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History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts

edited by Simeon L. Deyo.

1890. New York: H. W. Blake & Co

CHAPTER XXVI.

pages 891-921

TOWN OF BREWSTER.


by JOSIAH PAINE esq.


Incorporation.Natural Features. — Purchase and Division of the Land. — The First Settlers and their Families. — Industries. — Population. The Militia. — Religious Societies. — Villages: West Brewster, Brewster, East Brewster, South BrewsterCivil Lists. —  Meteorological Condition. — Biographical Sketches.

BREWSTER was set off from Harwich and incorporated as a town February 19, 1803. From 1747, when Harwich was divided into parishes, until the division in 1803, it was known as the north precinct or parish of Harwich. It is situated on the north side of the Cape, and is bounded east by Orleans, south by Harwich, west by Dennis, north by Cape Cod bay, and covers an area of about twenty-four square miles.

    The surface is very uneven and the soil is of various kinds. In the western and central part the soil is clayish; in the eastern part light and sandy. It is productive, especially if fertilizing substances is well applied, of cereals, the usual varieties of vegetables and grass. Much of the town, especially of the southeastern part, is covered with a small growth of oak and pine. Many large and small bowlders are found. In the west part of the town they are profusely scattered. Many of them, peculiar in shape, lie upon the surface and have the appearance of being dropped from the glacial raft which stranded upon the north side during the glacial period.

    Numerous fresh ponds are within the limits of the town, among the largest of which are Cliff, Flying Place, Winslow's, Mill, Pine, Cobb's, Rock, Griffith's, Baker's, Raph's and Sheep ponds. The chain of ponds, lying partly in this town and partly in Harwich, embraces Bangs' or Seymour's, Long, Bush, Beach and Grass ponds. A notice of this chain of ponds has been given in the preceding chapter.

    Cliff pond lies in the eastern part of the town. It derives its name from a remarkable cliff that lifts its head far above its surface. This pond, known by no other name since the days of the red men, is deep and clear, and covers many acres. Formerly wild fowl in great numbers visited it on their passage across the Cape. It is separated from Flying Place pond, by a narrow sandy neck.

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    Flying Place, or Little Cliff pond, is a clear pond of considerable size, lying northeasterly but a short distance. This pond was called by the Indians Quanoycomauk. Some portions of the Sipson's land adjoined it. A short distance northerly is a large bowlder marked plainly B. M., for Benjamin Macor, who lived hard by. Not far northward is the Rock pond, often mentioned in the early deeds of land.

    Winslow's pond, in the west part of the town, is the largest of the ponds. At the time of the settlement, and for many years after, Indians occupied land adjoining on the east. Captain Daniel, the famous Indian warrior, who did valiant service under Major Church in 1689, in Maine, resided near it, and owned a large tract adjoining it.

    Mill pond, the source of Sauquatuckett river, is connected with Winslow's pond by a narrow stream. Alewives spend the spawning season in it.

    Cobb's pond, in the north part of the town, near the shore, has an outlet into the bay. It is mentioned in the old deeds and records of land as the pond that "hath a run into the sea called Auquanest."

    Griffith's pond lies south of Cobb's pond, in the central part of the town. Stephen Griffith and many of his descendants lived near it, hence its name.

    Baker's pond is in the eastern part, and the line that divides the town from Orleans passes through it. It was called by the Indians Pomponeset. James Maker, an early settler, had a house near the pond. Afterward William Baker lived near it, since which time it has been known by its present name. Not far from it is Raph's, or Rafe's, pond.

    Sheep pond, a large, clear body of water, well surrounded by high land, lies not far north of Long pond. Some of the early residents of this section lived near by.

    The streams in the town are not large nor numerous. The most important are Quivet creek, Sauquatuckett river and Skaket or Namskaket creek.

    Quivet creek, or Bound brook, known to the Indians as Shuckquam, divides the town from Dennis in that section. The stream rises in Brewster, and flows northeasterly through the marsh into the bay.

    Sauquatuckett river rises in Mill pond, and flows northerly into the bay. This stream has been known by several names besides Sauquatuckett river. It has been called "Stoney Brook," "Satucket River," "Mill Brook " and "Winslow's Brook." Sauquatuckett is the Indian name. Upon this brook was built the first water mill in this section of the county.

    Namskaket creek, as far as it extends, divides this town from Orleans. On either side is a body of marsh, which affords an abundance

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of hay for each town. A small stream rises in the marsh near the upland, and flows into the creek near its mouth. In former times small vessels entered this creek and moored for the winter; and probably small vessels have been built here. Flats here, as they do all along the shore to Quivet, extend into the bay a very great distance. Namskaket is the Indian name of the locality, as well as of the creek. It was early known to the settlers at Plymouth. It was here that Governor Bradford landed on his way to Potonumequut in 1626, to render aid to the crew of the ship-wrecked vessel in the harbor near that place.

    The territory now Brewster was a part of the tract granted to the "Purchasers or Old Comers" in 1641, for a plantation. Attempts to extinguish the Indian title began early after the grant. In 1653, Wono, and Sachemas, his son, sachems of Sauquatuckett, and dwelling near the river, sold, for eighteen pounds sterling, to Thomas Prence, in behalf of the "Purchasers or Old Comers," a very large tract, extending from central Brewster easterly to Namskaket meadows at East Brewster, and from the sea shore southerly as far as their land extended in that direction, which, it is understood, was to the Long pond. This tract, it will be seen, embraced a large portion of what is now Brewster.

    The date of the purchase from the Indians of the tract at West Brewster, between Quivet creek and Sauquatuckett river, does not appear; but we find a record of the laying out of the lots, in 1653, by Mr. Thomas Prence, Nicholas Snow, Edward Bangs, Joseph Rogers, Giles Hopkins and Josiah Cooke, to such of the "Purchasers or Old Comers" still retaining their rights, who, at this date, were Governor Bradford, Experience Michel, Nicholas Snow, Stephen Deane, Thomas Clarke, Thomas Prence, Joseph Rogers, Giles Hopkins, John Howland, William Collier and Edward Bangs. Mr. Michel did not long retain an interest in the reservation. After giving his son-in-law, John Washburn, his lot laid out, he sold all his right to other land here, in 1654, to Thomas Clarke, of Plymouth, who yet was holding rights in the reservation as an original purchaser.

    The land between the first purchase, in 1653, and Sauquatuckett river, from the sea shore to the line of the South precinct southerly, was subsequently purchased at different times, of Sachemas, the sachem, and other noted Indians, who derived from him their rights to sell.

    The tracts purchased were divided, and each proprietor had his proportion assigned him, and a record made in "ye Purchasers Book of records," which is now lost.

    The Sipsons' land, which has been mentioned in Chapter XXV, extended within the limits of this town up to Cliff and Rock pond.

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    The line between their land and land belonging to Sachemas, which was sold to Mr. Prence and partners in 1653, commenced on the beach near the boundary stone at Bush Beach pond, and running northeasterly, terminated near the pond at "Grassy Nook," which lies a short distance southwest of Cliff pond. The tract embraces many acres, and a very great portion of it is now covered with a small growth of oak and pine.

    The lots of upland laid out on the easterly side of Quivet creek in 1653, by the committee of the " Purchasers or Old Comers," contained each twenty acres, with meadow adjoining. The lot laid out to Experience Michell was the first that was disposed of. After passing into the hands of John Washburn, son-in-law of Mr. Michell, it was sold to Governor Bradford. This lot was next to Governor Bradford, on the east. Governor Bradford's lot was the first on the east side of Quivet creek. These two lots were sold by Mrs. Alice Bradford, widow of Governor Bradford, November 23, 1664, together with the meadow belonging thereto, to Richard Sears, of Yarmouth. These two lots contained forty acres of upland, and were held by Richard Sears until his death in 1676, when they passed into the possession of his eldest son, Paul Sears. Some of this land is yet owned by his descendants. It was upon one of these lots that Samuel Sears, son of Paul, selected his farm and spent his life. The next to sell his lot was Giles Hopkins, of Eastham, who came in the Mayflower. His was the eighth lot. It was purchased by John Wing, November 9, 1666, he giving Mr. Hopkins a "mare colt." Mr. Wing became a purchaser of three more lots of the "Sasuet land," as it was sometimes called by the early settlers, viz.: the ninth lot laid out to John Howland, the tenth lot laid out to William Collier, and the eleventh lot laid out to Edward Bangs. The sixth lot laid out to Thomas Prence was purchased, June 24, 1668, by John Dillingham, who also purchased the seventh laid out to Lieutenant Joseph Rogers, of Eastham, a fellow-passenger with Giles Hopkins and John Howland in the Mayflower.

