of tobacco always nauseates at first, and I am fully persuaded that boys and young men would seldom take to smoking if they did not see it done by those who are much older. They are thus brought to think that there is something smart and manly about it. I am glad to believe that this disgusting practice is in a manner banished from some of the walks of society, and those among the most respectable, and still more pleased that it has never been countenanced, but rather frowned upon, by the other sex. It is a subject that deserves the censure of the moralist, almost as much as the improper use of ardent spirits. They are but too often found to go together. Whatever may be our boast of having in many things improved upon our ancestors, in this one thing of general smoking, we are most deplorably at fault.

AN OLD FARMER.



page 146

CHEESE MAKING.

   The business of cheese making is conducted in this county on as extensive and liberal a scale as in any part of the United States, and the celebrity which the Berkshire Cheese has acquired in the New York market, where most of it is sold, gives it the precedence over most other kinds, and supplies for it a ready demand. The soil in this county is well adapted to grazing, and cheese and butter are important articles of traffic and exportation.
   Cheshire supplied Jefferson with his mammoth Cheese, weighing upwards of a thousand weight, and more recently Adams has given to Jackson, the choice product of an extensive dairy. his town is now largely engaged in manufacturing, yet there are many superior farms, and some of the best dairies New England can boast. We are told that the number of cows exceeds twelve hundred, one individual keeping fifty-five, and a great number from thirty to thirty-five each, of the best breed and most productive kind. We have seen some of them when collected in the farmer's yards, present the appearance of a cattle show, rather than than the common collection of milch cows attached to one farmer's premises, not only on account of their numbers, but from their fine proportions and fatness. The quantity of cheese annually made, we are informed, is about four hundred thousand pounds, which yields not far from $24,000. Great quantities of butter are also made, and mostly disposed of in the manufacturing villages, and pork and beef cattle are not small items in the exportations of the county.—Berkshire American.



page 165 (No. 21, Dec. 11, 1829)

   The quantity of cheese made annually in North Adams, in this State, is 400,000 lbs., and nearly $24,00 in value.



   Militia Systems.—These are undergoing a rapid decline. That of Delaware, indeed, is already dead. That of Vermont, is, to all human appearances, very near its end ; and that of Rhode Island seems hastening to the same catastrophe. In Vermont the number of trainings has been reduced from four in each year to a single one ; and in Rhode Island the same reduction is likely to take place. And in both these cases the result will probably be, an entire abolition of the militia system.—N. Y. Constellation.



   At a recent session, the Legislature of New Jersey passed a law to exempt minors from the requisitions of the militia law.



p 167 (No.21, Dec. 11, 1829)

Notice.

  A deranged man, about 65 years of age, considerably gray, by the name of Elisha Sherman, dressed in a homespun overcoat, rather old, with a broad brimmed hat, left his place of residence in Hanson, Mass. on Thursday, the 19th November. Whoever will give any information to the subscriber where he may be found, or will assist him to return home, shall be suitably rewarded.     JOSEPH HOBART
   Hanson, Dec. 1, 1829.



page 173 (No. 22, Dec. 18, 1829)

CARD MAKING MACHINE

   The invention of Mr Amos Whittemore, of West Cambridge, formed a new era in the mechanical ingenuity of this country, and the real importance of the machine can hardly be estimated.As a piece of mechanism, it has never been excelled ; strips of smooth leather and rolls of wire are placed on one end of the apparatus, and the intricate process of cutting the leather to the exact size, and pricking the holes is performed, while at the same moment the wire is cut, bent, and the teeth are inserted in their respective places ; the card then comes out, perfectly formed, and completely finished for immediate use, occupying but a few moments in the operation.


p 175

Orange Trees, &c.

  The Proprietor of the Linnean Botanic garden, offers for sale, the following collection of beautiful Green House or Parlor Plants, all of which are in the finest order:—
   Those marked thus * will be supplied at the following rates :
     One years' growth from inoculation, 2 dollars.
     Two   '         '                      '           3     '
     Three '         '                      '            3    '   and 50 cts.
Those marked thus ¥ are $3,50 each. some of the kinds are three, and others but one and two years' growth.
Those marked thus § will be each $5, and being quite new, are not at present large.



ORANGES.

