posted June-July 2006

Four articles from the Journal of History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

  35:459-460. Oct 1980. Dr. Edward F. Gleason (1869-1944) of Hyannis, Massachusetts, and the Cape Cod Hospital and Windmill
  36:334-336. Jul 1981. Smallpox in Provincetown, Massachusetts, 1872-73
  37:323-325. Jul 1982. Dr. Samuel Pitcher (1824-1907): Cape Cod and Castoria
  39:362-365. Jul 1984. Dr. James M. Watson of Falmouth, Massachusetts: Preventive Medicine on Cape Cod

also see
  24:336-338. Jan 1969. Dr. James Hedge and the Inoculation Hospital at Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 1797-1801.
  27:81-85. Jan 1972. Dr. Samuel Gelston (1727-82), Variolator, and His Son, Dr. Roland Gelston (1761-1829), Vaccinator, from Nantucket
  29:108-111. Jan 1974. Dr. Samuel Savage (1748-1831): Medical Patriarch of Cape Cod
  32:423-427. Oct 1977. Dr. Lyman H. Luce (1846-92): Physician-Naturalist of Martha' s Vineyard, Massachusetts
  33:551-554. Oct 1978. Dr. and Mrs. Algernon Coolidge and the Cotuit Library Association of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

Fred B. Rogers. JHMAS, 1980. vol 35:459-460


Dr. Edward F. Gleason (1869-1944) of Hyannis, Massachusetts, and the Cape Cod Hospital and Windmill

    Opening of the Cape Cod Hospital in the year 1920 heralded a new era of medicine for the area. Prime mover of this enterprise was Dr. Edward F. Gleason, a native of Hyannis, Massachusetts, who returned there to practice surgery and helped lead the drive to establish a hospital. His interests in competitive sports and local history, in addition to professional accomplishments, make him a colorful figure to recall.1

    Edward Francis Gleason was born at Hyannis on 19 November 1869. His parents, Patrick and Catherine (Shea) Gleason, had come to this country from Ireland. After preliminary education Edward attended the Medical Department of the University of Vermont, receiving his m.d. degree at Burlington in 1899. While a medical student he became a member of the Phi Chi Medical Fraternity. Following an internship at the Boston City Hospital, Gleason traveled to Europe and studied surgery at the University of Vienna in Austria.2

    On his return to America, Dr. Gleason settled in Boston to practice general surgery. He retained his Boston office until November 1933, when he returned full-time to his native town. While a surgical consultant to the physicians there before 1919, he had purchased considerable real estate in Hyannis. His home, located on Lewis Bay Road at the end of South Street, was built circa 1772. The house was cited as an historic landmark in the Bicentennial account of Barnstable County.3

    A sports devotee, the doctor was an expert marksman. The walls of his home were filled with trophies, cups, and medals won at shooting tournaments in this country and abroad. He was a prominent member of the United States team which won a championship in the Olympic games at Stockholm, Sweden, in 1912.4


    Ravages caused by the influenza epidemic during World War I prompted establishment of a general hospital on Cape Cod. Of this event, Cape historian Donald G. Trayser noted: 'The Cape Cod Hospital was organized at Hyannis in 1919. The old Watts estate was purchased from Dr. E. F. Gleason, remodeled and equipped from the proceeds of a drive which raised $35,000, added to which were many generous individual gifts. The hospital opened October 4, 1920.'5

    Dr. Gleason became one of the first members of the Cape Cod Hospital staff. The original fourteen-bed facility was a frame house. This cottage hospital was subsequently enlarged to sixty-five beds by brick wings erected in 1928 and 1932. A four-story building was erected in 1950 and expanded in 1963 and 1969, increasing the number of beds to 243 at the latter date.6

    Because of his affection for the locale, Dr. Gleason purchased an historic windmill which was later to leave Cape Cod for distant parts.7 Margaret H. Koehler relates the story as follows:

    The Farris Mill, reputedly the oldest in the United States, was moved from Yarmouth, Massachusetts, to the Greenfield Village-Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. Dating back to the seventeenth century, it had stood at Friends Village, Yarmouth, for over a century. In 1894 it was bought by Mr. F. A. Abell and moved to mill hill in West Yarmouth. After Mr. Abell's death, the windmill was purchased by Dr. E. F. Gleason, of Hyannis, whose name is synonymous with the beginning of the Cape Cod Hospital. Dr. Gleason offered the town of Yarmouth a chance to make the mill and its environs an historic area and was turned down. So in 1935 he sold the structure to a group of automobile dealers who presented the "Cape Cod Windmill" to Henry Ford as a birthday present. This relic thus found a permanent home far from New England in the exhibit complex of Americana gathered together by Mr. Ford.8

