posted June-July 2006
Five articles from the Journal of History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
24:336-338. Jul 1969. Dr. James Hedge and the Inoculation Hospital at Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 1797-1801.
27:81-85. Jan 1972. Dr. Samuel Gelston (1727-82), Variolator, and His Son, Dr. Roland Gelston (1761-1829), Vaccinator, from Nantucket
29:108-111. Jan 1974. Dr. Samuel Savage (1748-1831): Medical Patriarch of Cape Cod
32:423-427. Oct 1977. Dr. Lyman H. Luce (1846-92): Physician-Naturalist of Martha' s Vineyard, Massachusetts
33:551-554. Oct 1978. Dr. and Mrs. Algernon Coolidge and the Cotuit Library Association of Cape Cod, Massachusetts
35:459-460. Oct 1980. Dr. Edward F. Gleason (1869-1944) of Hyannis, Massachusetts, and the Cape Cod Hospital and Windmill
36:334-336. Jul 1981. Smallpox in Provincetown, Massachusetts, 1872-73
37:323-325. Jul 1982. Dr. Samuel Pitcher (1824-1907): Cape Cod and Castoria
39:362-365. Jul 1984. Dr. James M. Watson of Falmouth, Massachusetts: Preventive Medicine on Cape Cod
JHMAS: 24:336-339. July 1969
Fred B. Rogers
Dr. James Hedge and the Inoculation Hospital at Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 1797-1801.
'In 1797, and for several years afterward, small-pox again raged in town, and a hospital for inoculation was established at Great Island, now known as Point Gammon,' noted Simeon L. Deyo, writing about the Town of Yarmouth in his History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts.1 Point Gammon, a bowsprit-shaped peninsula jutting into Nantucket Sound at the south end of Lewis Bay, was then remote from the local villages and therefore deemed a more suitable place to risk encounter with a dread illness. Two decades earlier, in 1777-78, an epidemic of smallpox had killed the last native Indians of Yarmouth, the Pawkannawkuts; a cairn near Long Pond, South Yarmouth, today recalls their memory.2 Because of such disastrous outbreaks, preventive variolation had been used as a protective measure against smallpox until it was superseded by Jennerian vaccination at the turn of the nineteenth century. Dr. James Hedge, the physician of Yarmouth in 1797, was then twenty-four years old and but recently settled in practice. His life and work, almost forgotten now, deserve recall as part of the medical, civic, and religious history of Cape Cod.
Born at Yarmouth in October 1773, Hedge was descended from Ensign William Hedge of the Plymouth Colony, who had moved from Sandwich to Yarmouth and who died at the latter place in 1670, leaving his widow, Blanche, and five sons.3 Among William's descendants were John Hedge, who served as a Yarmouth Selectman from 1758 to 1761;4 Josiah Hedge, a deacon in the First Congregational Church of Yarmouth from 1776 to 1778;5 and Capt. Thomas Hedge, who was active in the defense of Yarmouth during the War of 1812.6James Hedge studied medicine under Dr. Samuel Savage (1748-1831), of Barnstable, an able but somewhat eccentric practitioner. Of Savage, Deyo's History relates: 'He resided . . . west of Barnstable village. He was very peculiar in his manners, and when the stage-coach was passing, would ascend a large rock, which is still there, and in sepulchral tones announce himself as a physician and surgeon.'7 Savage, who was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1786, retired from practice in 1820; his pupil, Dr. Hedge, did not become a member of the Society.
The procedure of variolation, sometimes called 'engrafting' since it consisted of inoculating variola virus into the skin, was introduced to New England early in the eighteenth century. In 1721, Boston, Massachusetts, was the locale for the initial concerted efforts in North America to protect against smallpox by this means of immunization. Few of the infectious diseases then prevalent were so widespread and fatal as smallpox, outbreaks of which were regarded with terror. The risk of dying being less in those inoculated than in persons contracting the disease naturally, the practice of variolation was promoted, after considerable controversy, by the Massachusetts General Court as well as by private physicians between 1764 and 1800.8 In the latter year, Benjamin Waterhouse, of Cambridge, introduced the procedure of vaccination, using vaccinia virus sent to him from England. Late in 1800 Dr. Waterhouse presented an account of his work, A Prospect of Exterminating the Small-pox. He extended its scope during the next year and issued a second part of his 'prospect' in 1802.9 The 'house for inoculation, on Great Island,' approved by vote of the Yarmouth Selectmen, was closed after 1801 upon adoption of the improved technique of cowpox vaccination by the town physician.10
In his History of Old Yarmouth, Charles F. Swift wrote of James Hedge: 'He . . . practiced his profession in this town for over fifty years, filling important town offices in the meantime. He was a man of extensive reading and varied information.'11 Dr. Hedge was treasurer of the town from 1805 to 1810.12 He also served as Surgeon, 2nd Regiment Infantry, 3rd Brigade, 5th Division, Massachusetts Militia, from October 1817 to March 1823.13 (In the present-day National Guard, the Cape Cod military, known as the Barnstable Brigade, remains the third brigade of the fifth division.)
James Hedge became a founding member and elder in the First Universalist Society of Yarmouth Port in January 1836. The Society's meeting-house, dedicated in November of that year, still stands on Church Street.14 Hedge was succeeded in practice at Yarmouth by Dr. George Shove (1817-75), a native of Sandwich who served for eight years as Surgeon to the Marine Hospital at Hyannis.15
Tragedy punctuated the family life of Dr. Hedge and his wife, Mary Abigail (1796-1857). Their two unmarried children predeceased them; a daughter, Adeline, died aged nineteen years, in 1836,16 and a son, Capt. Abram Hedge, master of the ship Coquimbo, died at sea in 1848 at the age of twenty-nine on passage from Gibraltar to Boston.17 Hedge died on 8 March 1856;18 his remains rest beside those of other members of his family in Yarmouth's Woodside Cemetery.19
Today no physical trace exists on Great Island or Point Gammon in West Yarmouth of the inoculation hospital of 1797-1801. Moreover, a calamitous fire destroyed the County Office Building at Barnstable in 1827; public records of Cape Cod prior to that year are therefore few in number. The extent or results of the variolation performed by Dr. Hedge arc not known. Like the physician who attended it, the hospital served in its time to reduce the toll of sickness and death from pestilence. Barnes Riznik, in Medicine in New England 1790-1840,20 summarized the role of such doctors and refuges:
Early in the eighteenth century Massachusetts became the scene of the first organized efforts in both Britain and America to combat smallpox by immunization. . . . These early efforts did not forestall smallpox epidemics, but by the time of the Revolution widespread inoculation tended to lower the death rate when an epidemic struck. The success of the Boston experiments spread to other colonies as well as to smaller communities within the province. . . . Smallpox pesthouses, where people were infected and confined, were constructed in many towns. . . . This popular acceptance of smallpox inoculation . . . opened the way for a quick reception of vaccination. . . when it was introduced in New England by Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse and others in the early nineteenth century.