*Seville, or Bigarade. ¥St Salvador pyramidal shaped sweet seedless.
¥Double flowering do. or Orange a fleur double. ¥Portugal oval sweet do.
§Horned, or hermaphrodite double. §        sweet seedless do.
¥Turkey bigarade. §Red cored Malta, or red Portugal do.
*Gold striped do. ¥Chinese bigarade, or large myrtle leaved do.
*Silver    '       ' *Myrtle leaved do. small fruit.
*Silver striped curled leaved do. *Small Mandarin do. with fruit size of cherries.
¥Willow leaved do. §Tangiers do. beautiful.
*West India sweet orange, oranger a fruit doux. §Very spiny.

SHADDOCKS.

*Shaddock, or pampelmous, monstrous fruit. §Pear shaped do. or poire du Commandeur.
§French do.  

LEMONS.

*Short Lisbon lemon. §Fingered do.
*Long Sicily do. *Madeira citron, or Cedratier.
§Poneire do. or gros limmon. §Madras citron, has weighed in England 5 pounds.
¥Incomparable do. §large fruited do. or Citronier a gros fruit.
§Sweet fruited do. §Side fruited do. or Citronier a cotes.
¥Pear shaped do. §Pointed do. of Florence.
*Red fruited lemon, Palermo solid citron, or Limonier a fruit sanguine. ¥West India lime.
¥Mella rosa do. §Sweet fruited do.
§Spanish do. or merveille d' Espagne. *Bergamot lemon.
¥Gold striped do. §          perette of St Domingo.
§Double flowering do. Limonier a fleurs doubles.  
[pointing finger]Orders for any of the above plants received by J.B. RUSSELL, at the Agricultural Warehouse, No. 52, North Market Street, Boston.


Powder at 2s per lb.


DUPONT'S POWDER, quality warrented, for sale at Copeland's Ammunition Store, 65 Broad st, at retail. Also SHOT, CAPS, &c. of the best quality—cheap for cash. tf


page 176

Good advice.—
Be not always speaking of yourself.
Do not equivocate.
Attend to the ladies.
Dread the character of an ill-bred man.
Be remarkable for cleanliness of person.
Avoid old sayings and vulgarisms.
Acquire a knowledge of the world.
Praise delicately.
Study the foibles of mankind.
Judge of others by yourself.
Command your temper and countenance.
Beware of proffered friendship.
Avoid noisy laughter.
Strive to write well and grammatically.
Neglect not an old acquaintance.
Lose no time in transacting business.
Be not frivolous.
Study dignified as well as pleasing manners.
Adapt your conversation to the company.
Praise not another at the expense of the present company.
Look people in the face when speaking.
Interrupt no man's story.
Reflect on no order of people.
Suppose not yourself the object of ridicule.
Avoid debt.


  Massachusetts has less than one twentieth part of the population of the United States, and yet of the college students one in seven are her sons —three times her fair proportion! This is much to her credit. She stands at the head of the confederacy in regard to liberal education. Indeed no other state, except Connecticut, comes near her standard.


p 181 (No. 23), Dec. 25, 1829
  Manifold properties of the Elder Tree.— The Elder tree, says Miss Kent, in an article in the 'Magazine of Natural History,' does as much good by its noxious, as by its agreeable qualities. If corn or other vegetables be smartly whipped with the branches, they will communicate a sufficient portion of this scent to keep off the insects by which so many plants are frequently blighted. An infusion of the leaves, poured over plants, will preserve them from caterpillars also. The wine made from the berries, is well known; but, perhaps, it may not be so generally known, that the buds made an excellent pickle. A water distilled from the flowers rivals buttermilk itself as a rural cosmetic. In some remote country places it supplies the place both of the surgeon and the druggist; it furnishes ointments, infusions, and decoctions, for all the ailments, cuts, or bruises. Every part of it serves some useful purpose; the wood, pith, bark, leaves, bud, flowers, and fruit. Its narcotic scent makes it unwholesome to sleep under its shade.

A Further Improvement in Locomotive Engines.—

    The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company have received letters from England, stating, that great and valuable improvements have been made by Mr Winans, an American, in locomotive steam engines. He makes them of any weight, and of any power to suit any road. It is expected to supersede entirely the use of horses for transporting carriages.


p 182

RUNNING ON A RAILROAD.