    Active in civic and professional affairs, Dr. Gleason was a member of the Hyannis Rotary Club, American Medical Association, and Barnstable County Medical Society. He died on 9 April 1944 at his home in Hyannis and was buried in the Catholic cemetery there. Survivors included his widow, Mrs. Hattie C. (Tebbets) Gleason; two daughters, Sarah and Catherine, two granddaughters, Candice and Frances, all of Hyannis; and two sisters, Mrs. James E. Odell of Newtonville and Mrs. Gorham D. Crocker of Fairhaven, Massachusetts.9

    A quotation from Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes's The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table10 is appropriate to close this note about Cape Cod's dynamic Dr. Gleason: 'To reach the port of heaven, we must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against it—but we must sail, and not drift, nor lie at anchor.'

Fred B. Rogers

1. Obituary, 'Dr. Edward F. Gleason,' New Eng. J. Med., 1944, 230, 472.

2.  Obituary, 'Dr. Edward F. Gleason,' J. Am. med. Ass., 1944, 125, 671.

3. M. L. Scribner and O. H. McKenney, 'Historic places in Hyannis,' in The seven villages of Barnstable (Barnstable, Mass., 1976), p. 158.

4. Obituary, 'Dr. Edward F. Gleason,' The Barnstable Patriot (Hyannis, Mass.), 13 April 1944.

5.  D. G. Trayser, Barnstable: three centuries of a Cape Cod town (Hyannis, Mass., 1939), p. 480.

6. J. W. Gould, 'The Village of Hyannis,' in The seven villages of Barnstable (n. 3), p. 128.

7. F. A. Burrows, Windmills on Cape Cod & the Islands (Taunton, Mass., 1978), pp. 56-58.

8.  M. H. Koehler, 'Cape Cod's wandering windmills,' Cape Cod Compass, 1976, 28, 14-54.

9. N. 4, p. 1.

10.  O. W. Holmes, The autocrat of the breakfast-table (Boston, Mass., 1858), ch. 4.

Evlin Kinney. JHMAS, July 1981. vol 36:334-336


Smallpox in Provincetown, Massachusetts, 1872-73

    The last naturally occurring case of smallpox was seen in 1977, and the World Health Organization has recently announced that smallpox has been eradicated.1 The fear of smallpox, however, has a long and intense tradition and is likely to be with us for some time to come. In medical textbooks of the nineteenth century, indeed, the description of smallpox was often emotional. Thus, an 1888 textbook2 characterized the disease as follows: 'Smallpox, by reason of the malignant nature of its poison, and the general susceptibility to it of individuals of all ages, races, classes, and conditions, is the most loathsome and fatal disease known to man.'

    Ironically, it was the very fear of the disease which, at times, perpetuated it. Vaccination was introduced in 1798, yet it was far from universally accepted even seventy-four years later, when the Provincetown, Massachusetts, Board of Health found that one-third of its schoolchildren had 'either no vaccination at all, or one of doubtful protection,' and that about two-thirds of the adult population were unprotected.3 And although isolation was long recognized as important, both the patients and their physicians often neglected to report cases specifically in order to avoid isolation. This attitude was not entirely irrational, since smallpox hospitals were known, for good reason, as pesthouses.

    The Provincetown smallpox hospital was a one-story structure; it was built in 1848 well away from the town. Judging from the remains of its basement,, it consisted of but one room, measuring fourteen by fourteen feet. It was apparently not well kept, for at an 1872 town meeting, the pesthouse was said to be 'totally unfit for the purpose of receiving [smallpox] patients.'4 At times, 'nurses could not be found who were willing to take up an abode in the pest house'5 because of its sorry condition. Dr. Horatio G. Newton, physician of the Provincetown Board of Health, described the smallpox hospital as follows: 'I shall


never forget my first impressions on visiting our Pest House. ... the poor afflicted one here entered into what seemed so like a tomb.'6 Further, there seems to have been a stigma attached to having smallpox, which of course inhibited reporting of cases. Thus, one Tamesin Manuel, a resident of Provincetown and the wife of a member of the Provincetown Board of Health, died of smallpox in 1873, according to the records of the smallpox hospital.7 Nevertheless, both the town records8 and her obituary9 list the cause of death as heart disease. In the 1872-73 Provincetown epidemic, there were twenty-seven cases of smallpox,10 of which only eight cases were mentioned by name in the local newspaper.11 In the 1870 census of Provincetown12 the average income of the eight reported cases was $547.50, whereas for those not reported in the newspaper, it was $2,300.