    The third lot, laid out to Nicholas Snow, of Eastham, was purchased in 1669 by Peter Warden, who soon sold it to his son-in-law, Kenelm Winslow, who also purchased the fourth lot of Peter Warden, which had been laid out to Stephen Deane, of Plymouth. Mr. Thomas Clarke, to whom was laid out the fifth lot, retained in his possession the lot, together with all the right he had to the undivided land between the two rivers, until 1693, when, by deed, he conveyed it, with his other land on the east side of the Sauquatuckett river, to his sons and grandsons.

    But a short time after the "Purchasers or Old Comers " sold their rights to the land between Bound brook and Sauquatuckett river, the heirs of Napoitan, the Indian sachem of Barnstable, claimed rights

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to the land held by the proprietors. The proprietors very wisely agreed to extinguish their title. Whereupon John Wing and John Dillingham, in behalf of themselves, "associates or partners," and "their heirs and assigns," purchased the rights of the heirs of Napoitan, and, to have no further dispute as to titles, secured from the successors of the "Purchasers or Old Comers." to whom the land had been granted, a quit claim deed of all the territory between the Yarmouth line on the west and the following described line on the east:

    "Beginning at ye sea where Stoney Brooks runs out, and so ranging as ye brook runs, by ye middle of ye mill dam yt now is; from thence ranging south until it meets with the Yarmouth line." The Yarmouth line at this time ran from Bound brook where the road crosses in a southeasterly course to the "South Sea." An account of this line is given in the history of Harwich. The point where the lines formed a junction was within the limits of the present town of Harwich. This territory, from the year 1659 to the incorporation of Harwich in 1694, was within the "liberties of Yarmouth," and within its limits the settlement of the present town of Brewster began. The territory on the east side of Sauquatuckett river was, from the same date to the incorporation, within the "constablerick" or "liberties" of Eastham.

Settlers.—Among the settlers of the place before 1700 were: John Wing, John Dillingham, Kenelm Winslow, William Griffith, Andrew Clarke, John Freeman, jr., Samuel Sears, Thomas Freeman, Joseph Paine, Thomas Crosby, James Cole, William Parslow, John Gray, Peter Worthen, Stephen Hopkins, William Merrick and Jonathan Bangs.

    John Wing, a Quaker, came from Sandwich. He was the son of John Wing, who came from England, and finally settled in Sandwich in 1639. His mother, it is said, was a daughter of Rev. Stephen Bachilor, noticed at page 368. Mr. Wing was a. large landholder, residing between the two rivers. His death occurred in the summer of 1699. He was twice married. His first wife, Elizabeth, died January 3, 1692. She is called upon the Yarmouth records "Goody Wing." He married for his second wife Merriam, daughter of Stephen Deane of Plymouth, whose widow married Josiah Cooke of Eastham. Miss Deane was well in years when she married Goodman Wing. She died in 1702. By wife Elizabeth John Wing had seven children: Susannah, Ephraim, Joseph, Ananias, John, Oseah and a son who was drowned in the snow about December 11, 1648.

    John Dillingham, the neighbor of John Wing, came from Sandwich. His father was Edward Dillingham, a settler of that town. He was born in England about 1630. He removed to the east side of Bound brook not far from 1667. He was also a member of the Society of Friends, and the records show that meetings were often held at

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his house. He was a large landholder, and appears to have been the wealthiest of the Sauquatuckett settlers. His tax paid to Yarmouth in 1676 amounted to £6, 17s., 9d. His first wife was Elizabeth Feake of Sandwich, to whom he was married March 24, 1650. His second wife was Elizabeth, who died aged seventy-three, December 15, 1720. He lived a quiet and peaceable life, and died aged eighty-five, May 21, 1715, and was buried in the old cemetery west of Sauquatuckett river, where a stone, with inscription, marks the spot of burial. He had several children. His only son, John, born in 1663, died September 11, 1746.

    Kenelm Winslow came from Marshfield, where he was born about 1637. He was a son of Kenelm Winslow, who came from Droitwich, England. He married for his first wife Mercy, daughter of Peter Warden of Yarmouth, about 1666. She died September 22, 1688, in her forty-eighth year, and was buried in the old cemetery at East Dennis, which was reserved for a burial place by her brother, Samuel Warden. Mr. Winslow married for his second wife Damaris ——. He died November 11, 1715, and was buried beside his wife in the Warden burying ground, where a stone with inscription marks the place of his sepulture. He resided in West Brewster, near the house occupied by Edmund Hall. He was a wealthy man of his time. He seems to have been of a different religious training than his neighbors, John Wing and John Dillingham. He had a large family. He was a "clothier" and farmer, and owned a fulling mill on Sauquatuckett river, with some of his neighbors. His eldest son, Kenelm, born in 1667, married Bethiah Hall, January 5, 1689, and settled near him. From this Kenelm descended the present Winslows in the town.

    William Griffith came from Sandwich, where he is mentioned as: assisting in the settlement of the estate of Edward Dillingham in 1667. He purchased of Thomas Prence one half the corn mill on the Sauquatuckett river, removed thither and occupied a place on the west side of the river, and became the miller. He sold out his place, together with his share of the mill, to Thomas Clarke, and removed to the vicinity of Monomoyick, where he was residing in 1691. Stephen Griffith, who settled in the town after 1700, was doubtless his son.

    Andrew Clarke was the son of Thomas Clarke of Plymouth. He removed to this town from Boston about 1678, where he had married Mehitabel Scottoway, and settled on the west side of Stoney brook upon his father's land. He died about 1706, and his wife died in 1712. He had, besides other children: Thomas, born in Boston in 1672, settled on the east side of the river; Scotto, Andrew and Nathaniel. Many descendants of Thomas Clarke are yet living in this town.

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    John Freeman, jr., born in 1651, was the son of Major John Freeman of Eastham, and settled on the east side of Sauquatuckett river upon his father's land. The precise spot where he built his house is not pointed out, but there is evidence that it was on the north side of the lower road, about north of the Freeman house, now occupied by Anthony F. Brier and near the cemetery. Mr. Freeman took but little interest in town affairs. He was a large landholder and a highly respected citizen. He was twice married, and had four sons and seven daughters. He was one of the eight who formed the first church in 1700. He died July 27, 1721. His first wife, Sarah, died April 21, 1696; his second wife, Mercy, died September 27, 1721, aged sixty-three. But few of the descendants of Mr. Freeman in the male line reside in the town.

    Samuel Sears, son of Paul, and grandson of Richard Sears, born in 1663, settled not far eastward of Bound brook. His first house was built upon the spot where the house of Constant Sears stands. His second was built where the late Samuel Ripley Sears house stands. The last one was taken down but a few years ago. Mr. Sears was a large land holder. He married Mercy, daughter of Samuel and Tamsin Mayo, and died January 8, 1741-2. His wife died January 20, 1748, in her eighty-fourth year. He had two daughters; his sons were: Samuel, Nathaniel, Jonathan, Joseph, Joshua, Judah, John, Seth and Benjamin. Joshua, Judah and Benjamin removed from town.

    Thomas Freeman, son of Major John Freeman of Eastham, born in 1653, married Rebecca, daughter of Jonathan Sparrow, December 31, 1673, and not long after settled upon land here, which he had of his father. He was a very prominent man in the settlement, was one of the petitioners for the incorporation of the town, and in 1700 one of the founders of the first church. He was the first town clerk whose name appears upon the first book of Harwich records, and one of the first selectmen of the town. He died February 9, 1715-16. His wife, Rebecca, died in 1740, aged eighty-five years. He was the first deacon of the church. He had ten children. His sons, Thomas, Edmund and Joseph, were prominent men.

    Joseph Paine, son of Thomas and Mary Paine, born in Eastham, married Patience Sparrow, daughter of Jonathan, Esq., and sister of the above Rebecca, who married Thomas Freeman. He was one of the founders of the church in 1700, and one of the first selectmen. He succeeded Thomas Freeman as town clerk in 1706. He died of a fever while in office, October 1, 1712. His children were: Ebenezar, Hannah, Joseph, Richard, Dorcas, Phebe, Reliance, Thomas, Mary, Jonathan and Experience. But few of his descendants yet remain in town. Prof. J. K. Paine, of Harvard College, is a descendant.

    Thomas Crosby came from Eastham, where he had been a

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resident many years, and settled in the east part of the town. He was a graduate of Harvard College in 1653, and was some time after 1655 in charge of the church at Eastham. He was a trader in Eastham as well as here. He died at Boston, suddenly, while there on business, June 13, 1702. He was one of the first members of the first church in 1700. By his wife, Sarah, he had twelve children: Thomas, Simon, Sarah, Joseph, John, William, Ebenezar, Mercy. Ann, Increase and Eleazar, Mercy, Ann and Increase were triplets. All the Crosbys of the town are his descendants. It is understood that he was the son of Mr. Simon Crosby, who came from England and settled in Cambridge.