    W. Brown, Esq. states in a letter from Liverpool to a friend in Baltimore that Mr Stevenson's Locomotive Engine drew on a rail road 30 passengers at the rate of 20 miles an hour, and the same vehicle ran a mile in 1 minute and 16 seconds, or at the rate of forty miles an hour!— We shall by and by, at this rate, have machines, which will overtake a flock of wild geese on the wing, and keeping pace with sun's apparent motion, circumvolate the globe every 24 hours, and give philosophers the privilege of perpetual day light.


p 184
    A Charleston, S.C. letter announces the arrival there of Mr Allen, an Engineer, from the North, and who had commenced locating the first five miles of the Rail Road near that city.

Wanted.

    An Apprentice, in a Book Printing Office. An intelligent boy from the country would be preferred.
    Inquire at the New England Farmer Office, No. 52 North Market Street.      tf      Oct. 23.



p 186-187 (No. 24), Jan. 1, 1830

From the Journal of Health.
——
TOBACCO.

    It is really surprising that a single individual could be found, who, after experiencing the distressing sensations almost invariably produced by the first use of tobacco, would be willing to risk their recurrence a second time; still more so that any one should again and again resort to the use of the "noxious weed," until, its immediate effects being lessened by habit, it becomes an article of luxury, from the use of which it is found difficult to refrain.
   The extreme nausea; pain of the head, and vertigo; the cold death-like sweat, and general exhaustion, experienced by the novice in chewing, snuffing, and smoking, we should imagine would be fully sufficient to prevent the use of tobacco from becoming a habit. Yet, such is "the folly and infatuation of the human mind," and the power of custom and example, in opposition to prudence and the dictates of nature, that one of the most disgusting productions of the vegetable kingdom, in all places where it has come," to use the quaint expression of Sir Hans Sloane, "has much bewitched the inhabitants, from the polite European to the barbarous Hottentot."
    Did this "modern herb" pssess a tithe of the virtues ascibed to it by Dr Thorur in his Pætologia:* did, in fact, the least benefit result to the system from its habitual use, there would then be some reason why, "with all its loathsomeness of smell and taste," it should have become so general a favorite. But we know, on th contary, that all those who habituate themselves to its use, sooner or later experience its noxious powers.
    Tobacco is, in fact, an absolute poison. A very moderate quantity introduced into the sysem: even applying the moistened leaves over the stomach, has been known very suddenly to extinguish life. The Indians of our own country were well aware of its poisonous effects, and were accustomed it is said, on certain occasions, to dip the points of their arrows in an oil obtained from the leaves, which being inserted into the flesh, occasioned sickness and fainting, or even convulsion and death.
    It must be evident to every one, that the constant use of an article possessing such deleterious properties, cannot fail, at length, to influence the health of the system.
    In whateven form it may be employed, a portion of the active principles of the tobacco, mixed with the saliva, invariably finds its way into the stomach, and disturbs or impairs the function of that organ. Hence most, if not all, of those who are accustomed to the use of tobacco, labor under dyspeptic symptoms. They experience at intervals, a want of appetite; nausea; inordinate thirst; vertigo; pains and distention of the stomach; disagreeable sensations of the head; tremors of the limbs; disturbed sleep, and are more or less emaciated.
    According to Boerhave, "when this celebrated plant was first brought into use in Europe, it was cried up for a certain cure for hunger; but it was soon observed, that the number of hypochodriacal and consumptive people were greatly increased by its use."
    Dr Cullen informs us that he has observed "several instances in which the excessive use of tobacco in the form of snuff, has produced effects similar to those occurring in persons from the long contracted use of wine and opium;" that is, "loss of memory, fatuity, and other symptoms of a weakened or senile state of the nervous system, induced before the usual period."
    The almost constant thirst occasioned by smoking and chewing, has, in numerous instances, it is to be feared, led to the intemperate use of ardent spirits.
    This thirst cannot be allayed by water; for no insipid liquor will be relished after the mouth and throat have been exposed to the stimulus of the smoke or juice of the tobacco; a desire, of course, is excited for dtrong drinks, which soon leads to intemperance and drunkeness.
    The use of snuff destroys entirely the sense of smell, and injures materially the tone of the voice; while chewing and smoking vitiate the sense of taste. Hence those who make use of tobacco, to any extent, have certainly one, and frequently two of the external senses less perfect than other individuals. But this is not all. Polyps of the nose, and other serious affections have been traced to the use of snuff.
    Sir John Pringle, whom, we are informed, was very liberal in its use, experienced in the evening of his days. a tremor of his hands and a defect of memory. Being in company with Dr Franklin, at Paris, he was requested by the Doctor to observe that the former complaint was very common to those people of fashion who were great snuffers. Sir John was led by this remark to suspect that his tremors were occasioned by his excessive use of snuff. He, therefore, immediately left it off, and soon afterwards the tremor of his hands disappeared, and at the same time he recovered the perfect use of his retentive faculties.
    Cases could be mentioned in which epilepsy, consumption, and other serious diseases have been brought on in young people by the excessive use of tobacco.