    Curiously, few smallpox cemeteries remain on Cape Cod, perhaps because of purposeful vandalism. Thus, Rogers, although writing about ' "Pox-Acres" on Old Cape Cod,'13 was unable to find any pox acres. A long forgotten smallpox cemetery was recently located outside Provincetown. By reference to Provincetown vital records and the Provincetown Board of Health records,14 the names of those buried in the Provincetown pox acres can be deduced. All social classes and nationalities are represented. According to an archeologist's field notes, the Provincetown smallpox cemetery 'consists of a cellar hole of the smallpox hospital and 14 grave sites north of it. The headstones are marked only with numbers and arranged in a semi-circular fashion facing east.'15 There is no record in the town minutes to explain why the gravestones are placed in a semicircle, nor do residents living near the cemetery know why. Today, this burial lot is located within the bounds of the Cape Cod National Seashore Park. It is overgrown with brush. There are no fences, and many of the headstones are broken.

    Although the fear of smallpox has had largely negative consequences, one would not want to omit one of its ingenious byproducts, artificial smallpox. According to the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal of 1872,16 pustules resembling those of smallpox can be produced by sprinkling the face and hands with


croton oil. This expedient was actually used by five prisoners to attempt an escape. So great was the fear of smallpox that they nearly succeeded.

Evlin L. Kinney

1.  'Smallpox certification—East Africa,' Center for Disease Control, Morbidity and mortality; weekly report, 1979, 28, 497-498.

2.  A. H. Buck, ed., Reference handbook of the medical sciences, 8 vols. (New York, 1888), I, 478.

3.  Board of Health, Provincetown, Annual report of the Town of Provincetown (Mass.), the year ending December 31, 1872 (Provincetown, 1873,) pp. 27-42.

4. Provincetown Advocate, 4 December 1872, p. 2, col. 6.

5. Ibid., 27 November 1872, p. 2, col. 3.

6. Ibid., 11 December 1872, p. 2, col. 4.

7. Board of Health (n. 3).

8. L. H. Cook, H. F. Cook, A. G. MacIntyre, D. S. MacIntyre, Provincetown, Massachusetts Cemetery Inscriptions (Bowie, 1980), pp. 253-254.

9. Provincetown Advocate, 4 December 1872, p. 2, col. 4.

10. Board of Health (n. 3)

11. Provincetown Advocate, 27 November 1872, p. 2, col. 3; 4 December 1872, p. 2, col. 4; 11 December 1872, p. 2, col. 3; 1 January 1873, p. 2, col. 3; 5 February 1873, p. 2, col. 3.

12. Population schedule for Provincetown, Massachusetts {Ninth federal census), 1870.

13. F. B. Rogers, ' "Pox acres" on Old Cape Cod,' New Eng. J. Med., 1968, 278, 21-23.

14. Board of Health (n. 3).

15. CACO Archeological Survey, Site Inventory Form, United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cape Cod National Seashore, 1979.

16.  'Artificial smallpox,' Boston med. surg. J., 1872, 10, 60.

Fred B. Rogers. JHMAS, Jul 1982. vol 37:323-325

Dr. Samuel Pitcher (1824-1907): Cape Cod and Castoria

    Samuel Pitcher was a family doctor at Hyannis, Massachusetts, where, in the mid-nineteenth century, he concocted the very popular contemporary remedy known as Castoria.1 He gained modest fame and fortune from this widely-consumed nostrum whose chief ingredients consisted of sassafras and alcohol. The federal Pure Food and Drug Act, passed in the year 1906, helped to drive this and many other patent medicines from drugstore shelves and home cabinets, but the career of Dr. Pitcher, a respected physician-citizen of Cape Cod, is worthy of recall.