Fred B. Rogers
I am indebted to Mrs. William N. White, librarian, Yarmouth Public Library, Mrs. Mary M. Wright, Historical Society of Old Yarmouth, Inc., Mr. Ben Muse, Jr., bookseller at Yarmouth Port, The Rev. Percy F. Rex, of Pocasset, Dr. Nathaniel W. Faxon, of West Falmouth, and Dr. Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., librarian, American Philosophical Society, for assistance.
1. S. L. Deyo. History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts (New York, 1890), p. 467.
2. The celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Old Yarmouth, Mass., including the present towns of Yarmouth and Dennis. September I and 3, 1889 (Yarmouth Port, 1890), p. 125.
3. C. H. Pope. The pioneers of Massachusetts, a descriptive list, drawn from records of the colonies, towns and churches, and other contemporaneous documents (Boston, 1900), p. 226.
4. Deyo (n. l),p. 477.
5. J. W. Dodge. A history of the First Congregational Church, Yarmouth, Mass., in a discourse delivered Jan. 26th and Feb. 2d, 1873 (Yarmouth Port, 1873), p. 37.
6. C. F. Swift. History of Old Yarmouth. Comprising the present towns of Yarmouth and Dennis. From the settlement to the division in 1794, with a history of both towns to these times (Yarmouth Port, 1884), p. 186.
7. Deyo (n. 1), p. 243.
8. J. M. Toner. History of inoculation in Massachusetts (Boston, Mass. Med. Soc, Publications, 1867), II (2), 151-204.
9. B. Waterhouse. A prospect of exterminating the small-pox, 2 pts. (Boston, 1800; Cambridge, Mass., University Press, 1802).
10. Swift (n. 6), p. 178.
11. Ibid., p. 199.
12. Deyo (n. 1), p. 477.13. Commission of James Hedge as Surgeon, Militia of Massachusetts, 30 September 1817. Honorably discharged at 'own request,' 12 March, 1823. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Adjutant General's Office, State House, Boston.
14. Signature of James Hedge as witness to sale of a pew in the First Universalist Meetinghouse, Yarmouth Port, 18.16. Document in the Capt. Bangs Hallet House, Yarmouth Port, Mass.
15. Deyo (n. 1), p. 231.
16. G. E. Bowman. Gravestone records in the ancient cemetery and the Woodside Cemetery, Yarmouth, Massachusetts (Boston, Cape Cod Record Fund, 1906), p. 41.
17. Will of Abram Hedge, Yarmouth, Mass., 20 June, 1848. Registry of Probate, case 2362, vol. 17, p. 105, Barnstable County Court House, Barnstable, Mass.
18. The Register, Yarmouth-Port, 21 March, 1856, 20 (16), 2.
19. F. Freeman. The history of Cape Cod: the annals of the thirteen towns of Barnstable County, 2 vols., (Boston, 1862), n, 233.
20. B. Riznik. Medicine in New England 1790-1840 (Sturbridge, Old Sturbridge Village Booklet Series, 1965), pp. 11 and 13.
Point Gammon and vicinity, Yarmouth, Massachusetts. Detail from A Chart of Nantucket Shoals. Surveyed by Capt. Paul Pinkham (Boston, 1791). Numbers denote fathoms of water.
Fred B. Rogers. JHMAS, Jan 1972. vol 27:81-85
Dr. Samuel Gelston (1727-82), Variolator, and His Son, Dr. Roland Gelston (1761-1829), Vaccinator, from Nantucket
In colonial Massachusetts Dr. Samuel Gelston performed variolation on many persons at inoculation hospitals which he maintained in several places between the years 1763 and 1778. An early New England physician whose career has been little noticed by historians, Gelston lived in troubled times and took part in the struggles—professional and political—of that era. The promotion of variolation by Samuel Gelston and others, a draconian measure by modern standards, helped reduce disability and death from smallpox. His son, Dr. Roland Gelston, who followed him in medical practice on Nantucket after the Revolution, was to adopt the procedure of vaccination, a preventive introduced to the United States from England at the turn of the century.
Samuel Gelston was born on 24 March 1727 at Southampton, Long Island, New York. He learned his profession by preceptorship to a practicing physician. Settling on Nantucket before 1760, he married Anna Cotton, a resident of the island.1
As part of his medical practice Dr. Gelston employed the technique of variolation. This had been introduced to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1721, after trials in London, England, earlier that year. The apparent success of the measure in halting an epidemic at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1738 did much to popularize the method in the American colonies. But not until about 1750 was the practice begun of inoculating many unexposed people at one time. Persons inoculated with supposedly mild smallpox sometimes became seriously ill, and possibly 2% to 3% died. Of course, this was a tenfold improvement over the 20% to 30% mortality from naturally occurring smallpox.