*A Latin poem in praise of tobacco, published in the 17th century. Howel in one of his letters, descibes it as "an accurate piece couched in strenuous heroic verse and full of matter."


p 187
    Stephen R. Bartou of Western, has been acquitted at Worcester of a charge of assault. The Yeoman says the affair began in drinking rum and playing cards which terminated in a brawl and prosecution. The witnesses flatly contradicted each other leaving the jury to decide which lied more.


    Captain Edmund Freeman of Wellfleet, last season gathered 35 bushels of apples from a single tree in his garden, 33 years old. The tree is in a sheltered situation, and the fruit resembles the Pearmain.


    John Anguis and Horatio Fulton, of Framingham, were lately indicted for larceny, in stealing watermelons from Daniel Stone, of Framingham. They said they would not contend with the Commonwealth, and submitted to the sentence of Court; which was to pay a fine of $5 each and costs of prosecution.
    The statute fixes the fine at not more than $50 nor less than $5. As this was their first known offence, the lowest penalty was imposed. If the law had its course more frequently on this subject, the watermelon yards would be much better protected from the rapacity of of unprincipled plunderers.—Concord Gaz.


p 202-203 (No. 26), Jan. 15, 1830

RAIL ROAD FROM BOSTON TO BRATTLEBOROUGH.
map of proposed routes: Boston to Springfield MA, via Lancaster MA; branch to Worcester from Lancaster; major line to Brattleborough VT from Lancaster, via Winchendon MA; branch to Keene NH from Winchendon


   The above plan represents the line for a Rail Road to Brattleborough, in the State of Vermont, with various branches. From this line a branch may be constructed from Stow or Lancaster, through Boylston, to Worcester ; the same may be continued through Rutland, thence down Ware river to Palmer and Springfield, with a branch to Northampton, and another from Winchendon Village to Keene and Walpole, in New Hampshire. By constructing two sets of tracks from Boston to the place convenient to branch, one set would then be ample to accommodate the travel upon each other route, until the increased business required an additional set. When completed thus far, the road may be continued through Montague to Greenfield or Deerfield, thence up Greenfield river over the Hoosac Mountain, (by stationary power) or around it, as may be considered best, to the city of Troy, upon the Hudson river. It may also be continued through Springfield, up Westfield river to Pittsfield , with a branch to Stockbridge. By the above plan, a considerable sum of money might be saved, and a large portion of the people in the Western counties accommodated, together with the benefits to be derived by constructing short branches to many towns upon each side of the main track, and, with prudent management, the stock would net the best interest for the amount invested.
   As the citizens of Boston will be obliged to subscribe for the largest portion of the stock, it will be for the interest of each individual to investigate this subject for himself. Any plan that a majority of the inhabitants in this City should conclude upon, would be for the interest of the whole Commonwealth. As whatever is beneficial to the City, is equally so to the country, since both live by each other's prosperity.
   If the Commonwealth prefer being interested in a Rail Road, subscriptions may be made to the stock to Brattleborough, the company enlarged, and branched in various directions, as above described, may be constructed without delay—which would give employ to the poor, confidence would then revive, money would circulate, emigration would cease, the farmer's produce would be in demand, and enable each to convey his products to a market, without having the bulk of it consumed over a muddy road. Young men would find business at home, without being obliged to seek it abroad ; every spindle would be put in operation ; the ship would receive not only new rigging, but a canvass dress. The trowel, the hammer, and the saw each would resume its former music, and business would revive in every part of the Commonwealth.