    Samuel Pitcher, Jr., was born at Hyannis on 23 October 1824. His great-grandfather, Joseph Pitcher, had moved there from Scituate in the 1700s and resided near the road now named Pitcher's Way. His father, 'Deacon' Samuel Pitcher, was a founding member of the Univcrsalist Society of Hyannis in 1820.2 Young Samuel began his medical career as a preceptee of Dr. S. C. Ames in Lowell, Massachusetts. Formal studies followed at the Philadelphia College of Medicine during 1847-48 and the Harvard Medical School in 1850. In common with many practitioners of that time he did not pursue an academic degree. Returning to Cape Cod, Dr. Pitcher began a general practice which continued until his retirement at age seventy-five in 1900.3

    Hyannis was a busy coastal seaport until the opening of the Cape Cod Canal in 1914. James W. Gould told the story of its health services in the village's Bicentennial history. He wrote as follows:

From one physician, Dr. Charles Goodspeed (1770-1848), the village progressed to more physicians, druggists, and dentists. Samuel Pitcher, a local man, came home to practice in 1850.. .. Pitcher invented an elixir called Castoria which 'the children cry for,' as the slogan went. He made it in the barn behind his house on 'Poverty Row,' as West Main Street was then called; but Dr. Pitcher became wealthy in 1869 by selling the secret formula, reportedly made of sassafras and 17 percent alcohol, to the New York firm Charles


Fletcher Brothers for $10,000. One of the Fletcher family later said the firm made $1,000 a day on what they renamed Fletcher's Castoria.4

    Dr. Pitcher's inclusion of sassafras in Castoria employed a well-known remedy of the day.5 An aromatic tree indigenous to North America, sassafras was used by the native Indians for its medicinal qualities. Early European explorers exported large quantities of this botanical in hopes that it would cure various fevers and venereal diseases. Sassafras tea or infusion made from the dried root bark became widely popular in folk medicine. An acceptable drug in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia from 1840 to 1910, sassafras was subsequently listed in the National Formulary.6 Today the volatile oil obtained from this plant by distillation is used to flavor soft drinks, and its powdered leaves are a common ingredient in Cajan cookery (Gumbo filé).

    Samuel Pitcher married Hannah G. Jones of nearby Waquoit at Falmouth on 30 March 1847. Their adopted daughter, Ida, became the wife of Captain John H. Frost of Hyannis. She joined her husband on a sailing voyage to China and Japan. In 1879, Dr. and Mrs. Pitcher purchased the Captain Asa Bearse House at Hyannis, which had been built in 1840, for their home. After their deaths this historic property with its garden adjacent to the Hyannis Public Library became the Beechwood Inn. It is now the Asa Bearse House Restaurant.7

    Dr. Pitcher was elected a member of the Barnstable District Medical Society and a fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1881.8 He became a director of the First National Bank of Hyannis and was its vice-president at the time of his death. Active in the Universalist Society, he was the oldest member of Hyannis's Fraternal Masonic Lodge when he died.

    A local obituary told of the high regard in which Pitcher was held by his community. It noted:

As a family physician he was honored and beloved. He healed diseases and dispensed in the sickroom the sunshine of his cheerful philosophy. . . . Dr. Pitcher was an exponent of the simple life. ... He delighted in books and poetry and flowers and all things in nature. In youth he incorporated into his creed of living the motto, 'Never worry about the things that you can help, nor about those things which you cannot help,' the good sense of which is plain. . . . On his seventy-fifth birthday he took down his sign as a physician, but for some time after that continued to practice among his friends who importuned him for advice.9


    During later years Dr. and Mrs. Pitcher (with local friends) journeyed to Florida by railroad for part of each winter. The doctor remained vigorous late in life, as recalled below by his eulogist:

He ignored many of the conventionalities of health, and without coat or hat and in slippers in the coldest weather, it was not uncommon to see him about his place or calling upon a neighbor. ... He rode a wheel, and just a few days before his departure for Florida this man of 82, with no apparent depiction of energy, was using that medium to get about while attending to the final details of business previous to departure.10

    Samuel Pitcher expired suddenly from a heart attack at Ormond, Florida, on 22 February 1907. His body was returned for interment in Hyannis's Oak Grove Cemetery. Hannah Pitcher lived on until 4 May 1914, when she died at age ninety-one and was buried beside him. The following inscription appears on a Cape Cod boulder which marks their graves: 'We leave this realm and straightway enter other mansions of the King.'11

    The American humorist Opie Read (1852-1939) made a statement applicable to Dr. Samuel Pitcher, a New England physician whose recipe for Castoria and its extravagant claims merit historical recognition. Mr. Read said the following:

In every country the family doctor is a natural sprout from the soil. His profession is almost as old as the daybreak of time. ... He has been preserved in fiction, pickled in drama, and peppered in satire.12

Fred B. Rogers

1. G. N. Munsell in S. L. Deyo, ed., History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts (New York, 1890), pp. 238-239.