Despite favorable results in epidemic circumstances, the majority of people in colonial days accepted variolation only under compelling necessity. It was promoted, after considerable controversy, by the Massachusetts General Court as well as by private physicians between 1764 and 1801. Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse, who introduced vaccination to the country in 1800, wrote that prior to its intro-
duction, fear of smallpox compelled New Englanders, 'the most democratical people on the face of the earth,' to endure 'restrictions of liberty such as no absolute monarch could have enforced.'2
Gelston conducted his first public variolations at Homes [sic] Hole, a harbor near Edgartown on Martha's Vineyard, in 1763. On 8 August of that year the local inhabitants voted that he 'be allowed to carry on and practice inoculation of the small pox in some suitable place at Homes Hole until it appears evident to the Town of Tisbury that it is prejudicial to the interest of said Town.' Eighty-one persons were successfully inoculated. The doctor's contract was renewed the next year, while at the same time he was managing an establishment at Castle William in Boston harbor.3
The first inoculating hospitals in the neighborhood of Boston—one at Point Shirley and the other at Castle William—were opened in the winter of 1764 during an epidemic of smallpox. Several professional inoculators came in from outside, including Dr. Gelston, Drs. Eleazer Mather and Gideon Welles from Connecticut, Dr. William Barnett from New Jersey, and Dr. Hall Jackson of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. All applicants were sent to one or the other of these hospitals, and the physicians of Boston agreed not to inoculate anyone outside of them. Notices in The Boston Post-Boy & Advertiser during February, March, and April 1764 told of the accommodations available, and people came from all parts of Massachusetts and several other colonies to be treated at the refuges. At Castle William Drs. Samuel Gelston and Joseph Warren were in residence, and Drs. James Lloyd, Nathaniel Perkins, and Miles Whitworth supervised the inoculations. In the barracks there were forty-eight rooms, each accommodating ten patients. During an interval of five weeks, more than three thousand people were inoculated without a fatality.4
Seven years later, in the spring of 1771, Dr. Gelston set up an inoculation hospital on Gravelly Island, an islet situated a mile west of Nantucket. This action caused consternation among the people in the nearby town of Sherborn[sic], who were 'under fearful apprehensions' that it would spread smallpox among them. On 2 July 1771, they petitioned the General Court to order Gelston to stop variolation immediately, which he did, and in June 1772 the town purchased the doctor's building on Gravelly Island and tore it down.5
Also in the year 1771, Samuel Gelston made application to the selectmen of Edgartown to erect one of his establishments on adjacent Cape Poge. His pro-
posal was declined at that time, and he and Dr. Ananias Randall of Long Island, New York, applied instead to the mainland Town of Dartmouth in September 1772 for permission to 'erect a Hospital for Inoqulation at Anjalaca Island' (Angelica Point), on Buzzards Bay near Mattapoisett. Daniel Ricketson, the New Bedford historian, later wrote that 'a small Hospital . . . was erected at this period, on a lot a short distance north of the Oak Grove Cemetery. The place was long known as the "Pock-House pasture." '6
Renewing his interest on Martha's Vineyard in February 1778 Dr. Gelston again sought permission to commence variolation at Cape Poge. When granted, the location first suggested was chosen. He practiced his art for several months but again encountered popular opposition. In December of that year the town expressed its disapproval of 'annoculation as it is now carried on at Cape Poage' and served notice on Gelston to quit on or before the first of the following May.7 It is likely that smallpox was spread by his methods, since the local selectmen then were appointed a committee to take measures to abate the disease in the village of Edgartown.8
Political as well as professional controversies had been raging in the meantime. The island of Nantucket and its people were much affected by the War of Independence. In November 1775 a British warship anchored outside Sherborn harbor for two weeks and during that period seized, searched, and robbed whatever its captain fancied. Islanders with Loyalist sentiments visited its Captain Ays-cough and his wife on shipboard and provided them with bread and other provisions. Dr. Gelston, outspoken in his loyalty to the Crown, was among this group. Reprisal was prompt: on 30 December Major Joseph Dimmick came from Falmouth with eight provincial soldiers and a warrant for his arrest. He was seized and taken off to the Plymouth jail on suspicion of giving aid and counsel to the enemy.
On 22 January 1776, the Massachusetts General Court voted that Samuel Gelston be put under bond for disloyal behavior. Shortly thereafter he escaped to Newport, Rhode Island. A handbill promising a reward for his capture described him as of Nantucket, 'a short well set man; had on when he went away a reddish sheepskin coat, dressed with the wool inside, and a scarlet waistcoat.' Subsequently apprehended, he was held prisoner at Tarpaulin Cove on Naushon, largest of the Elizabeth Islands, during June 1776. In that same month the illustrious naval officer John Paul Jones visited there.9
In July the doctor was arraigned before five Suffolk County justices at Water-
town to answer charges of having supplied Captain Ayscough with provisions, made speeches against liberty, and threatened to spread the smallpox. Answering these complaints 'with truth and candour,' Gelston convinced the authorities that he had repented his ways. He was freed and sent home, arriving at Nantucket late in that momentous month when the American colonies declared their independence.10
Nantucket and its people suffered severe privations between 1775 and 1782. Supplies and fuel ran low owing to plunder by both Loyalists and Britishers. In April 1779, for instance, two British warships entered Sherborn harbor while eight others anchored outside; ashore their crews robbed stores valued at over $50,000. A committee of citizens subsequently visited the Royal Commander at New York City, who assured them he had given orders that no more depredations should be made. A few ships later received permits from the British to sail unmolested from Nantucket on whaling voyages.11 In November 1779, five islanders were accused of aiding and abetting the British naval force in this raid. Anent the testimony on looting, the accuser wrote, 'Dr. Samuel Gelston will prove this confession.' The doctor was one of seventeen men from Nantucket, and one each from Medford, Walpole, and Martha's Vineyard, who attested the predatory activities of the raiders. Their complaint was read before the Massachusetts House of Representatives at Boston on 16 December 1779, and a bill also was submitted for reparation of losses.12
Dr. and Mrs. Samuel Gelston were the parents of eight children. He died on 6 July 1782, in his fifty-eighth year. His widow survived him by fifteen years, dying on 10 October 1807, aged eighty-four years. Their son, Roland, born at Nantucket on 11 July 1761, studied medicine with his father and was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1803.13 In 1810 he was instrumental in helping effect a vaccination program involving the townfolk of Nantucket. Under date of 21 April the town's health committee was requested 'to investigate the subject of the Cow Pox.' Its five members reported on 30 October that 'they find there are four thousand one hundred and twenty-six belonging to this Town who have not had either the small pox or the kine [cow] pox and from what information they have been able to collect . . . believe all who are willing to have the kine pox may be inoculated for 12 1/2 cents for each person.' At the same meeting the town voted that its health committee 'introduce and carry on the inoculation of Kine Pox at the Town expense in conformity to the report.'14
Roland Gelston was married twice: in 1782 to Love Pinkham, and after her death to Susan J. Jones in 1823.15 In his lifetime he witnessed much turmoil on Nantucket during both the War of Independence and the War of 1812. He died on 25 August 1829, aged sixty-eight years. His parents, he, and his family were interred in the Old North Burying Ground at Nantucket where one can see their gravestones today No portrait or silhouette of either doctor has been found.