A PETITIONER.


p 208
   Great Crop of Wheat.— Mr David Smith of Northampton, Mass. raised, the last season, ninety-one bushels of winter wheat on three acres and a few rods of ground, situated near the Connecticut. The soil is alluvial.

p 213 (No. 27, Jan. 22, 1830)

   Temperature of December, 1829.— The most remarkable feature in the weather of the past month is its mildness. It has been about two degrees warmer than December last year, five degrees warmer than any other within our observations, and more than seven warmer than the average of December for the last fourteen years. The surface of the ground has been frozen slightly a few times, but only for a few days ; and at the end of the month there is no ice in the streams, the steam-boats are plying as easily as in summer— and the farmer may plough most of his grounds as well as in May. Rains have been frequent but not very copious. But the frequent changes and prevalence of clouds have made the month to be not more agreeable than it has sometimes been when it was colder. House-keepers of every class have had ample opportunity to prepare for severe weather, and cannot much longer fail to experience it.—Williamstown Advocate.


page 223 (No. 28, Jan. 29, 1830)

Wants a Situation,

   As gardener, a steady, active young man, who is perfectly acquainted with every department of the business, particularly hot houses and green houses, and the treatment of trees and vines in general ; has a wife, but no children ; will hire himself as a single man, and his wife to live with the family, or in any other form which may answer, according to arrangement ; will take charge of a farm and garden if required, and can give the most respectable reference in the vicinity of Boston. Any commands directed to G. F. No. 9, Devonshire street, rear of the Exchange Coffee house, Boston, will be respectfully attended to.      3t         Jan. 22.


Black Currant Wine.

   For sale at the Agricultural Warehouse, 52 North Market-street.
   A few dozen bottles of superior old Black Currant Wine, made by a gentleman in this vicinity ; an account of its astringent and detergent properties in various complaints, and particularly the Sore Throat will be found in the New England Farmer, vol. v. page 267, written by SAMUEL W. POMEROY, Esq. and the late Doct. JOHN G. COFFIN. Price 75 cts. per bottle,—also a few bottles of old White Dutch Currant Wine, price 50 cents per bottle.      tf         Ja. 15.


New England Farmer, complete.

   For sale at the office of the New England Farmer, 52, North Market-street.
   A COMPLETE set of the N. E. Farmer, in seven volumes, from its commencement, Aug. 3, 1822 ; being the only copy that is known to be for sale. The character of this work is too well known to require comment—comprising the official accounts of the principal Cattle Shows in New England ; Reports of Committees; numerous valuable essays on agriculture, gardening, orcharding, domestic economy, &c., &c. by various agriculturalists in New England, and the Middle States—forming in itself a useful library for the Farmer: neatly half bound and lettered, and in very fine order, at $3,75 per volume.

Jan. 22, 1830.


page 224

   The Middlesex Agricultural Society have award the 1st premium for Hops, $10, to John, and the 2nd, $5, to Simon Blanchard, of Boxboro. Nathan Barrett, of Concord, for a remarkable crop of Onions, received a gratuity of $4.


Hemp Seed.

   For sale at the Seed Store connected with the New England Farmer, 52, North Market-street.
   A few bushels of prime Hemp Seed, for sowing, growth of 1829, (raised wholly from the celebrated Vergennes seed, which costs $5 per bushel.) It is a small lot of uncommonly fine quality, and farmers who are turning their attention to the cultivation of this profitable plant, can secure excellent seed, at $3 per bushel, if applied for soon.          tf         Jan. 15.



pages 333-334 (No. 42, May 7, 1830)

THE MILITIA SYSTEM.