    James Cole came from Eastham, where he was born November 30, 1655. His father was Daniel Cole. He was one of the petitioners for the incorporation of the town. He died in 1717.

    William Parslow was an early resident. He married Susannah Wing and settled in the north part of the town. He has no descendants here.

    John Gray was a native of Yarmouth. He married Susannah, daughter of Andrew Clarke, about 1693, and settled upon a tract of land on the east side of the river at West Brewster. His house stood not far from the house of Nathan Kenny. He was a wealthy and influential citizen. He died March 31, 1732, aged sixty years. His wife died September 10, 1731, aged fifty-seven years. He left sons and daughters. He has no male descendants in Brewster.

    Stephen Hopkins, son of Giles Hopkins of Eastham, removed from that town about 1702, and settled upon land which he received from his father. He was twice married. His first wife was Mary, daughter of William Merrick, and his second wife was Mrs. Bethia Atkins. He died October 10, 1718, aged seventy-six. He had six sons, who settled in the town, and three daughters.

    William Myrick came from Eastham and settled within the limits of the town after 1670. He was the eldest son of William Merrick and was born in 1643. He was a prominent man in the settlement, was one of the eight who formed the first church, and was a selectman of Harwich several years. He was twice married. His first wife was Mary, daughter of Giles Hopkins, and his second wife was Elizabeth. He died October 30, 1732, aged eighty-nine years. He had a large family. His son, Nathaniel, born in 1673, was a prominent man.

    Jonathan Bangs, son of Edward Bangs, it appears, was not a resident until after 1694. He inherited his father's possessions between Sauquatuckett river and Namskaket, which belonged to him as a "Purchaser or Old Comer." He married Mary Mayo, July 16, 1664. She died January 26, 1711, "in her sixty-ninth year. His second wife, Sarah, died June, 1719, aged seventy-seven, and in 1720 he married

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Mrs. Ruth Young, daughter of Daniel Cole. His sons were Edward, Jonathan and Samuel. But a few of the descendants bearing the name yet reside in the town.

    Among the settlers between 1700 and 1750 were Thomas Lincoln, Jonathan Lincoln, Nicholas Snow, Edward Snow, John Snow, James Maker, George Weekes, Robert Astine, Judah Berry, Jonathan Cobb, Chillingsworth Foster, John Mayo, John Tucker, Gershom Phinney, John King, John Fletcher, David Paddock, Ichabod Vickerie, Patrick Maraman, Richard Godfrey and Seth Dexter.

Industries.—The manufacture of salt by solar heat began to be an important industry in the place while it was a part of Harwich, and continued for some years after it was a town. It was estimated that in 1809 there were between sixty and seventy thousand feet of works within the township. The first to suggest the use of the pump mill in filling the vats with salt water was Major Nathaniel Freeman, of this place, in 1785. The use of the rolling roof to cover the vats in case of rain, was the invention of Reuben Sears of this place, a carpenter, in 1793. This industry was one of profit at the start, and so continued until the last war with England, when it began to decline.

    Before the revolution this part of Harwich was largely interested in the whale fishery. The vessels engaged were sloops and schooners. The business was lucrative, and the neighborhood was greatly benefited. The foremost in the business was Benjamin Bangs. He had several vessels which pursued the business in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The industry was greatly disturbed by the revolutionary war, and was finally given up. In 1803 only two fishing vessels were employed. After this time some interest was taken in the fisheries, but not as formerly. In 1845, there were four vessels employed in the cod and mackerel fishery. At the present time no vessel sails from the town. The culture of the cranberry is now engaged in to a considerable extent.

Population.—The population of the town according to the United States census reports has been: In 1810, 1,112; in 1820, 1,285; in 1830, 1,418; in 1840, 1,522; in 1850, 1,525; in 1860, 1,489; in 1870, 1,263; in 1880, 1,144.

Militia.—This town was noted for its interest in military affairs. In 1810 a company of artillery was organized here, with Benjamin Foster, captain, who served till June 2, 1812, when he was succeeded by Abiel Crosby. Jeremiah Mayo succeeded Captain Crosby March 11, 1819, and served until July 18, 1820, when he was succeeded by Freeman Higgins. Captain Higgins was succeeded by William Shiverick, in 1822, who, May 20, 1823, was succeeded by Joshua Winslow. With the company of artillery organized at Falmouth in 1806, a battalion of artillery was formed, which, with three Barnstable county regiments

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of infantry, formed the Third Brigade of the Fifth Division of Massachusetts militia. The majors of this battalion, belonging to Brewster, were Benjamin Foster, commissioned May 2, 1811, and Jeremiah Mayo, his successor, May 29, 1820. The adjutants of the battalion residing here were: Joseph Sampson from 1812 to 1815; William Freeman from 1815 to 1819; and Ezekiel H. Higgins from 1819 to 1823. The battalion was disbanded in 1831.

    Major Elijah Cobb, of this town, was promoted to the office of brigadier general of the Third Brigade, April 11, 1815, by election, and was duly commissioned, taking the position made vacant by the resignation of General Lothrop, of Barnstable. General Cobb appointed as his staff officers from this town, Joseph Sampson, brigade major, and Freeman Foster, brigade quarter-master. General Cobb was succeeded in 1821 by Major Jonathan Mayo, who had served as major of the battalion. Brigadier General Mayo was succeeded by Colonel Ebenezer D. Winslow in 1830, who held the position until 1833, when Colonel Sabin Smith succeeded him. While Brigadier General Winslow was in command of his brigade, he for a short period acted as major general of the Fifth Division, in the absence of Major General Washburn.

    Before the revolutionary war, West Brewster was long the headquarters of the Second regiment of militia. Thomas Winslow, who resided westward of the river, was the colonel many years. His son, Zenas Winslow, was some years lieutenant colonel, after 1775, of the militia, while Samuel Knowles was colonel. Colonel Thomas Winslow was a man of note. He occupied many important civil positions, and died April 10, 1779. The following is the inscription upon the stone erected at the head of his grave in the Warden burying ground at East Dennis:

    "In memory of the Hon. Thomas Winslow, who departed this life, April 10, 1779, in the 75th year of his age."

Religious societies.—The first church here was the Congregational, organized October 16, 1700. The members, beside the pastor, who that day put their names to the covenant were Thomas Crosby. William Merrick, John Freeman, Thomas Freeman, Edward Bangs, Simon Crosby and Joseph Paine. This church, after the division of the town into precinct or parishes in 1747, and upon the organization of the Second or South church, that year, was called the First church.

    The first pastor, Rev. Nathaniel Stone, was a native of Watertown, Mass., born in April, 1667. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1690, and came to Harwich to preach some time before the church was gathered. A sermon he preached here Sunday forenoon, March 6, 1697-8, from Lam. 3.33 is yet preserved. He continued in the ministry here until his death February 8, 1755, in his eighty-ninth

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year. Mr. Stone had as a colleague in the ministry after 1748, Mr. Dunster. He was "a man of piety, of talents and of firmness, much revered and beloved by the people of his charge." He left a record of the church over which he was so long pastor, which is carefully preserved. He married Reliance, daughter of Governor Thomas Hinckley of Barnstable, and was the father of twelve children. His eldest son, Nathan, born in Harwich, February 18, 1707-8, graduated at Harvard College in 1726, and settled in the ministry at Southboro, Mass., in 1730, where he died in 1781. His son, Nathaniel, born November 29, 1713, died in 1777, was a prominent man in this parish. Mrs. Stone, wife of the minister, died May 24, 1752, in her eighty-fourth year. Mr. Stone's house stood but a short distance northerly from the house of Captain William Freeman.

    Rev. Isaiah Dunster, the second pastor of the old church, was born in Cambridge, October 21, 1720. He was educated at Harvard, and graduated in 1741. He was ordained as the colleague of Mr. Stone, November 2, 1748, and was continued in the ministry here till his death, January 18, 1791. His first wife was Hannah, daughter of Rev. Josiah Dennis of Yarmouth. His second wife was Mary Smith of Pembroke. Rev. John Simpkins, jr., his successor, was born in Boston, April 18, 1768, was graduated at Harvard College in 1786, and was ordained pastor, October 19, 1791. He continued in the ministry here till 1831. His death occurred at Boston, February 28, 1843. His wife, Olive, died at the same place, April 14, 1844, in her eighty-first year. They were both interred at Mt. Auburn. He married Olive, daughter of Nathaniel Stone, Esq., and had children: Caroline, Nathaniel S., John, Samuel G. and Elizabeth. Mr. Simpkins' house was standing a few years since. The site is now marked by the house of Captain William Freeman.