In retrospect, despite its defects variolation was worthwhile, but only until something better, Jennerian vaccination, became available to replace it Dr Samuel Gelston, variolator, and Dr Roland Gelston, vaccinator, in Massachusetts, each participated in the task of controlling smallpox and its terrors.
Fred B. Rogers
I am indebted for assistance to Miss Barbara P. Andrews, librarian, Nantucket Athenaeum Dr Whitfield J Bell Jr., librarian American Philosophical Society Mr Henry Beetle Hough, editor The Vineyard Gazette, Edgartown Mrs Mary R. Norcross of Nantucket, the Reverend Percy F. Rex of Pocasset, Mr Eduoard A. Stackpole, editor The Inquirer and Mirror, Nantucket Miss Addie L. Weber of Chilmark and Mr Richard J. Wolfe, rare book librarian, The Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Boston.
1. Vital records of Nantucket, Massachusetts, to the year 1850 (Boston, 1925-28), 5 vols., I, 389; II, 84-85.2. Benjamin Waterhouse, quoted by F. H. Garrison in An introduction to the history of medicine, 4th ed. (Philadelphia, 1929), p. 375.
3. C. E. Banks, The history of Martha's Vineyard, Dukes County, Massachusetts, in three volumes (Boston, 1911; Edgartown, 1925), II, 62.
4. S. A. Green, History of medicine in Massachusetts A centennial address delivered before the Massachusetts Medical Society at Cambridge, June 7, 1881 (Boston, 1881), pp. 74-76.
5. Alexander Starbuck, The history of Nantucket: County, island and town; including genealogies of first settlers (Boston, 1924), pp. 117-118.6. Daniel Ricketson, The history of New Bedford, Bristol County, Massachusetts, including a history of the old township of Dartmouth and the present townships of Westport, Dartmouth, and Fairhaven, from their settlement to the present time (New Bedford, 1858), p. 322.
7. Banks (n. 3), II, 498-499.
8. Francisco Guerra, American medical bibliography 1639-1783 (New York, 1962), pp. 444-445, 453-
455, 470, 529, 535.
9. Amelia F. Emerson, Early history of Naushon Island (Boston, 1935), pp. 271-272.10. Dorothy C. A. Blanchard, Nantucket landfall (New York, 1956), pp. 98, 101-102, 115.
11. H. B Turner, Nantucket 'argument settlers'. A complete history of Nantucket in condensed form, 3rd ed. (Nantucket, 1924), pp. 15, 17-18, 23, 31.
12. Starbuck (n. 5), pp. 220-222.
13. W. L. Burrage, The Massachusetts Medical Society—A catalogue of the honorary past and present fellows 1781-1931 (Boston, 1931), p. 97.
14. Starbuck (n. 5), p. 267.15. Vital records (n. I), III, 539-540; V, 327-328.
Fred B. Rogers. JHMSA, Jan 1974. vol. 29:108-111
Dr. Samuel Savage (1748-1831): Medical Patriarch of Cape Cod
Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote of New England, 'The climate is electric, good for wit and good for character ' Dr Samuel Savage of Barnstable, Massachusetts, a New Englander like Emerson, was a product of that climate A longtime medical practitioner on Cape Cod, Dr Savage is remembered for his wit and character He was a Yankee individualist who lived in a stern era 1
Samuel Savage was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on 11 August 1748, son of Samuel Phillips and Sarah Tyler Savage, and baptized at Brattle Square Congregational Church 2 After attending the Boston Latin School, he was graduated with an A B degree from Harvard College in 1766 He taught at Lincoln and Weston town schools for several years after graduation, Harvard conferred its A m degree upon him in 1777.3 His medical training was acquired by preceptor-ship to Dr Benjamin Church of Boston, who later became the first Surgeon General of the American Army
In 1772, Dr Savage settled for country practice near Barnstable village on Cape Cod. In January 1775 the East Parish of Barnstable delegated him to carry its ten shilling donation to besieged Boston. On 6 September 1778, he was called for four days' military duty during the alarm sounded because of a British assault on Bedford, Dartmouth, and Falmouth during the War of Independence Savage served with the First Barnstable Company, Massachusetts Militia, headed by Capt George Lewis (Col Nathaniel Freeman's Regiment) during that brief mobilization.4
Dr Savage became well known through his professional attainments He was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1786, and retired from that organization thirty-four years later.5 One of his apprentices, Dr James
Hedge (1773-1856), practiced for many years in the Cape Cod town of Yarmouth and managed a smallpox inoculation hospital there from 1797-1801. That hospital was one of numerous such refuges closed after the introduction of vaccination into the United States by Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse of Boston late in 1800.6
Several amusing anecdotes have survived concerning the eccentricities of Sam Savage. Dr. George N. Munsell of Harwich, Massachusetts, wrote in 1890, 'He resided near the present residence of Henry F. Loring, west of Barnstable village. He was very peculiar in his manners, and when the stage-coach was passing, would ascend a large rock, which is still there, and in sepulchral tones announce himself as a physician and surgeon.'7
The Barnstable historian Donald G. Trayser told the following story:
Barnstable's first mail service was commenced in 1792 when the Federal government was very young. John Thacher had the contract, and once each week made a round trip to Boston on horseback.... His pay was $1 per day, and many at the time criticized the government's extravagance. Of him it is related that one day he met Dr. Samuel Savage of Barnstable and asked the physician's opinion of his new gray horse. Dr. Savage, noted for his biting tongue, replied by quoting from Revelation: 'And I looked, and behold a pale horse; and his name that set on him was Death, and Hell followed with him.' Having delivered this, Dr. Savage added 'Good day', and proceeded on his way.8
A commemorative eulogy published in the New-England Magazine (August 1831) dilated as follows upon Dr. Savage's professional ability and sterling character:
An accurate observer of nature, he noted her changes and discriminated with wonderful nicety the varying hues of disease. Cool and deliberate in forming an opinion; reflecting well before he decided; his penetrating judgement traced disease to its hiding place, and he prescribed with remarkable felicity and success. His kind attention and unwearied exertions for his patients were returned by devoted reverence, and unlimited confidence in his superior skill. On all subjects connected with his profession he was justly tenacious of his opinions, for they were the fruit of much study and profound thought; hence he was impatient of contradiction, and but little respected sentiments opposite to his own. The love of truth was a prominent trait in his character, and the slightest deviation from it he regarded as an essential injury to society. Frank and open in all his concerns; without disguise or concealment in his words or actions, he sternly rebuked hypocrisy and boldly censured the least semblance of deception. He was sometimes accused of severity, but it was only when his generous feelings were provoked by meanness. . . . His views of religion were altogether practical; believing that life to be most acceptable to God, which is most fruitful in acts of beneficence to man.9
Dr. Savage was married to Hope Doane (1756-1830), daughter of Col. Elisha and Hope Rich Doane of Wellfleet, Massachusetts, on 18 February 1777. Sorrow marred their family life. Three sons, William, Joseph and Tyler, died in infancy. Three other sons died in young manhood—-John, a law student who graduated from Harvard College in 1810, expired at age 22 in the following year, and his brothers Elisha and Samuel died at Kingston, Jamaica, where they had gone in hopes of regaining impaired health.10 The inscription upon Samuel's tombstone closed with a quotation from the English poet Edward Young (1683-1765):
Insatiate archer! Could not one suffice?