   We doubt whether our militia system, as by late law established, is fitted to effect any beneficial purpose whatever, of sufficient magnitude to be discovered by the researches of any honest inquirer of ordinary intelligence. It is nothing but an empty pageant, a mere name and show, without use or power. While the burthens it imposes are palpable, vast, and universal, there is not an individual in the community who is not interested in overthrowing it, except the few to whom it is a source of income. Its impositions are numerous and onerous, whilst its benefits are few and doubtful. A system which puts in motion such cumbrous machinery to effect such insignificant objects, must be radically and essentially vicious. However much we may respect some of the agents of its operations, we cannot but laugh, wonder, and blush, by turns, at the weakness of its general conception, and the monstrosity of its disproportioned organization.
   But perhaps ridicule is not the proper weapon to combat such intolerable abuses—perhaps we ought not to speak otherwise than seriously of the serious interests of the whole community.
   The militia system costs near as much as the support of the clergy, our common schools, and our apparatus for preventing and extinguishing fires, all put together. Let every man compare its benefits with those resulting from these three great departments of public expenditure, and shoulder his musket or pay his fine contentedly if human nature will let him.
   It absorbs energies which ought to be employed in urging society forward in the course of improvement. It makes many officers bankrupts, it makes many privates drunkards. It is the bane of industry , frugality, and morality.
   It is unequal and unjust in its operation, inasmuch as as most of those who can afford to pay are by law exempted, while those can least afford their money or time, must pay or train.
   Finally, it is utterly unnecessary as a means of defense—but if necessary, it is notoriously incompetent to the purpose.
   It is for these reasons, we suppose, that it has become what it now is, a by-word among us, hated by the laboring portion of the community, who suffer under its operation, and despised by the privileged classes who are not exposed to its burthens.
   Such and so great, being the evils of this system of evils, and such being, as we believe, the estimation in which the community hold it, surely no sane man will demand of us that we shall refrain from condemning them because individuals of respectability, against whom we have no cause for complaint, are bound in duty to carry on its grotesque details. The many are of more importance in this republic than the few. An evil which all feel must not be passed by in silence because it cannot be exposed without alluding to individuals. If the delicacy of any man's nerves makes it painful for him to have an establishment to which he belongs alluded to in a public print, let him never condescend to become a militia officer. But if by any accident having become one he still prefers the good of his country to his personal ease, let him rejoice that the public are awake in the absurdity of the system under which he suffers, and are struggling to shake off.—Salem Gazette.



page 344 (No. 43, May 14, 1830)

PATENT WHALE KILLING.

   MR FESSENDEN — The following petition of James Loper of Cape Cod, taken in connexion with the records of Nantucket, proves that the Whale Fishery commenced at the Cape as early as 1666, and some years prior to its establishment in Nantucket. At the first settlement of that island and Martha's Vineyard, laws were made by the inhabitants, directing the manner in which 'drift whales' should be disposed of, but I know of no proof than the whale fishery commenced prior to 1666. It is supposed by some that the business was commenced at Nantucket in 1671, by the same Mr Loper, 11 years after the settlement of the island.

J. COFFIN.

To his Excellency Sir Edmund Andros, Knight, Captain General and Governor in Cheife of his Majestie's Territory in New England.
   The humble petition of Jacobus Loper Humbly sheweth—
That the petitioner for the space of 22 years and upward hath practised catching, killing and trying of whales for oyle & finding of late small benefit accruing to him by the same for that he hath met with many abuses in the attending on the said employ.
   That the petitioner by his long experience hath tried many inventions and devices relating to the premises, and being minded to goe on said design again, and to use his endeavors for promoting making of oyle by a new invention or inventions of the petitioner, which he is not willing to disclose or discover to any, Therefore humbly prays your Excellency will be pleased to grant him a patent for the space of 12 years next after the date hereof for the catching and killing all sorts of oyle fish as hath not ever been killed by any whalemen in this country, and he may have a birth to kill whales in, or any other oyle fish and trying the same up on any part North of a West line from Pamet river in Cape Cod, and not to be hindered or molested by any person or persons upon any sort of oyle fish in that bounds, and especially that all persons within any part of this government may be prohibited from making use of the petitioner's new invention or inventions for the taking any sort of oyle fish in said time and your petitioner shall ever pray.
1688.
JAMES LOPER.


RECEIPT FOR COLD SOAP.

   The leach-tub or hogshead must be covered at the bottom with straw and sticks—then put in a bushel of ashes, then two or three quarts of unslacked lime, upon which you must throw two quarts of boiling water to excite fermentation and slack the lime ; put in another bushel of ashes and as much more lime and water, and continue to do so until your vessel is full ; put in hot water till you can draw off the lye, after which the heat of the water is not of much consequence. You must have at least two thirds of a bushel of lime to a hogshead, if you wish your soap to be made quick ; one hogshead of ashes will make two barrels of soap. When you draw off your lye you must keep the first two pailfuls by themselves, and the next two in another vessel, and the third two in another vessel still ; then weigh 29 lbs. of clear strained grease, or of scraps without straining 32 lbs., put into a large kettle with 3 lbs. rosin, the pour over one pailful of lye, from the first drawn vessel, and one from the second drawn vessel ; put it over the fire, and let it boil 20 minutes ; be careful to add no lye over the fire, but swing off the crane if it is in danger of boiling over ; put it into your barrel and put in one pailful of lye from the third drawn vessel, and give it a good stir ; then weigh your grease for another barrel and take the lye remaining in the vessels in the same manner as for the first barrel ; then draw off your weak lye, and fill up the vessels as fast as possible, remembering to put half in each barrel, that they may be equally strong ; if your leach runs through fast, you may have your barrels full in an hour, and so hard that you can hardly stir them. You must stir it after you begin to put in your lye, till your barrel is full. Fourteen quarts of melted grease is the quantity for a barrel.
[Many families in this town make their soap according to the forgoing receipt with perfect success.]—Hampshire Gazette.