    The successes of Mr. Simpkins was Rev. Samuel Williams, who was ordained April 25, 1832. He was born in 1803, and graduated at Harvard College in 1824. He continued in the ministry here until 1844. He married Temperance Mayo of this town. He died at St. Paul, Minn., October 21, 1884.

    Mr. Williams was succeeded by Rev. James L. Stone in 1845. He remained here several years. His successor was Rev. F. R. Newell, who was installed November 13, 1847. Mr. Newell was pastor to September, 1853. He married Miss Mary D. Berry of this town. He died some years ago. Among those who supplied the pulpit until Mr. Chaffe came - were Revs. Bellows, Pratt, Damon, Bridge and Ponds.

    Rev. Nathaniel 0. Chaffe supplied the pulpit from December, 1853, till 1855. Revs. Mosely and Orril followed Mr. Chaffe as supplies till the meeting house was closed for repairs. After being opened, Rev.

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Moses G. Thomas supplied the pulpit a while. From 1856, Rev. Thomas W. Brown occupied the pulpit until 1864, when he closed his labors here and became pastor of the Sandwich church.

    The successor of Mr. Brown was Rev. Horatio Alger, jr., from December 8, 1864, until 1866, followed by Rev. George Dexter, who continued pastor until 1870. Rev. James H. Collins succeeded Rev. Mr. Dexter, May 7, 1870, and was succeeded in 1872 by Rev. Thomas Dawes, who is yet pastor of the church.

    The first deacon of this church was Thomas Freeman. He was chosen to the office November 28, 1700. Upon his death, which occurred in 1716, " Mr. Thomas Crosby and Thomas Lincoln were chosen by ye Chh with ye concurrence of their pastor to succeed in that office." Deacon Crosby was succeeded by Chillingsworth Foster and Deacon Lincoln by Joseph Mayo, in 1740. At the death of Deacon Foster, in 1766, the "Chh made choice of Bro. Heman Stone and Bro. Edmund Freeman to serve in the deacon's office, the pastor the same time consented."

    The first house of worship erected in this place stood near or where the present Unitarian church stands. In 1713, it having been found too small for the accommodation of the inhabitants of the town, a vote was passed in town meeting, October 14th, "to build an addition to the back side or end eighteen feet in breadth, and so from end to end of the meeting house as high as the walls." This house had no pews, excepting one occupied by the minister's wife. The enlargement of the house caused the town to appoint a committee to have the seating "of parsons or to place parsons where they should sit in the meeting house." In 1715, two of the prominent attendants, Captain Samuel Sears and Lieutenant Thomas Clarke, thought they would like to have pews, so permission was granted them, upon condition they would "fill them as full as convenient;" and a committee was appointed with instructions to lay them out in some vacant place at each end of the meeting house, and "not to straiten the allies" in doing so. This enlargement seems not to have been sufficient for Mr. Stone's growing congregation a few years later. In 1722 a vote was passed in town meeting to erect a new meeting house near the site of the old house of worship, and a committee of five, all north side men, was appointed to carry on the work at the " town's cost." Their instructions were to build it as they thought proper as to "length, breadth and height," and have it "built with good timber, boarded, shingled, clapboarded, plastered and glazed." The meeting house was completed and places for pews sold in September, 1723. This house had galleries, as three seats in the men's galleries were reserved for older boys to sit in. No boy above twelve years of age sat in the galleries, it seems, at this time. The old edifice, the records say, was given to

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John Mayo, who had been "burned out," to make up in part the loss he had sustained.

    In 1760 the meeting house underwent repairs at the expense of the precinct, under the supervision of Benjamin Bang's, Colonel Thomas Winslow and the precinct committee, viz.: Edmund Freeman, John Snow and Jabez Snow. Besides repairing, a steeple was added, on which was placed a "ball and vane," a small porch added on the front side, and new pews made. This meeting house was enlarged in 1796, and a tower and steeple erected at the west end to the height of 110 feet. In 1834 the old house of worship was taken down and the present one erected upon the site.

    The Reformed Methodist Society was formed in this town in 1822. The meeting house occupied by the society stood in West Brewster, near the old Methodist cemetery. It was taken down a few years since. It was known as the old, " Red Top." Many of the early members of the society had been members of the first Methodist Society in Harwich.

    The Universalist Society was organized in November, 1824. The first members were: Gen. Elijah Cobb, Freeman Foster, Isaac. Lincoln, Isaac Lincoln, jr., E. D. Winslow, Barnabas F. Cobb, Jonathan Thacher, Barnabas Thacher, Heman Griffith and Theophilus Berry. The first house of worship was erected in 1828. It stood on the south side of the road, nearly opposite the present town hall. Upon the building of the new church edifice, in 1852, it was removed about one half of a mile westward, and converted into a dwelling house, which for a time was used as a hotel, and known as the "Ocean House." The second house of worship was dedicated December 1, 1852. The society, becoming reduced by deaths and removals, the house of worship was sold to W. W. Knowles. The surviving members, and others in sympathy with them, erected the chapel in 1879 in which services are now held. The present pastor is Rev. C. A. Bradley. Upon the dedication of the first house of worship, in 1828, Rev. Charles Spear, well known in after years as " the prisoner's friend," was ordained, a church organized, Sabbath school and an efficient benevolent organization established. Mr. Spear remained with the society until 1832. The following are the ministers who have served the society since 1832: Revs. Abraham Norwood, 1833; N. Gunnison, 1837; J. V. Wilson, 1839: T. K. Taylor, 1840; S. Bennett, 1843; N. B. Newell, 1845; 0. W. Bacon, 1848; W. Bell, 1849; Cyrus A. Bradley, 1851 to 1857; Luther Walcott, 1857; Thomas Walton, 1858, and Cyrus A. Bradley, who has been pastor here and at Yarmouth Port since 1873.

    The Baptist church was constituted December 23, 1824. The first members were: Nathaniel Hopkins, Samuel Berry, Elisha Crocker, John Wing, Barack Eldridge, Jonathan Gray, John Bangs, Lucy

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Atwood, Betsey Crosby, Elizabeth Hopkins, Abner Robbins, Sarah Crocker, Betsey Berry, Priscilla Snow, Nancy Mayo, Sally Winslow, Betsey Doane, Judith Robbins, Hannah Wing, Clarrisa Winslow, Polly Bangs, Betsey Crosby, Sarah Harris, Dida McCloud, Hannah Crowell, Lydia Crowell, Polly Rogers, Polly Clark. Rhoda Sears, Patience Eldridge, Tabatha Hopkins and Abigail Dillingham. Most of these persons had been members of the Baptist church in Harwich, and were dismissed to form this church. The first deacons were Elisha Crocker and Abner Robbins. For some time after its organization, the church, it appears, had no regular pastor. Rev. Otis Wing, a native of the place and just ordained as a Baptist minister, supplied the pulpit a period. Rev. Stephen Coombs, who also had just entered the ministry, supplied awhile. Rev. Jesse Pease preached here as a supply. Rev. John Peak, while pastor of the Hyannis church, and after his dismissal, preached here occasionally. He preached here several Sabbaths in 1828, at which period, of the eight Baptist churches in the county, only one, the West Yarmouth Baptist church, had a pastor. The following is the list of those who supplied the pulpit between 1833 and 1861: Revs. Henry Marchant, Calvin Clark, Thomas Conant, David Culver, Joshua L. Whittemore, Stephen Coombs, John Upton, Enoch E. Chase, Phineas Bond, Robert Lentell, T. Wakefield, Franklin Daman, Mr. Conant, N. B. Jones, D. P. French, Mr. Byrne, Mr. Upton, Mr. Demings, Charles G. Hatch, E. E. Chase, J. M. Mace, Joseph H. Seaver, W. W. Ashley, A. J. Ashley, Mr. Hill, A. J. Ashley, Mr. Bronson and Mr. Sherman. In 1861. Rev. Joseph Barbour came. Since 1861, beside the present pastor, Rev. J. S. Johnson, the ministers have been: Revs. E. T. Hill, George Carpenter, J. Wassal, Mr. Adlam, Joseph B. Reed, William R. Elsdon, D. C. Easton, 0. P. Bessey, William H. Fish, F. Purvis, T. P. Briggs and J. C. Lamb. The first meeting house of the society was erected in 1828. The present one was erected in 1860, near the site of the first structure. Elisha Crocker, for a long time the church clerk, is at present a deacon.