Thy shaft flew thrice, and
Thrice my peace was slain.
Another son, Charles, became a United States consul to the Republic of Central America, stationed at Guatemala City from 1825 to 1838. He married Susan Wood (1790-1825), daughter of Gen. Abraham Wood of Wiscasset, Maine. Dr. and Mrs. Savage's only daughter, Hope, became the second wife of the Hon. Lemuel Shaw (1781-1861) of Barnstable, who was Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court from 1830 to 1860. Hope Shaw bore the jurist two sons, Lemuel and Samuel, and lived until 1879. Through her step-daughter, Elizabeth Shaw, she became the mother-in-law of novelist Herman Melville.Perhaps because of his resolute character, Dr. Savage was named to the Court of Common Pleas for Barnstable in 1782. Eight years later he became a Justice of the Peace, and in 1815 he was appointed to the Quorum. The administering of civil justice must have been stamped with his austere personality. This disposition was subsequently recalled by a young neighbor, who stated that 'the residents of this village, who were school children fifty to sixty years ago, have not forgotten the terror his presence imposed, seated in his round-about chair at the door of the porch or vestibule of his residence. . . . The girl who ventured to pass without curtsying, or boy without removing his cap, were sure to be brought to bay by a rap on the floor with his cane and a hail that youthful temerity dared not pass unheeded.'11
Dr. Savage became a member of Fraternal Masonic Lodge, which was chartered and held its first meeting at the house of Robert Lathrop in Barnstable on 21 July 1801. Harvard University awarded him an honorary m.d. degree in 1808, twelve years before he retired from medical practice.12 In 1814 the American Antiquarian Society, located at Worcester, Massachusetts, elected him to membership. He was listed as a subscriber to Dr. Thomas Thacher's two-volume
American Medical Biography (1828), but his vita was not included in that compilation.13
Cape Cod's medical patriarch died at a venerable age.14 His gravestone, next to that of his wife who died on 22 December 1830, can be seen in the cemetery of Barnstable's East Parish Unitarian Church.15 Its inscription reads:
In Memory of Doct. Samuel Savage, an eminent physician, a patriotic citizen, beloved and respected in all the relations of social and domestic life. He departed this life June 28th, 1831, in his 83rd year.
Fred B. Rogers
I am indebted for assistance to Dr. Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., librarian, American Philosophical Society; Mrs. Raymond J. Dodge, The Sturgis Library, Inc., Barnstable; Miss Alice G. Peak, Barnstable Historical Society; and Mr. Wendell E. Smith, East Orleans, Massachusetts.
1. W. J. Bell, Jr., 'A portrait of the colonial physician,' Bull. Hist. Med., 1970, 44, 515.
2. A report of the Record Commissioners of the City of Boston containing the Boston marriages from 1700 to 1751 (Boston, 1898), p 261.
3. Harvard University quinquennial catalogue of the officers and graduates 1636-1925 (Cambridge, 1925), p. 165.
4. Massachusetts soldiers and sailors of the Revolutionary War (Boston, 1905), 17 vols , xiii, 840.
5. W. L. Barrage, The Massachusetts Medical Society - A catalogue of the honorary and past and present fellows 1781-1931 (Boston, 1931), p 217.6. F. B. Rogers, 'Dr. James Hedge and the inoculation hospital at Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 1797-1801,' J. Hist. Med., 1969, 24, 336-38.
7. G. N. Munsell in S. L. Deyo (editor), History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts (New York, 1890), p. 243.
8. D. G. Trayser, Barnstable. Three centuries of a Cape Cod town (Hyannis, 1939), p. 258.
9. Obituary, Samuel Savage, M.D., New-England Magazine, 1831, 1, 180.10. F Freeman, The history of Cape Cod the annals of the thirteen towns of Barnstable County, 2 vols (Boston, 1862), II, 332.
11. C. K. Shipton, Sibley's Harvard graduates, vol. xvi, 1764-67 (Boston, 1972), pp. 424-26.
12. T. F. Harrington, The Harvard Medical School—A history, narrative and documentary, 1782—1905 (New York, 1905), 3 vols., III, 1650.
13. Obituary, Samuel Savage, M.D., Columbian Centinel (Boston), 6 July 1831.
14. Obituary, Samuel Savage, M.D., Barnstable Patriot, 6 July 1831.
15. Estate bond and inventory of Dr. Samuel Savage, 9 August 1831. Registry of Probate, adm. no. 535-15-138, Barnstable County Court House, Barnstable, Mass.