2. D. G. Trayser, Barnstable. Three centuries of a Cape Cod town (Hyannis, Mass., 1939), pp. 82-83, 316, and 406.

3. H. J. Abrahams, Extinct medical schools of nineteenth-century Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1966), p. 152.

4. J. W. Gould, 'The Village of Hyannis,' in The seven villages of Barnstable (Barnstable, Mass., 1976), pp. 122-123 and 158.

5. J. H. Young, The toadstool millionaires; a social history of patent medicines in America before federal regulation (Princeton, 1961), pp. 184 and 227.

6.  Nelson Coon, Using plants for healing (New York, 1963), pp. 199-200.

7.  Pat Mikulak, 'Hyannis: hub of hospitality,' Cape Cod Life, 1980, 2(4), 19-25.

8.  W. L. Burrage, The Massachusetts Medical Society: a catalogue of the honorary and past and present fellows 1781-1931 (Boston, 1931), p. 198.

9.  Obituary, Dr. Samuel Pitcher, The Bourne pioneer (Bourne, Mass.), 26 Feb. 1907, 18(7), 2.

10.  Ibid.

11.  Ibid.

12. Opie Read in M. B. Strauss, ed., Familiar medical quotations (Boston, 1968), p. 185.

Fred B. Rogers. JHMAS, Jul 1984. vol 39: 362-365.

  Dr. James M. Watson of Falmouth, Massachusetts: Preventive Medicine on Cape Cod

    Dr. James M. Watson (1860-1914) of Falmouth, Massachusetts, is remembered for his efforts in preventive medicine near the turn of this century. His initial use of diphtheria antitoxin on Cape Cod, his interest in public health education, and his medical supervision of school children contributed to


regional improvement in these fields Elderly persons still recall his life and work with gratitude.1

    James Maurice Watson was born at Sangerville, Maine, on 16 January 1860. His father, James Watson, was a native of that village, and his mother, nee Mary Sumley, was from Dover, Maine. Their son graduated from Foxcroft Academy in 1881 and from Maine Central Institute at Pittsficld, Maine, two years later. He moved to Falmouth, Massachusetts, in January 1884 and became a preceptee of Dr James T Walker while also teaching school at West Falmouth. Watson subsequently received his M.D. degree from New York University in March 1886 and spent the following year at Bellevue Hospital in New York City, where he completed a postgraduate course in therapeutics under Professor William N. Thompson in order to become a registered pharmacist. Returning to Falmouth, Dr Watson was soon busy in the general practice of medicine.2

    Infectious diseases were then a scourge, especially attacking infants, children, and young adults. Growth in scientific knowledge of bacteriology and immunology near the end of the nineteenth century, however, provided early means of control of pestilence. Emil von Behring (1854-1917) discovered the possibility of passive immunization of animals and man against tetanus and diphtheria by the injection of serum from animals that had been actively immunized by repeated injection of tetanus or diphtheritic toxin; this discovery led to the treatment of infectious diseases. Dr Watson applied this serum therapy in his practice. Mrs Evelyn S Gunnel, whose father, the Reverend Henry H. Smythe, was long-time rector of St Barnabas Memorial Church at Falmouth, wrote in 1963 that "Dr James Watson was the first to use diphtheria serum in Falmouth and, I think, on Cape Cod, about 1894-1895. I remember this because children sitting both in front and in back of me at school had the disease and died."3 Another Falmouth resident, Mrs Charlotte S. Harnden, reminisced in 1980 that Drs Watson and Walker publicly demonstrated the scrum injection technique on the village green to convince local folk of its efficacy and safety "They then invited everyone to their offices for 'shots,'" she added.4 By such demonstration the physicians helped dispel fear


and promoted acceptability of the procedure needed to avert an epidemic. This dramatic episode forms the basis of a tale still told by oldsters on Cape Cod.