Villages.— West Brewster was once a village of importance. It includes what was formerly designated Factory Village. Winslow's Mills, and Brewster's Mills. The Indian name of the whole region, stretching from each side of the river, was Sauquatuckett, which for the sake of brevity has long been called Satucket. It was on the east side of the river, in "Sachemas Neck," that the Indian sachem, Sachemas had his planting ground and probably resided. All territory bordering on the east side of the river below the road, when the settlers came, had been cleared, and was known as the "Indian fields."

    The first grist mill built on the river, stood near on the spot

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where the present one stands. It was built through the efforts of Governor Thomas Prence before 1662, for the benefit of the Eastham settlers who brought their grists here. Who the first miller was. is not positively known, but there is some evidence that John Wing was among the first. The records of Eastham show that Mr. Freeman was asked to agree with John Wing for the building of a chimney adjoining the mill. This mill finally passed into the possession of the Clarkes, Grays and Winslows.

    Very near the grist mill, a fulling mill was erected at an early date. It passed into the hands of Kenelm Winslow, the second of the name. A fulling mill belonging to Kenelm Winslow, was burnt here on the night of February 24, 1760, consuming, it was estimated, one thousand pounds worth of cloth which had been left here by persons living in various parts of the county.

    In 1814, a company, consisting of Kenelm, Isaac, Nathaniel, Abraham, Nathan, Josiah, Joseph and John Winslow, started a woolen factory in connection with the fulling mill upon Stoney brook, which was in operation several years; but not proving successful, a cotton factory was started in its stead, and after several years of trial, the manufacture of cotton goods was given up and wool carding and paper making were engaged in. The site of these factories is now marked by the grist mill, erected a few years since by Bartlett Winslow and T. D. Sears, and now owned by J. Howard Winslow. The fulling mill, in connection with the woolen factory, was for awhile in charge of Josiah Wilder, afterwards of Truro, whilst the grist mill was in charge of Heman Winslow.

    The Clarks and Wings had a tide mill on the river near the house of T. D. Sears, which was not long in operation. The erection of this mill was about the middle of the last century. Many of these mills were erected about that period, in various parts of the county.

    The traders here have been: Abraham Winslow, Frederick Winslow, Nathan S. Dillingham, Nathan Winslow, Elijah B. Sears and B. B. Winslow. Abraham Winslow's store stood near the river. He commenced business quite early in the century. Mr. Dillingham removed to Boston and carried on business, and died a few years since. Mr. Sears' store was west of the river on the road to East Dennis. He removed to North Harwich about 1866 and opened a store. Bartlett B. Winslow commenced the stove and tin plate business in 1854, in a store on the north side of Main street near his dwelling house, which he sold in 1866. Taking in Benjamin Freeman, jr., as partner, he built the same year a much larger store on the opposite side of the street, in which was carried on the stove and tin plate business, in connection with the grocery trade. In 1868 he purchased Mr. Freeman's interest, and continued

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the business until 1876, when he sold out his interest in the stove and tin plate department to Thomas D. Sears. In 1884 he sold out his other store business to Mr. Sears, and is now engaged in the cranberry culture. Mr. Sears, in 1887, sold his interest in the grocery business, which is carried on in the store on the lower floor of the building, to F. B. Crocker, who still continues in the business. Mr. Sears yet remains in the tin plate and stove business.

    Isaac Dillingham was engaged here in 1839 in the manufacture of tin, sheet iron and copper ware, and was a dealer in cooking stoves, etc. William Winslow carried on the tanning and currying business on the east side of the river prior to 1871.

    The cabinetmakers long established here were Joseph and John Winslow. The shoemaker was Freeman Winslow. He was actively engaged here about 1819. The hatter was Rev. Davis Lothrop, who died at West Harwich in 1889.

    The present trader on the west side of the river is Eben F. Ryder, who is the postmaster.

    The knitting factory, the only important manufacturing establishment of the place, was started some years since by Robbins & Everett. They first occupied a small building near T. D. Sears' store. After a few years they built a larger two-story building on the north side of the road, westward of B. B. Winslow's house. Mr. Everett retired in 1889, and the business is now carried on by Albert Robbins, the senior partner.

    The first postmaster of the place was Dean Bangs. He was appointed April 26, 1826. At first the post office designation was "Brewster Mills." After several years it became West Brewster. Mr. Bangs was a school teacher and wheelwright. He was succeeded by Joshua. Winslow, who was appointed March 22, 1832. The postmasters since then have been: Frederick Winslow, appointed March 23, 1836: Freeman Ryder, July 26, 1839: Clarissa Winslow, May 31, 1848; Nathan Winslow, November 7, 1850; David Harwood, Rodolphus McCloud, Mercy Ryder and Eben F. Ryder.

    This part of the town is somewhat noted for its old houses. The one standing on the north side of the road, about forty rods eastward of Bound brook, where the road crosses, and occupied some years since by the late Miss Vienna Sears, is the house in which Captain Isaac Sears, the distinguished "son of liberty," who figured in New York as " King Sears," first saw the light. It was built in 1719 or 1720 for Joshua Sears, the son of Samuel, the settler, who, in 1736, removed with his large family to Norwalk, Conn. Isaac Sears was born here in 1730, and was, it will be seen, a lad when his father removed. He finally settled in New York, and was one of the foremost there in opposing the enforcement of the stamp act of 1765. But few men

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were better known in New York during the years preceding the revolutionary struggle, or were more active in the cause of liberty. At the close of the conflict he engaged in seafaring business. On a voyage to Batavia and Canton he died of a fever, October 28, 1786, and was buried on French island. The old house has been in the possession of the Sears family since its erection. A few years since it underwent repairs. Near it, to the southward, is the old Sears burying ground, where many of the early residents by the name of Sears lie buried. Within a few years it has been enclosed with a durable fence of stone and iron. On the old road from the Mill brook to Dennis, eastward of the house of Jeremiah Walker on the north side of the road, stands the house built for Judah Sears about 1731. It is of the style of that age, two stories in front and one story in rear. It is now much in need of repairs. Judah Sears was a son of Samuel and brother of Joshua Sears, and removed after 1752 to Rochester, Mass.

    The date of the erection of the old Dillingham house on the north side of the lower road. not far eastward of Quivet meadow, is not known, but there is an impression existing that it was built very early in the last century. It stands very near, if not upon the site of the first house built by John Dillingham, the settler.

    The house now occupied by Mrs. Julia Winslow and the one next westward, formerly occupied by Joseph Winslow, are considered quite old. These houses stand on the high ground just east of the river. Mrs. Winslow's house was formerly occupied by Nathan Winslow.

    The Dillingham burying ground, on the road to East Dennis west of the river, on the north side of the road, is the oldest in this part of the town. The oldest stone bearing an inscription is the one to the memory of John Dillingham, the settler, who died "May ye 21, 1715."

    The village of Brewster includes the central part of the town, and is the principal one in the town. It contains the Unitarian church, Baptist church, the town hall, library building, and most of the stores in town. This portion of the town was not so early settled as the west part. Among the early residents were Thomas Freeman, Jonathan Bangs, Edward Bangs, Chillingsworth Foster, Joseph Paine, Stephen Griffith, John Mayo, James Cole, Judah Berry, William Merrick and Edward Snow.

    Prominent among the traders here before 1800, were Edward Bangs, Nathaniel Stone, Benjamin Bangs, Silvanus Stone, John Silk and Benjamin Bangs.

    Edward Bangs had a store and public house where the Unitarian parsonage stands. He was in business here in 1709, in which year

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his barn and its valuable contents were consumed by incendiary fire. He died in 1746.

    Nathaniel Snow occupied a store near his house, which stood just north of the house of Captain William Freeman. He was a man of business in every respect. He was succeeded in business by his son, Silvanus Stone, who continued in trade after the beginning of the present century.

    Benjamin Bangs, a grandson of the innholder and shop keeper, Edward Bangs, commenced business on the old place during the middle of the last century. He was first engaged in sea-faring business. He was a very successful merchants. He was interested in the whale fishery, and fitted out whale vessels. He died in 1769. His son, Benjamin Bangs, carried on the store business here before and after 1800. He was also successful. He died in 1814. The old house in which these three traders lived was taken down in 1868, and the present house, occupied by the pastor of the Unitarian church, was built.

    John Silk, an enterprising citizen, opened a store on the north side of the road opposite E. E. Knowles house. He was an Irishman from the county of Kilkenny. He died in 1793. His widow married Edward O'Bryan who was for some time postmaster here.