Fred B. Rogers. JHMAS, Oct 1977. vol 32:423-427
Dr. Lyman H. Luce (1846-92): Physician-Naturalist of Martha' s Vineyard, Massachusetts
Dr. Lyman H. Luce, physician and naturalist, was born and spent most of his life on Martha's Vineyard, the largest island in New England. A descendant of Henry Luce and his wife of Gloucestershire, England, who settled on the island at Tisbury, Massachusetts, in the seventeenth century, Dr. Luce practiced medicine there and on Cape Cod during a lifetime of forty-six years. Upon his death in 1892, the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal noted that 'he was the author of several articles on the climate and history of Martha's Vineyard, as well as on different medical subjects.1
Tisbury, in area the largest township of Martha's Vineyard, extends across the island from north to south. Settled in 1669, it was named for the English town where colonial governor Thomas Mayhew was born. In the early days salt works, lumber mills, brick kilns, and smoke houses were scattered over the area. It was at West Tisbury that Lyman Horace Luce was born on 10 April 1846. His father, Dr. William Horace Luce (1814-91), who had graduated from the Medical School of Maine in 1840, practiced medicine and kept a drugstore there. His mother, nee Abbey Jernegan Davis, came from the nearby town of Chilmark.2
Lyman attended the Dukes County Academy at Edgartown and the Pierce Academy of Middleboro before entering the Harvard Medical School in Boston. After two years of study at Harvard, he transferred to his father's alma mater, the Medical School of Maine, and received his m.d. degree in 1869. His doctoral thesis. Dissertatio de Herbaria Medicinale [sic], is now in the Bowdoin College Library at Brunswick, Maine. A twenty-one-page manuscript, it surveyed the medical botany of his native locale.
Opening his dissertation, Luce wrote: 'I propose to present in the following thesis a synopsis of some of the medicinal plants of Dukes County; both
indigenous and exotic with such facts regarding their properties and practical uses, as I have been able to gather from those who have used them, both in regular and domestic practice, and from actual experiment.'
A wide variety of plants were cited in the compilation, together with some notice of their botanical family, class, and order. They were classified according to drug action as astringent, carminative, cathartic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emollient, narcotic, sedative, or stimulant. Preparations described were in the form of decoction, infusion, poultice, powder, tincture, or tisane. Botanicals, here listed in alphabetical order, included the following familiar examples: arbutus, barberry, blue flag, boneset, burdock, chicory, chondrus, dandelion, devil's bite, dragon root, foxglove, geranium, ground ivy, henbane, hop, jack-in-the-pulpit, Jimson weed, lily of the valley, marshmallow, mint, nettle, parsley, pleurisy root, field poppy, saffron, sassafras, skunk cabbage, smartweed, Solomon's seal, sweet fern, sweet flag, viburnum, violet, willow, wintergreen, witch hazel, and wormwood.
The theme of Luce's study was practical. Several excerpts are quoted below to illustrate this focus:
The Anthemis Cotula or May weed is reputed to be an emetic. It somewhat resembles chamomile, and is often called wild chamomile. When applied to the skin as a cataplasm it will produce vesication—a property I have never seen mentioned in any of the books.
The Narcissus Pseudo, an exotic cultivated in our gardens, is a very active emetic. An intelligent gentleman informs me that he has used it as an emetic in his family for more than twenty years, being prompt, safe and reliable, in no instance disappointing him. It resembles ipecac in its action and might be used in all cases where that drug is indicated.
The fine downy lint of the balm of Gilead ... is often employed by the common people to restrain hemorrhages from wounds. This it probably does mechanically, although the balsamic principle may have a styptic tendency.
Silkweed grows extensively by the roadside, flowers of a pale purple. The milky juice that exudes from the stem when bruised is a popular cure for warts.
The Ceanothus Americanus or New Jersey tea is a common plant which was used during the Revolutionary war as a substitute for tea, and is still employed by some of the poorer classes. It makes a pleasant drink when prepared with tea in the proportion of two thirds of the Ceanothus to one third common tea. When taken without this combination it has an unpleasant astringency owing to the large amounts of tannin which it contains.
Defending the folklore of domestic materia medica, Luce concluded as follows: 'In adopting the opinions of the unprofessional in regard to the therapeutic effects of remedies, I am aware of the unreliableness and inaccuracy of their observations, although they are not by any means to be despised. Information coming from such sources may be instrumental in directing those better informed to investigate subjects hitherto entirely unknown.'
Upon graduation Dr. Luce practiced for a few months on the Vineyard with his father, then moved to Falmouth on the mainland to succeed Dr. T. J.
Everett.3 He was soon busy, covering much territory on Cape Cod—Pocasset, Woods Hole, Mashpee, and the Falmouth area. In addition he became a visiting surgeon to St. Luke's Hospital at New Bedford, serving with Dr. Henry I. Bowditch for four years there before being named a consulting physician. In 1874 he was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society.4 Five years later he became a charter member of the Succanessett Lodge, Knights of Honor, in Woods Hole.
Two publications resulted from his period in practice on Cape Cod. The first, 'A Case of Peritonitis with Singular Complications,' appeared in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal in July 1872. It described the case of a twenty-five-year-old man suffering from a sliding inguinal hernia with ascent of the left testicle into the abdomen; he recovered on conservative treatment. The second report, 'Two Cases of Death from Vaccination,' was published in the same journal in January 1873. The patients, a woman aged sixty-two and a man aged sixty-eight, had been vaccinated on the same day with 'non-humanized cow-pox virus' by another physician. Each became ill shortly thereafter and died within a week from septicemia. Supportive care afforded by Dr. Luce was unavailing in these cases.
Shortly after he came to Falmouth, in October 1870, Luce married Elizabeth W. Lawrence, daughter of Captain John R. and Mrs. Harriet Clark Lawrence of that town. A daughter, Bessie Lyman Luce, was born to Dr. and Mrs. Luce on 16 April 1871. She was to outlive both parents. Three other children died in infancy. And Mrs. Luce, according to the official record at Falmouth, died of 'blood poison' on 1 February 1880 at age thirty-four. Soon thereafter her husband sold his practice to Dr. James T. Walker and returned to the Vineyard.5 On 28 March 1884, he married Mrs. Mary C. Hagen, who survived him.
Martha's Vineyard, which contains about a hundred square miles of land, is a beguiling place. Its historical background, airy landscapes, quaint villages, and varied seashore are filled with allure. The climate is temperate and the atmosphere clear, except when fog appears. Though seemingly remote from the mainland, the island is yet within sight of Falmouth on Cape Cod. The eastern part of the Vineyard is quite level. Gentle hills begin to rise in Tisbury, culminating at the highest point on the island, Peaked Hill, elevation 311 feet. From there the view is superb. Dr. Luce described these features in several pamphlets in which he promoted the region as a resort for invalids. His friend, Dr. Charles E. Banks (1854-1931), author of The History of Marthas Vineyard,
also noted 'the general healthfulness of the island,' and called it 'a natural sanitarium.'6
Concern about the misuse of drugs prompted Lyman Luce to compile A Synopsis of the Nature and Effects of Alcohol and Narcotics, a twenty-eight-page booklet for school use. Published by D. C. Heath & Company of Boston in 1887, it was one of a series of 'guides for science-teachers.' This monograph reviewed the chemical nature, physiological action, and pathological effects of alcohol, tobacco, opium, and chloral hydrate. It concluded by mentioning the effects on the human system of belladonna, stramonium, hyoscyamus, and hashish. A second edition of this booklet was issued in 1896.