    Watson's efforts to promote the health of school children took the form of regular inspections and hygienic instruction of pupils in the classroom. His memorialist noted: "As medical inspector of the public schools, he carried into his work an interest and enthusiasm which elicited from Mr. George Martin, a member of the state board of education, the high praise that Dr. Watson's work in the schools of Falmouth was most remarkable and by far the best work done in any of the schools on the Cape. . . . Conspicuous among the floral offerings (at his funeral in 1914) was a large cross from the children of the Falmouth schools."5 Dr. Watson agreed with pioneer pediatrician Dr. Henry L. Coit who wrote in 1910 that "the gift of children is the most precious gift of God to mankind. It is the natural right of every child born into the world to remain and grow to years of efficiency. . . . Conservation of child life is ... of vast importance to the American people and vital to the integrity of the nation."6

    In professional activities Dr. Watson became a member of the Massachusetts State Board of Pharmacy and served on the Falmouth Town Board of Health for several terms. In 1889—90 he took a postgraduate session at the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, receiving an m.d. degree from that institution in April 1890.7 Upon his death, the Falmouth Enterprise noted. "Wherever he went, he went with an open heart and an open hand. He gave himself, his sympathy, his skill, his judgment ungrudgingly to us all."

    In church affairs James Watson was active in the establishment of St. Barnabas parish in Falmouth, serving as warden from its founding until his death. In the book Churches on Cape Cod (1974) we read: "Saint Barnabas Memorial Church (Episcopal) was established in 1888. In the following year the cornerstone was laid for the present beautiful sanctuary with its exquisite stained glass windows. Today the church stands on a three-acre setting along Main Street with a cloistered garden to the rear which overlooks Sider's Pond and Vineyard Sound."8

    Katharine Lee Bates (1859-1929), native of Falmouth, poet, professor at Wellesley College, and author of "America the Beautiful," wrote rapturously of the place: "Never was there lovelier town / Than our Falmouth by the sea." Miss Bates was born in a house on Main Street which is now open to the


public as a museum. Her grave, marked with a tablet, is in Falmouth's Oak Grove Cemetery.9

    Dr. James Watson died suddenly from a stroke, at age fifty-four, on 7 June 1914. Burial was in Oak Grove Cemetery.10 He was survived by his wife, nee Kate Jones, whom he wed in 1891, and their three children: Maurice, Camilla, and Katherine.11 The admirable career of Dr. Watson encompassed years when preventive medicine and public health were in their ascendancy in the United States. A keynote of this constructive movement was sounded by Dr. William James of Harvard University, who in 1904 said: "We must go in for preventive medicine, not for radical cure."12

I am indebted for assistance to Miss Mary Kelleher reference librarian Falmouth Public Library, Mr Gilbert J. Clausman librarian, New York University School of Medicine, and Miss Judith Myers, assistant director, Westchester Medical Center Library, New York Medical College Valhalla, New York.

1.  G. N. Munsell in S. L. Deyo, ed., History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts, New York, H. W. Blake & Co., 1890 p. 247.

2.  American Medical Directory, Volume 1, A Register of Legally Qualified Physicians of the United States and Canada. Chicago, American Medical Association 1906 p. 416.

3.  Mrs Evelyn S. Gunnel, personal communication, 7 Sept 1963.

4.  Mrs Charlotte S. Harnden personal communication, 19 Aug 1980.

5.  Obituary, James Maurice Watson, Falmouth Enterprise (Falmouth, Mass.), 12 June 1914.

6.  H. L. Coit, "Factors in the conservation of child life," Arch. Pediat., 28. 721, 1910.

7.  Death of Dr. James M. Watson, Boston Med & Surg J., 171: 176, 23 July 1914.

8.  M. R. Vuilleumier and P. D. Vuilleumier, Churches on Cape Cod, Taunton, Mass., Wm. S. Sullwold Publishing, 1974, p. 105.

9. Eleanor Early, And This Is Cape Cod!, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co , 1936, p. 199.

10.  Death of James M Watson, M.D., JAMA, 63: 417, 1914.

11.  Estate document of James M Watson. Falmouth. Mass , 23 June 1914 Registry of Probate, case 17210, Barnstable County Court House, Barnstable, Mass.

12.  William James, "Remarks at the Peace Banquet," The Atlantic Monthly, 94 846, 1904.