    Jeremiah and David Mayo had stores here a quarter of a century ago. Elisha Crocker, jr., with Mr. Kimball, opened a store a short distance east of the Unitarian church in 1852. They sold out their business in the fall of that year to W. W. Knowles, who continued the business at this place until 1866, when he purchased the Universalist church, fitted it up for a store, and removed his goods to it, and has since remained here. In 1880 he took in his son, William M., and they now carry on the business under the firm name of W. W. Knowles & Co.

    Warren Lincoln opened a store in his house in 1853. In 1855 he bought the building occupied by Nathan Winslow as a store in West Brewster, and removed it to the present site, and opened a store; since which time he has continued in the business.

    Freeman Atwood, who opened a grocery store here in 1877, and his son, Freeman D., have a fish weir on the flats, which was first put up in 1857. Near Mr. Atwood's place is the old Atwood House, over a century old, the timber of which, it is said, was cut near by.

    The first postmaster at Brewster was Silvanus Stone, appointed July 1, 1804. His successors have been: William Stone, appointed October 1, 1805; Edward O'Bryan, March 8, 1810; Joseph Sampson, October 1, 1815, Jeremiah Mayo, February 11, 1833; Dean Bangs, May 8, 1849; Ebenezer H. Knowles, April 3, 1851, Joseph C. Crosby, Martha B. Huckins, W. W. Knowles, and Frank S. Allen, the present incumbent,

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who was appointed in 1887. Mr. O'Bryan for a while kept the office upon the spot where Miss Matilda Cobb's house stands. Mr. Stone kept the office in his store; Doctor Sampson kept it on the corner, while General Jeremiah Mayo kept it where Captain E. E. Knowles now resides, it being then his place of residence.

    The Brewster Ladies' Library Association was organized by the ladies of the village, December 23, 1852. By the persistency, stead-fastness and zeal of the members from very humble beginnings, it has now in its possession and management a fine building and library The building stands a few rods west of the Baptist church on the south side of the road. The rear part of the present structure was the first erected for the library purposes in 1868. The funds for its erection were obtained by the young ladies through entertainments given by them, and from a generous contribution by the late Joseph Nickerson of Boston, a native of the town. The library has increased from 210 volumes in 1852 to over three thousand volumes in 1889. The officers for 1889 were: Miss Lolie Bangs, president; Miss Hattie Burrell, vice-president; Mrs. Zoeth Snow, secretary and treasurer; Misses Lottie Snow, Sallie Foster, and Mrs. H. J. Collins, directors; Mrs. Emily B. Rowe, librarian.

    East Brewster is the post office designation of the territory in the northeast part of the town. Among the early settlers here were Stephen Hopkins, Mr. Thomas Crosby, James Maker, William Freeman, Richard Godfrey, William Baker, Nicholas Snow, David Burgess, John King and John Snow. The principal settlement now is along the main road, which the records show was laid out by the town of Eastham is 1668.

    The first merchant in this section of the town was Mr. Thomas Crosby, formerly of Eastham. He went to Boston on business in 1702, and died there quite suddenly. Mr. Crosby was engaged for awhile as minister in Eastham, before Rev. Mr. Treat came. George W. Higgins of Orleans came to the village before 1827 and commenced business as a trader. He sold out and went west. He was succeeded by Mrs. Cynthia Norway. Joseph Foster was her successor in 1862. He died in 1877. The store in 1878 was sold to Reuben Chapman, who in partnership with his brother, Joseph C., carries on business as Chapman Brothers, dealers in dry goods, groceries and hardware.

    The post office was established here in 1826, with George W. Higgins as postmaster. He held the office for more than thirty years, and was succeeded by Mrs. Cynthia Norway in 1857. Her successor in 1862 was Joseph Foster; but he dying in 1877, his widow, Emiline Foster, succeeded him. She was succeeded in 1886,. by Joseph Chapman, who now holds the office.

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    The fishing business was carried on to some extent at the shore some years since, and also the manufacture of salt. The physician of the neighborhood for more than twenty-six years after 1800 was Dr. Nathaniel Hopkins, a native of the place, father of Dr. Thomas, who died here a few years since, and grandfather of Thomas S. Hopkins, a lawyer of distinction in Washington, D. C.

    South Brewster is the post office designation of all the territory south of the railroad station to the ponds between the town and Harwich. There are several small clusters of houses within the limits of the territory. The business quarter is at the railroad station. Here are the wholesale grain store of Richard F. Hopkins, established in 1881, and the wheelwright shop of Henry Hopkins. Among the traders in this section years ago was Nathaniel Myrick, who was the postmaster for many years.

    The post office is now kept at the railroad station. Richard F. Hopkins has been postmaster since 1882, succeeding his father, Richard H. Hopkins, who was appointed in 1871. He was the successor of George Hopkins, who held it at the station while he was station agent.

    The Cape Cod Central railroad was opened through this place in 1865. Among the station agents, besides the present one, R. F. Hopkins, have been George and Richard H. Hopkins. The old road to Chatham, laid out before 1682, passes through this section of the town. The principal merchant of the neighborhood is Richard F. Hopkins. He deals in corn, flour, hay, etc. Not far southwest from the station, on the road to Harwich, many years since, stood the edge tool manufactory of William Burgess.

Official history.—From the organization of the town until it was united with Orleans and Eastham in 1857, as stated at page 47, Brewster was represented by the following named persons. The first year of service is the year preceding the man's name, and the number of years he served, when more than one, follows: 1803, Isaac Clarke, 1.1 years; 1809, Elijah Cobb, 8; 1821, Isaac Foster, 2; 1827, Benjamin Berry, 4; 1830, Jeremiah Mayo, 2; 1834, Albert P. Clarke, 5: 1835, Nathaniel Crosby, 2; 1837, Solomon Freeman, 2; 1838, Josiah Foster, 2; 1840, Freeman Foster, 2; 1841, Benjamin Paine, 4; 1844, Elijah Cobb; 1848, Winslow L. Knowles; 1849, Josiah Seabury, 4; 1856, Tully Crosby, 2.

    At the first election of officers for the new town, in 1803, the selectmen chosen were: Jonathan Snow, who served 6 years; Anthony Gray, who served 2 years; and Kenelm Winslow, who served 3 years. In 1805 Jonathan Berry was first elected, and served 2 years; in 1806, Joseph Sears, who served B years; in 1807, Joseph Snow, 2 years; 1809, David Foster, 2 years; Elijah Cobb, 2; and Abraham Winslow,

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3: 1811, Isaac Clark, 8: and Solomon Freeman, 4: 1812. Thomas Seabury; 1813, William Crosby, 14; and David Nickerson, 3; 1816, Benjamin Berry, 15; 1819, Joseph Smith, 9; 1825, Joseph Crocker, 2; 1827, Dean Bangs, 5; 1828, Isaac Foster and Lewis Howes; 1829, Jonathan Freeman; 1831, Franklin Hopkins, 4; 1832, Kenelm Winslow, 3; 1833, Richard Harding, 5; 1834, Samuel Myrick, 8; 1835, Nathan Sears. 4; 1839, Ebenezer Higgins, 8; and Anthony Smalley, 10: 1840, Theodore Berry; 1844, Jeremiah Mayo. 11; and Joshua Clarke, 7; 1848, Dean Bangs, 2; 1849, David Mayo, 2; 1850, Nathan Winslow, 5; 1851, Solomon Freeman, 8; 1854, Jonathan Freeman, 2; 1855, Elisha Crocker. 3;
1857, Bangs Pepper; 1858, Constant Sears and Benjamin Paine; 1859, Benjamin Freeman; Tully Crosby, 3; 1860, Rudolphus McCloud, 2; 1861, Zoeth Snow, jr.; 1862, William Winslow, 2; and Charles S. Foster, 27; 1864, Bailey Foster; and Strabo Clark, 4; 1866, Samuel H. Gould; 1867, Francis Baker; 1868, Joseph Foster, 2; 1870, Eben F. Ryder, 6; and Samuel T. Howes, 5; 1875, Charles Freeman, 6; 1876, Josiah Foster, 5; 1878, Thomas D. Sears, 7; 1884, Godfrey Hopkins, 6; 1885, John H. Clark, 6; 1889, Charles E. Sears, 2; 1890, Tully Crosby, jr.

    The first clerk and treasurer of the town was Sylvanus Stone, elected in 1803. His successors have been elected as follows: In 1805, Joseph Smith; 1818, Benjamin Foster; 1824, Elijah Cobb; 1828, Jeremiah Mayo; 1831, Benjamin Mayo; 1832, Freeman Mayo; 1840, David Mayo; 1848, Dean Bangs; 1858, Samuel H. Gould; 1861, Charles S. Foster; 1889, Freeman M. Snow. (Mr. Paine's manuscript ends here.—Ed.)