Luce continued to study natural history after graduating from medical school. The New York Medical Journal, in June 1888, published his article 'Dissection of the Lower Vertebrates as a Requirement in Medical Study, with a Comparison of Some of the Parts of the Domestic Cat with Corresponding Parts in Man.' 'It is not fully appreciated,' he wrote, 'that the structure of the lower vertebrates may be made the basis of accurate anatomical investigation, or utilized as useful adjuncts in the study of human anatomy.' He quoted Professor Thomas H. Huxley who said that a knowledge of the structure of a sheep or cat formed a firm basis for human dissection. Luce's article included illustrations comparing the feline and human brachial plexus of nerves, hip, and knee joints. It concluded that 'it is not alone in the resemblances that the student will find assistance in his study of human anatomy, but the differences themselves serve to fix the subject more surely, as well as to widen the limit of observation.'
In connection with medical practice, Dr. Luce wrote two other articles which were published in medical journals. These were, 'A Portable Gynecological Table' (New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, October 1889) and 'A Case of Tubercular Peritonitis, with Ascites Following Measles—Treatment' (Texas Medical Journal, December 1890). He also wrote a larger work on narcotics and a physiology text for schools which were unpublished at the time of his death.
A Vineyard colleague observed that 'Dr. Luce was a student, especially a student of medicine, but his studies were not confined to this solely. He aimed somewhat at universal knowledge. He read comparative anatomy, studying specimens from nature, making original directions and comparisons. . . . He read the literature of the day on scientific subjects, and also many works of fiction. The writers that he most delighted to read were: Scott, Dickens, Thackeray, Levy, George Eliot and Oliver Wendell Holmes. ... In conversation he was generally ready with quotations from his authors.' The same writer noted that 'as a member of the school committee he aimed at efficient service; his sympathies were with the teachers, while his interest centered in the scholars.
He believed that education was the greatest need of the times. "If people knew more they would be happier and healthier." ... He encouraged them in whatever purpose they had for life.'7
Of his contemporary kinfolk in Tisbury, Nancy Luce (1820-90), a distant cousin, achieved local recognition as a poet,8 and his brother, Lorenzo F. Luce, was appointed in 1890 customs collector at the port of Holmes Hole, now Vineyard Haven.9
Dr. Luce died on 30 January 1892 at his home on Martha's Vineyard. The cause of death was a cerebral tumor which deprived him of vision and speech for three months before the end. He was buried beside his father, who had died in the previous year, at West Tisbury Cemetery. A eulogist noted that 'funeral services were held at the house. The large number present and their tearful faces gave evidence of the esteem with which he was regarded.'10
The almost forgotten life and work of Lyman H. Luce can be aptly summarized by the statement of the psychologist William James that 'the wealth of a nation consists more than anything else in the number of superior men it harbors.'
Fred B. Rogers
1. Death of Lyman H. Luce, M.D., Boston Med. & Surg. J., 4 Feb. 1892, 126, 132.
2. Obituary record of the graduates of Bowdoin College and the Medical School of Maine for the decade ending 1 June 1899 (Brunswick, 1899), pp. 107-108.3. S W. Butler, The medical register and directory of the United States (Philadelphia, 1874), p. 346.
4. W. L. Burrage, The Massachusetts Medical Society: a catalogue of the honorary and past and present fellows 1781-1931 (Boston, 1931), p. 154.
5. G. N. Munsell in S. L. Deyo, editor, History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts (New York, 1890), pp. 263 and 697.6. C. E. Banks, The history of Martha's Vineyard, Dukes County, Massachusetts, in three volumes (Boston, 1911; Edgartown, 1925), I, 497.
7. C.T.H., Obituary - Lyman Horace Luce, M.D., The Vineyard Gazette (Edgartown), 11 Feb. 1892, 46(46), 40-41.
8. Gale Huntington, 'Nancy Luce,' The Dukes County Intelligencer (Edgartown), May 1969, 10(4), 219-229.
9. Banks (n. 6), II, 62.
10. C.T.H. (n. 7), p. 41.
Dr. and Mrs. Algernon Coolidge and the Cotuit Library Association of Cape Cod, Massachusetts
Throughout recorded history physicians have been bookish (or, at least, readers) and have, with friends and family, become patrons as well as users of libraries, large and small. The great collections, medical and general, are well known; not so numerous small-town libraries and libraries of lower volume count. These too, however, contribute their wealth to educational and cultural endeavors. Dr. and Mrs. Algernon Coolidge, proper Bostonians who vacationed at Cotuit on Cape Cod with their kinfolk, were benefactors of the library founded there in the year 1885. These cultured readers deserve recall.
The Cotuit Library was an outgrowth of the social library movement which spread rapidly through this country during the nineteenth century. In order to achieve its literary ambitions, the Cotuit Library Association was formed in August 1885. Among the leaders in this effort were several summer residents of distinction. Mrs. Algernon Coolidge, nee Mary Lowell, for instance, was a kinswoman of James Russell Lowell (1819-91), poet and diplomat, and of Abbott Lawrence Lowell (1856-1943), a president of Harvard University whose summer home was located just beyond the present library which fronts on Main Street.1
Minutes of the initial meeting record that, on the evening of 5 August 1885, a group of twelve women and five men from the villages of Cotuit, Santuit, and Marstons Mills in the Town of Barnstable met to organize a public library. At their next meeting, held at the home of Dr. Coolidge, each member of the library committee was requested to bring a list of from one to three hundred desirable books 'from which the books to be purchased might be chosen.'