page 355 (No. 45, May 28, 1830)

   ROBERT TREAT PAINE, Esq. of this city, has been appointed by Governor Lincoln, under the authority of a Resolve passed at the last session of the Legislature,'to make a general survey of this Commonwealth, and from such survey and such astronomical observations and calculations, as may be made, to project an accurate skeleton of the State, which shall exhibit the external lines thereof, and the most prominent objects within the lines and their locations.
   Mr Paine's reputation as a mathematician and astronomer, well warrant the confidence thus reposed in him. We hope that he will accept the appointment and enter upon its duties without delay.—Palladium.


CULTURE OF HEMP.

   It will be seen by an article in this paper that the Trustees of the Agricultural Society of this County, have offered liberal premiums for the most successful experiments in the cultivation of Hemp the present year. A very decided belief is entertained by some of our most intelligent practical farmers, that this may become an important and a profitable branch of agriculture, more so, indeed, than almost any other in this section of the country. It is, therefore, desirable that the experiment be fairly tried, and we hope that many may be induced to engage in making it, that a comparison may be instituted between our various kinds of soil in order to ascertain which is best adapted to the purpose. An imperfect experiment may be worse than none, because it may lead to a conclusion the reverse of what a more extensive trial might demonstrate to be a correct and proper one.—Worcester Spy.


SOAKING SEED CORN IN COPPERAS WATER.

   An experiment was made last season by a gentleman in Dennis of soaking seed corn in a solution of copperas, from 24 to 40 hours previous to planting, as recommended in the the New England Farmer, and in Fessenden's New England Farmer's Almanac. The corn thus soaked was untouched by worms, while some planted on the same piece in the common way, was very much injured. A Connecticut farmer has made a similar trial and says that it was not only untouched by worms, but yielded one third more. A pound of copperas dissolved in warm water is to be used to a peck of corn.—Barnstable Jour.


TAXATION.

   We commend the following extract from Mr Pierpont's sermon before the Ancient and Honorable, to the common sense of the people.
   'The commonwealth has more than 50,000 men on her militia rolls. Grant that these are called out for review, drill, elections and parade, no more than three days in a year ; and we have 150,00 days devoted to military duty by those who do that duty. Allow them only one spectator for one soldier—and it must be a very stupid affair, if there are as many to see the show as there are to make it,—and there are 150,000 days more. Allow, moreover, only two thirds as much time to prepare for the field—for fatigue or frolic—and to recover from its duties, or its debauch, as there is spent upon the field—and we have 200,000 days more. Now allowing the truth of a sensible ancestor's remark, that "time is money,' and allowing one day to be worth only one dollar, the militia of Massachusetts costs the state of Massachusetts half a million of dollars a year. I make no account here for the money spent upon arms, ammunition, uniforms—the ammunition that is burned up, the muskets and swords, and costly coats of many colors that are laid up—treasures that are kept for the moth and rust to corrupt, three hundred and sixty days, that they may glisten and look gay for five ; I make no account of the moneys or the morals thrown away in the low revelry of tents and taverns, though of these things there is fearful account made by "the Judge of all the earth :"—I estimate even the time of the militiamen at less than one third of the value, which in the form of fines for non-attendance the law gives it, and the commonwealth of Massachusetts pays half a million of dollars a year for the protection it seeks from its militia system.'



page 389 (No. 49, June 25, 1830)

SNUFF-TAKING.