    The following report of the meteorological condition of Brewster during the year 1889, together with a summary of its mortality and condition of health, was contributed by Dr. F. A. Rogers, from his own observation of the meteorological condition from day to day during the year 1889.

    The mean atmospheric pressure for the whole year was 30.01 inches, which is very little above the true mean average pressure. In July the average pressure was normal, but during the months of February, June, August, September, October, November and December the pressure was above the normal, while January, March, April and May showed considerable departure below the true mean pressure. During the month of August there was the least variation for the year, while December was noted for the greatest range. The range for the year was 1.996 inches.

    The precipitation for the year was an average of about four inches each month, but considerable variation existed between the different months. June was the dryest month, and August took the lead for the amount of rainfall. During the year sixteen inches of snow fell; ten inches in February and six inches in December, a little trace falling in March.

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    As compared with the south side of Cape Cod, Brewster enjoys comparative freedom from fog.

Remarkably high winds are rare. During the year 90,726 miles of wind passed over Brewster, an average of ten miles per hour. The month of most wind was March, 9,783 miles, while August had only 4,886 miles. The greatest velocity for January was 42 miles; for February, 37 miles; March, 35 miles; April, 30 miles; May, 27 miles; June, 27 miles; July, 25 miles; August, 21 miles; September, 34 miles; October, 29 miles; November, 57 miles, and for December, 38 miles.

    Brewster enjoys a comparatively even temperature. As compared with the south side, it is cooler in summer. Very low temperatures do not occur. The lowest for the year was 5°, on February 24th; at no other time during the year did the temperature fall below 10° above zero. The mean temperature for the winter months was 37°, and for the summer months, 67.3°. Once, on July 2d, the thermometer recorded 88° in the shade, but as a whole the summers are noted for being cool and comfortable. On only twenty-seven other days during the season did the thermometer reach 80° or more. The nights in summer average 16° cooler than the days, and during the whole year the mean average range is 14.8°.

    This peculiar even condition of the atmosphere favors the healthfulness of the inhabitants. By not subjecting the body to the debilitating effects of a continued high temperature, diarrhœal diseases are very infrequent. Malaria is comparatively unknown, and during the past seven years not a single case of typhoid fever is known to have originated in town, but all the cases which have occurred here originated elsewhere. Among the diseases met with here, as elsewhere in the county, are consumption, acute lung diseases, measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough and the like, while diphtheria and croup, which very rarely occur, are generally of a very mild type.

    The total number of deaths occurring in town during the past ten years was 161, an average of sixteen deaths each year. During the year 1883 the greatest number of deaths occurred, and in 1887 the least. Out of this number only twelve were children; the majority of those who died being past the middle period of life.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

    Freeman Atwood, born in 1827, is one of eleven children of Barnabas, and grandson of Captain Barnabas Atwood. He married Cordelia T., daughter of Francis Cahoon. They have four children: Freeman D., Annie C., Myra L. and Eunice F.

    Elisha Bangs, born in 1804, was a son of Elkanah and Sally Bangs. He followed the sea from 1818 until 1849, twenty-seven years as master mariner. From 1849 until his death in 1886 he lived retired at.

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his home in Brewster, where his widow and daughter now reside. Mr. Bangs married Sarah H., daughter of Freeman and Mehitabel (Low) Foster. They had five children, three of whom are living: Elisha D., Herbert H. and Loella F.

    Rev. Cyrus A. Bradley, born at Dracut, Mass., in 1822, is a son of Amos and Nancy (Varnum) Bradley. He entered the ministry in 1845. Rev. Bradley married Lucretia, daughter of Freeman and Mehitabel (Low) Foster, granddaughter of David, who was a son of Isaac, and grandson of Chillingsworth Foster, who built a residence in Brewster in 1699, which was rebuilt by David Foster about 1798. This homestead was owned by the Foster family until recently purchased by Rev. Bradley. He has one son, Asa M.

    Anthony F. Brier, son of John F. Brier, was born in 1, 849, at the island of St. George, one of the Azores, came to America in 1861, and from that time until 1885, followed the sea. He was master of a fisherman eight years. Mr. Brier has kept the Brier House since 1883. He married Elizabeth J., daughter of Emanuel and Elizabeth R. (Ellis) Dugan. Their children are: Annie C., John E. and Clarence E.

    Reuben and Joseph C. Chapman are sons of Eben and Harriet (Knowles) Chapman, and grandsons of Reuben Chapman. Reuben was born May 1, 1853, and married Lizzie B., daughter of Theophilus Harding. They have three children: Joseph O., Lucy H. and William.

    John H. Clark, the selectman, born in 1850, is the only living child of Strabo and Adaline (Dunbar) Clark, and grandson of Isaac Clark. He is engaged in cranberry culture and farming. He married Celia A., daughter of Charles H. Parker.

    Elijah Cobb, born in 1799, in Brewster, was the oldest son of Captain Elijah Cobb. He went to Boston at the age of sixteen, where after a few years he became a member of the firm of Cobb & Winslow, wholesale grocers. The last few years of his life were spent at the old house in Brewster, where he died in 1861. He married Caroline, daughter of Captain Sylvanus Snow7. Their two sons—Elijah W. and Alfred S.—are deceased. Five daughters are living: Caroline 0., Helen, Mary L., Aunette T. (now the widow of Freeman Cobb) and Emily C. Helen married James A. Dugan, who was a Harvard graduate and a teacher of private schools. He died in 1860, aged thirty-three years, leaving four children: Caroline A., James W., Stephen I. and Theodore F. Dugan.

    Walter Freeman Cobb, born in 1860, is the only son of Freeman and Aunette T. Cobb, grandson of Freeman, and great-grandson of Captain Elijah Cobb. Freeman Cobb was an active business man, and was engaged in business in Africa from 1871 until his death in

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1878. He built a fine residence in Brewster in 1859, where his widow and son, Walter Freeman, now reside. Mr. W. F. Cobb married Edith, daughter of Edward B. Grant. They have one daughter, Edith M. Mr. Cobb has one sister, Emily (Mrs. Henry E. Allen, of Canada).

    Elisha Crocker, born in 1814, is the eldest son of Elisha and Sarah (Snow) Crocker, and a grandson of Joseph Crocker. Mr. Crocker was formerly a boot and shoe maker, but for a number of years an undertaker and paper hanger in Brewster. He is a deacon of the Baptist church. He led the singing and was Sunday school superintendent for many years. He was first married to Martha Foster, who died, leaving two children—Martha F. and Thomas C. His second marriage was to Mary Elizabeth Morse. Their children are: Elisha W., Mamie, Louis A., Sadie, Winthrop N. and Grace E. Mr. Crocker has been a member of the New England Undertaker's Association since its organization.

    the Crosby family.—The reader of this chapter understands that the Crosby name became early a part of the history of Brewster, and so remarkable has been the success of the later generation that it must be regarded here as among the most prominent families of the town.

    Among the descendants of Tully Crosby who came from England, was Josiah Crosby, of Brewster, whose son, Nathan, lived and died in the northeastern part of the town. His wife was Anna Pinkham, and of their children, three sons who survived the latest—Nathan, jr., Roland and Isaac—are well remembered by the present residents of the town.

Nathan Crosby    Nathan Crosby, jr., whose portrait appears, was born here November 11, 1793, and when a young man he went to Chatham as an apprentice to Mr. Berry, a tanner, and in 1819, with his younger brother, Roland, became proprietor of the establishment in which he had learned his trade. Subsequently they built a larger plant in the same locality, between Old Harbor and the town hall, between the present street and the shore, and carried on a successful business until 1832, when Nathan bought a farm and was engaged in agriculture and salt making. Three years later, selling all his interests in Chatham, he returned to his native town and erected, near the place of his birth on the shore of Cape Cod bay, the house in which the last years of his life were passed. In June, 1819, he married at Chatham, Ensign Nickerson's daughter, Catherine, who died in 1885. Their children were: Ann P., Albert, Emeline, Catherine A. N. and Nathan A.—the youngest, dying when a young man. Mr. Crosby, after his return from Chatham, entered largely into the fishing business, owning many vessels at different times, and from 1851 to 1854 was in

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business in Chicago with his son Albert, and brother, returning to Brewster where he died, November 21, 1882.

    He lived a quiet life, and except one year in the legislature as a democrat, he held no public office.

    His oldest son, Albert, went to Chicago in May, 1848, becoming there the pioneer of that large and ever increasing Cape Cod element which has made indellible marks on the commercial and financial history of that western metropolis which now counts among its solid financiers the Nickersons, of Brewster and Chatham; the Lombards, of Truro; the Swifts, of Bourne; and the Underwoods, of Harwich.