Notes of a meeting on 12 September reported progress: a library building would be built on land purchased for that purpose and a librarian, Miss Maud Chatfield, hired at a salary of twenty-five dollars a year, with an annual allowance of fifteen dollars for cleaning and taking care of the facility. Library hours
were initially 2-5 and 6-8 on Saturdays. The new library board also 'moved that the people of Mashpee have access to the library.' Then, as now, many of the residents of adjacent Mashpee were American Indians of the Wampanoag tribes.
Gifts soon began to enrich the library's collection. For example, Mrs. Coolidge donated books and andirons for the fireplace. Mrs. Edward J. Lowell added a shovel, tongs, poker, and fire screen. Mr. John Coolidge gave a picture of Cotuit in 1860 and a map of Cotuit and nearby Osterville. Mr. Rothwell brought several armchairs, busts of Shakespeare and of Franklin, and a framed copy of the Declaration of Independence. Mrs. A. Lawrence Lowell and others donated magazine and journal subscriptions.
In 1889 a catalogue of books in the library was compiled and printed. A midsummer benefit, consisting of a market and entertainment called a Jubilee, was held in 1895. That year also saw the purchase at auction by the Association of the Cotuit-Santuit Schoolhouse, which constitutes the middle room of the present building. And by 1901, a handsome front room was added to this structure; the architect was Mr. Guy Lowell. A Children's Fair, first held in 1908, was a pleasant success. In 1914, Miss Elizabeth Thurston, librarian, wrote in her annual report, 'Electricity has been installed, thus making possible a light over the steps and a reading lamp for the desk, the gift of Mrs. Coolidge.'
Dr. Algernon Coolidge, an original 'friend' of the Cotuit Library, had meanwhile died on 5 January 1912. A review of his career is in order here.2 Born to Joseph Coolidge, Jr., and his wife, Ellen Wayles Randolph, at Boston on 21 August 1830, he was through his mother a great-grandson of President Thomas Jefferson. Young Coolidge benefited from European travel and attended schools in Switzerland and Dresden, Germany. Returning to the United States in 1850, he entered the Harvard Medical School, from which he received the m.d. degree in 1853. He was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society in the following year.3 During the Civil War he served in 1862 as a medical officer with the Union Army at the Lovell General Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island. For the rest of the war Coolidge was a volunteer surgeon with the U.S. Sanitary Commission. He was stationed in succession at the Chesapeake Hospital in Maryland, the Amory Square Hospital, Washington, D.C., and the Portsmouth Grove Hospital for Convalescents in Rhode Island.4
From 1868 to 1873 Dr. Coolidge was a surgeon at the Massachusctts General Hospital, from which position he was obliged to retire because of illness. He received an honorary Master of Arts degree from Harvard University and was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1869.
Described upon his death at age eighty-one as 'a refined and kindly gentleman,' he was survived by his widow, two daughters, and three sons.5 A son, Dr. Algernon Coolidge, Jr. (1860-1940), became professor of laryngology at the Harvard Medical School and a trustee of the Massachusetts General Hospital. His wife, the former Amy Lothrop, and their son and daughter also enjoyed much happy leisure on Cape Cod.6
Cotuit at one time was famous tor its oysters. 'Cotuits on the half-shell' were featured by restaurants far and wide. In the early nineteenth century, Cotuit boasted a large fleet of vessels; now it is a snug harbor for the summer sailboats that dot Nantucket Sound. The village grew in favor as a summer resort after the opening of the Santuit House in June 1860.7 Cotuit's tree-lined streets, where the branches meet overhead and the leaves turn the sunlight into a thousand shades of color in the autumn, are just as beautiful today. Its library, one of the most attractive on Cape Cod, hosts varied exhibitions and a children's program of readings and motion pictures and houses treasures that beckon a bibliophile.8
The main reading room contains a central Palladian window, comfortable chairs, a salt water aquarium, and a collection of old ship models—some, like the clipper Flying Cloud, built to scale. In 1962 the Kirkman Room, a large multipurpose addition, was built to contain the collection of finely bound and rare volumes donated and endowed by Mr. and Mrs. Sidney A. Kirkman. Here one can sec on display various letters, documents, and books, some of the latter bearing bookplates of famous past owners. These include items from the libraries of William Penn, George Washington, David Garrick, Queen Victoria, William Gladstone, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, and many more. They are available for study at the library, but do not circulate.
Miss Ida May Anderson, who, in the words of Mr. Gordon P. Browne, Jr., past president of the Cotuit Library Association, 'loves books, children, and helping other people,' has been its librarian since January 1957. The library, a member of the Eastern Massachusetts Regional Public Library System, in 1970 reported holdings of over 90,000 volumes, with a circulation above 20,000 per year.9 Mr. Browne has summarized the Association's mission in the following words: 'A library is books and somewhere to put them and some people to want them there, but even more it is a collection of old memories and future hopes, and this is the true history of the Cotuit Library—the memories and hopes of a
village that wanted a library, and so it grew.'10 Dr. and Mrs. Algernon Coolidge and other early supporters of this resource agreed with their fellow New Englander Henry David Thoreau, who said, 'To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise.'Fred B. Rogers
1. I. M. Anderson, 'The Village of Cotuit,' in The Seven Villages of Barnstable (Barnstable, Mass., 1976), p. 206.2. Obituary, Dr. Algernon Coolidge, J. Am. Med. Ass., 1912, 58, 212.
3. W. L. Burrage, The Massachusetts Medical Society: a catalogue of the honorary and past and present fellows 1781-1931 (Boston, 1931), p. 57.
4. T. F. Harrington, The Harvard Medical School, a history, narrative and documentary, 1782-1905, 3 vols. (New York, 1905), II, 960; III, 1488.
5. 'Death of Algernon Coolidge, M.D.,' Boston med. surg. J., 1912, 166, 72-73.
6. H. P. Mosher, 'Memorial of Algernon Coolidge, Jr., 1860-1940,' Transactions of the sixty-second annual meeting of the American Laryngological Association (New York, 1940), pp. 435-437.
7. Dawn Anderson, 'A tour of Cape Cod museums, historic buildings, and historic spots,' Cape Cod Compass, 1973, 26, 8-14.
8. Janice Glover, 'Cotuit Library,' in The Seven Villages of Barnstable (n. 1), pp. 402-404.
9. E. F. Steiner-Prag and H. MacKeigan (compilers), 1970-71 American Library Directory, 27th ed. (New York, 1970), p. 397.