Vermont in 1839.

selections from :

The New England Gazetteer containing descriptions of all the states, counties and towns in New England: also descriptions of the principal mountains, rivers lakes, capes, bays, harbors, islands and fashionable resorts within that territory. Alphabetically arranged.

By John Hayward, author of the Columbian Traveller, Religious Creeds, &c. &c.

Boston: John Hayward.Boyd & White, Concord, N.H. 1839

      This is just started, with priority to places relevant to my history project. 
      My related pages are: Connecticut 1839, Maine 1839, Massachusetts 1839, New Hampshire 1839, Rhode Island 1839, Cape Cod and Islands 1839, Cape Cod and Islands 1845, Massachusetts 1890, 19th Century literature about Cape Cod etc.

Chittenden county
Jerico  [sic]
Mad river
Onion river
Waitsfield, Washington county, Windsor county, Windsor, Winhall

Chittenden county, Vt.
       Burlington is the chief town. This county is bounded N. by Franklin county, E. by Washington county, S. by Addison county and W. by Champlain lake. Area, 500 square miles. Population, 1820, 10,055; 1830, 21,765. Population to a sqare mile, about 44. A few settlements commenced in this county before the revolution, but they were all abandoned during the war. Incorporated, 1792. Its soil varies from rich alluvial meadows to light and sandy plains. The beautiful Champlain washing its western boundary gives it great facilities for trade to New York and Canada. Its agricultural and manufacturing products are considerable. In 1837 there were in this county about 80,000 sheep. Lamoille river passes through its N.W. corner, and Onion river pierces its centre. These streams, with several others of smaller size, afford the county a good water power.

Fayston, Vt.
      Washington co. Fayston is generally too mountainous to be much cultivated. Along the borders of some of the branches of Mad river, which rise here, is some arable land. It lies 16 miles W.S.W. from Montpelier, and 25 S.E. from Burlington. First settled, 1798. Population, 1830, 458.

Jerico, Vt.
      Chittenden co. First settled, 1774. Population, 1830, 1,654. Jerico lies 25 miles N.W. from Montpelier, and 12 miles E. from Burlington. This town lies on the N. side of Onion river, and is otherwise finely supplied with mill seats by Brown's river and other streams. The soil varies in quality, from good intervale, on the streams, to common grazing pastures, on the hills. There is a pleasant village at the falls, on Brown's river, and some manufactories.

Mad River, Vt.
      A rapid stream, rises in the high lands S. of Warren, and after passing through Waitsfield, it falls into Onion river at Moretown.

Onion River, Vt.
      This is one of the largest and most valuable rivers in the state. It is about 70 miles in length, and in its course fertilizes large tracts of land and produces a great hydraulic power. This stream rises in Caledonia county: it passes nearly through the centre of the counties of Washington and Chittenden, and after passing "Winooski city" it falls into Champlain lake, five miles N. from Burlington village.
      Winooski is the beautiful Indian name of this river, and had the good people of Winooski possessed the exquisite taste of their predecessors they would probably have called their charming little city cabbage town.
      Onion river, so called, has numerous tributaries, and is one of the most romantic streams in the country. The channels which have been worn in the rocks, by its ceaseless current, are objects of great admiration. In its passage through the mountains are found fissures through solid rock from 30 to 100 feet in depth, with smooth perpendicular sides, 60 or 70 feet in width. In many places on this stream are natural bridges, curious caverns, and delightful water-falls.
      The road near the banks of this stream, from Connecticut river to Burlington, is said to be the best passage across the mountains, in that direction: it is certainly highly picturesque and delightful.

Waitsfield, Vt.
      Washington co. Mad river, a small, rapid stream, passes circuitously through this town, fertilizing the soil, and affording it good mill seats. The uplands are a deep loam, fertile, and productive of all the varieties of of a northern climate. Here are fine pastures, and between 5,000 and 6,000 sheep.
      There are some manufactures in the town, but the people are generally farmers, and make a good business of it. Good clay for making earthen ware, iron ore, and rock crystal are found here. This town lies 11 miles S.W. from Montpelier, and 30 S.E from Burlington. Population, 1830, 985.
      The settlement of Waitsfield was commenced in 1789, by General Benjamin Wait, from Sudbury, Massachusetts. General Wait entered the service of his country at the age of 18, and performed much difficult service with great bravery and success. At the age of 25 he had been engaged in forty battles and skirmishes: his clothes were several times perforated with musket balls, but he never received a wound. In 1776, he entered the revolutionary army as captain, and acquired the rank of colonel. After the war, he was made a brigadier general of militia, and was high sheriff of the county of Windsor seven years. General Wait, having lived to see the town he had planted in its wilderness state, covered with fruitful fields, and peopled by independent yeomen, died in 1822, aged 86 years.