   If any mode of taking tobacco be more objectionable than another, we should certainly deem it to be in the form of snuff, when taken in an immoderate degree. Under theses circumstances it is apt to derange the stomach so as to bring on disease. By constant use, the stimulus of snuff is lost, it diminishes gradually until it be no longer felt. It is then that we would ask what pleasure or benefit can be derived from uselessly attempting to stimulate a calloused surface. It is then that snuff-taking may truly be called a beastly habit. The immediate effect of a pinch of snuff, in quickening the imagination, is like that of a glass of spiritous liquor in giving cheerfulness ; it is false fire in both ; it is most perceived by those who are less accustomed to these things ; and use wears it off. Those who are habituated to snuff, feel no such effect from it ; and for the rest, all that deserves consideration is, that we are sure, by this, snuff may effect the brain. In some persons its excessive use evidently blunts the apprehension, and by a long course brings on a condition of absolute stupidity, a torpor of the faculties, and, as it were, a lethargy of the mind. To be brief, the miserable consequences brought on by a long and habitual course of inveterate snuff-taking are only to be obviated by relinquishing the custom.—From a little work entitled Health without Physic.



page 413 (No. 52, July 16, 1830)

   In Connecticut, the Legislature have passed a law fixing the penalty of raising a dead body from the grave for surgcal purposes, at a fine of $2000. They have, however, ordained that the bodies of all prisoners who may die in the State Prison, and be unclaimed by their friends, be given to the medical institution of the State.



page 415 (No. 52, July 16, 1830)

PRICES OF COUNTRY PRODUCE.
———————————————————

     

FROM

TO

APPLES best,

barrel.

4 00

5 00

ASHES pot, first sort,

ton.

111 00

113 00

  Pearl, first sort,

"

 125 00

130 00

BEANS white,

bushel.

87 

1 10

BEEF mess,

barrel.

 9 25

10 02

  Cargo, No. 1,

barrel.

 8 50

9 00

  Cargo, No. 2,

barrel.

 6 50

6 70

BUTTER inspected, No.1, new,

pound.

 16

15

CHEESE new milk,

"

 2

3

  Skimmed milk,

"

 7

8

FLOUR Baltimore, Howard-street,

barrel.

 5 37

5 53

  Genesee

"

 3 50

3 87

  Rye, best,

"

 65

67

GRAIN Corn,

bushel.

 46

55

  Rye,

"

 65

67

  Barley,

"

 

67

  Oats,

"

 37

40

HOG'S LARD, first sort, new,

cwt.

 9 00

10 00

HOPS 1st quality,

"

 14 00

15 00

LIME.  

cask.

 85

90

PLASTER  PARIS retails at

ton.

 3 50

3 75

PORK clear,

barrel.

 17 00

18 00

  Navy, mess,

barrel.

 12 25

12 50

  Cargo, No. 1,

barrel.

 

12 50

SEEDS Herd's Grass,

bushel.

 2 00

 

  Orchard Grass,

"

 

3 00

  Fowl Meadow,

"

 

4 00

  Tall Meadow Oats Grass,

"

 

3 00

  Red Top (northern,)

"

 62

75

  Lucerne,

pound.

 38

50

  White Honeysuckle Clover,

"

 

33

  Red Clover, (northern,)

"

 7

8

  French Sugar Beet,

"

 

1 50

WOOL Merino, full blood, washed,

"

 50

55

  Merino, full blood, unwashed,

"

 30

35

  Merino, three fourths washed,

"

 40

42

  Merino, half blood,

"

 35

38

  Merino, quarter,

"

 33

35

  Native, washed,

"

 33

35

  Pulled, Lamb's first sort,

"

 43

45

  Pulled, Lamb's, second sort,

"

 32

35

  Pulled, " spinning, first sort,

"

 36

37

———————————————————
PROVISION MARKET.
CORRECTED EVERY WEEK BY MR HAYWARD,
(Clerk of Faneuil-hall Market.)
———————————————————

     

FROM

TO

BEEF, best pieces,

pound.

8

10

PORK, fresh, best pieces,

"

8

10

  whole hogs,

"

5

6

VEAL,  

"

4

8

MUTTON,  

"

4

12

POULTRY,  

"

10

25

BUTTER, keg and tub,

"

12

15

  Lump, best,

"

16

12

EGGS,  

dozen.

 

18

MEAL, Rye, retail,

bushel.

 

84

  Indian, retail,

"

 

74

POTATOS,  

"

 

20

CIDER, [according to quality,]

barrel.

3 50

4 00