Washington County, Vt.
      Montpelier is the chief town. This county is nearly in the centre of the state, and the principal part of it lies between the two ranges of the Green Mountains. It is bounded N. by Lamoille and parts of Chittenden and Caledonia counties, E. by Caledonia county, S. by Orange and Addison, and Chittenden, counties. It was incorporated in 1810, by the name of Jefferson, and took its present name in 1814. The county is finely watered by its chief river, the Winooski, or Onion, and many of its important branches. These streams afford the county an abundant water power, and manufacturing establishments increase and flourish in this mountainous region.
      The surface of the county is uneven, hilly, and in some parts mountainous, but there is much valuable land along the streams, which in many parts are sluggish, and form large tracts of excellent intervale. The agricultural productions consist of neat cattle, horses, hogs, wool, and of the productions of the dairy. In 1837, there were 60,025 sheep in Washington county. There are large bodies of beautiful granite, in the county, and slate of various kinds. Population, 1820, 14,113; 1830, 21,378.
      Since 1830, there have been some small changes in Washington county, in regard to territory. We will thank any of our Green Mountain friends to give us all the necessary information respecting it, for future editions. The rail road from Boston to Ogsdenburgh will probably pass through this county, but we will beg them not to wait for that event.

Windsor County, Vt.
    Woodstock is the county town. This county is bounded N. by the county of Orange, E. by Connecticut river, S. by Windham county, and W. by Rutland and a part of Addison counties. It contains an area of about 900 square miles. Population, 1810, 34,877; 1820, 38,233; 1830, 40,625: population to a square mile, 48. Incorporated in 1781.
Windsor county is watered by White, Queechy, Black, West and Williams' rivers, and by other excellent mill streams. The surface of the county is uneven, and in some parts mountainous, but generally, it is not too elevated to admit of cultivation. The soil produces fine crops of grain, hay, vegetables and fruits: the lands are peculiarly adapted for grazing, and about 200,000 sheep graze on its varied surface of hills and valleys
    The beautiful Connecticut, which washes its whole eastern boundary, gives to this county large tracts of alluvial meadow land, and affords it a navigable channel to the sea board, for its surplus productions, and for its wants from abroad.
    The hydraulic power of Windsor county is very large, and its local position is such as to induce men of enterprize and capital to embark in manufacturing operations, which are annually increasing with fair prospects of success.

Windsor, Vt.

    Windsor co. Windsor was first settled in 1764. Its surface is uneven, but there are but few parts of it unfit for cultivation. It contains large tracts of alluvial meadow, and the uplands are generally fertile. Mill brook waters the south part of the town, and furnishes it with excellent mill sites. The manufactures of the town are numerous and valuable. The agricultural interests are also valuable : 10,000 sheep are annually sheared in the town, and many neat cattle, horses and productions of the dairy are annually transported to its various markets.
    This town has become the centre of an important commerce, both from the river and a fertile interior country. The favorable position of Windsor, as a place of trade, was early discovered, and it has been fortunate in possessing a succession of men, who, by their enterprise and wealth, have rendered it one of the most flourishing towns on Connecticut river.
    Windsor is situated on the west side of that delightful river, 55 miles S. by E. from Montpelier, 105 N. W. from Boston, 55 N. E. from Bennington, 95 S. S. W. from Burlington, and 127 miles above Hartford, Ct. Population, in 1820, 2,956 ; 1830, 3,134.
    The village of Windsor is on elevated ground, on the bank of the river: it is compactly, and somewhat irregularly built, but very beautiful. There are but few villages in our country which make a more delightful appearance. It contains a great number of handsome dwelling houses and stores. Some of the private houses, churches and other public buildings are in a style of superior elegance. This is the site of the Vermont State prison. The streets are wide and beautifully shaded. The scenery around Windsor is highly picturesque ; from the high lands across the river, in Cornish, which is united to Windsor by a bridge, or on the Ascutney at the south part of the town, some of the best landscapes in our country are presented to view.

Winhall, Vt.
    Bennington co. Winhall is bounded on the,W. by Manchester, and is 33 miles S. W. from Windsor. This town was chartered in 1761, and its settlement commenced during the revolutionary war. Population, 1830, 571. The surface is rough, and the soil not very productive.
    Winhall River rises in this town and affords it a good water power. It passes through a part of Jamaica, and joins West river in Londonderry.
19th Century New England