    His personal credit in the east as a Crosby and a Cape Codder enabled him with practically no capital to begin a business in Chicago with $10,000 worth of Boston goods, and establish a wholesale tea and liquor business. In 1851 he established there the largest manufactory of alcohol in the west, and into this business came two uncles, Roland and Isaac and his father, Nathan, as above stated. Albert continued the business until the 1871 fire, at which time he owned the Crosby Opera House, which was built by his cousin, Uranus H. Crosby—another Cape Cod man and son of Roland. His fire losses, including the opera house, were fully one and a half million dollars—the heaviest individual loss sustained—but before the fires were out he was drawing water from the river to cool the bricks, and in thirty days had finished and resumed business in a brick block two stories high and three hundred feet long.

    Albert Crosby was prominently connected with corporate enterprises in Chicago, was president of the Chicago City Railway Company, and was ten years president of a large brewing company there.

    Later, after ten years spent in travel, he again, in 1884, took active management of his interests in the brewing company as its vice president and superintendent until 1887, when he retired from all active business in Chicago. Returning then to Brewster he began, in 1888, the erection of "Tawasentha," which was completed according to his own plans in 1889, as shown in the accompanying plate. He employed Cape people almost entirely in the construction, having John Hinckley & Son, of Yarmouth, in charge of the carpentry. It is on the site of the boyhood home of Mr. Crosby, who, with filial care, has incorporated into a wing of the structure a portion of his father's house. The building, exceedingly elegant and roomy, is of the Romanesque style of architecture, with elaborate though tasteful ornamentation, surmounted by a tower sixty feet high, commanding a fine view of the bay. Here Mr. and Mrs. Crosby have brought all that taste and wealth can suggest to adorn the mansion which is now their home. Adjacent to the house is a brick, fire-proof art gallery, seventy-five by fifty feet, in which they have deposited a rare collection

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of valuable pictures, statuary and bronzes—one of the most valuable collections of art treasures in the state.

Tawasentha
"Tawasentha"
Residence of Albert Crosby
East Brewster, Mass.

    Isaac, youngest child of Nathan and Annie (Pinkham) Crosby, was born May 6, 1809, and married Mrs. Eunice Ryder of Chatham. They had three children, two of whom survive. He received the usual New England district school education, and worked while young on his father's farm. Later he engaged extensively in fishing and salt making, displaying the same faithfulness and energy he ever showed in all his business affairs.

Isaac Crosby    In 1848, his health failing, he decided to go to Chicago—then a small city in the far West—where he entered into business with his nephew, Albert Crosby. Subsequently his two brothers, Nathan and Roland, joined them, and for many years their interests were intimately connected with the growth and prosperity of the city.

    In 1855 he returned to Brewster, but, finding its quietness irksome, he engaged in business in Chicago with his son-in-law, S. M. Nickerson, residing a portion of the time in Brewster, and becoming identified from its commencement with The First National Bank of Hyannis—being director at the time of his death, May 20, 1883.

    Perhaps no better tribute can be paid him than to quote a few words from the resolutions passed by the directors of the bank after his death. "— in the death of Isaac Crosby we have lost a true friend and the bank a faithful and efficient officer—one of its earliest and best friends, one whose life was upright and noble, an energetic and successful business man, who unostentatiously did many kind acts in his daily life."

    James E. Crosby, son of Freeman and Rebecca Crosby, was born in 1838. He began to follow the sea at the age of sixteen, and four years later attained to master. Since that time he has been in foreign trade. He married Modena F., daughter of Rev. Manard Parker. They have four children: Freeman M., Edwin H., James Harold and Mabel.

    William P. Doane, born in 1842, is a son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Rogers) Doane, grandson of Joseph, and great-grandson of Hezekiah Doane. Mr. Doane followed the sea from 1853 to 1879, and since that time he has been engaged in cranberry culture and farming. He married Helen A., daughter of Samuel and Thankful (Sears) Hall, and granddaughter of Edmund Hall. They have two children: Earnest W. and Helen S.

    Emanuel Dugan was born in 1833, at St. George, Azore islands. His father, John Dugan, was born in 1809, at the same place. Emanuel came to Cape Cod in 1848, and from that time until 1876 was engaged in fishing. Since the latter year he has been a farmer and cranberry grocer. He married Elizabeth R., daughter of Thaddeus Ellis. She

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died in 1888, leaving two daughters—Elizabeth J. (Mrs. A. F. Brier) and Florence M.

    Benjamin F. Fessenden, born in 1847, is a son of Benjamin and Clarissa (Berry) Fessenden, grandson of Isaac and great-grandson of Dr. William Fessenden. Mr. Fessenden followed the sea in early life. Since 1873 he has done a stage and express business in Brewster, and also keeps a livery stable. He married Annie Y., daughter of Richard and Emily (Eldridge) Hopkins. Their son is Oliver H.

    Josiah Foster, born in 1823, is the youngest son of John and Catharine (Mayo) Foster and grandson of John Foster. Mr. Foster was engaged in fishing for thirty years, and since 1875 has been a farmer. He married Caroline, daughter of Eli Small, and has two children—Josiah F. and Carrie S.—one daughter, Emily C., died.

    Nathan Foster, born in 1807, is a son of Nathan and Polly (Dillingham) Foster and grandson of John Foster. Mr. Foster was for about forty years a resident of Harwich, during which time he was a merchant there. He now owns and occupies the homestead of his father in Brewster. He married Lydia, daughter of Judah and Sally (Hale) Sears. She died in 1888, leaving six children: Lydia S., Martha S., Polly D., Nathan, Judah E. and Persis S.

    Charles Freeman, born in 1822, is the second son of William, grandson of Solomon and great-grandson of Solomon Freeman. His mother was Martha, daughter of Daniel Simonds of Lexington, who served under Washington as private, was promoted to captain and served at Trenton and Bennington. Mr. Freeman followed the sea from 1832 until 1859, sixteen years in whale fishing and eight years as master of a whaling ship. He was six years in Chicago in the pork packing business, and has since resided in Brewster. He married Mehitabel C., daughter of Zenas Ryder of Chatham, Mass. They have one adopted daughter—Sadie T. Freeman.

    John Freeman, born in 1835, is the oldest and only surviving child of John and Ruth (Sears) Freeman and grandson of John and Bethiah (Crowell) Freeman. He began going to sea at the age of fifteen years, and from 1859 until he retired in 1888 he was a master mariner. He is now engaged in cranberry culture. He married Jane, daughter of Israel Nickerson of South Dennis. They have one daughter, Roberta J., and one adopted son, John H. Freeman.

    William Freeman, born in 1820, is the eldest son of William and Martha (Simonds) Freeman. He followed the sea in the merchant service forty-three years, thirty-six years as master. His first wife, Phebe H. Hurd, died leaving two children—William K. and Clara D. His present wife was Hannah R. Gould.

    Edward Frank Hall, born in 1837, is the youngest and only surviving child of Edmund and Sukey (Snow) Hall, and grandson of

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Edmund Hall. Mr. Hall is a carpenter by trade. He is now engaged in cranberry culture and the manufacture of cranberry barrels. He married Julia W., daughter of Timothy Jarvis. They have three children—George F., Arthur S. and Emma J.

    Samuel S. Hall, son of Edmund and Sukey (Snow) Hall, was born in 1824 and died in 1878. He followed the sea in early life and later was engaged in agricultural pursuits. He married Thankful S., daughter of Constant and Deborah C. (Hopkins) Sears, and granddaughter of Elisha Sears. They have eight children: Helen A., Thomas S., Samuel C., Charles A, Fred, Susie D., Elisha S. and James C.

    Godfrey Hopkins, eldest son of Godfrey and Reliance (Mayo) Hopkins, grandson of Edmund and great-grandson of Jonathan Hopkins, was born in 1832. He followed the sea from 1846 until 1872, being seventeen years master of vessels in the foreign trade, and he is now chairman of the board of selectmen, and a member of the republican town committee. He is a trustee in the Cape Cod Five Cent Savings Bank. He married Charlotte A., daughter of Bangs and Julia A. Pepper. They have one daughter—Emma J.

    Richard F. Hopkins, born in 1852, is a son of Richard H. and Emily (Eldridge) Hopkins, grandson of Freeman, and great-grandson of Nathan Hopkins. He married Celia L., daughter of George E. Thacher. Their children are Eva M. and Emily.

    Elijah E. Knowles, born in 1829, is one of six sons of Elijah and Abigail (Freeman) Knowles, and grandson of Henry Knowles, whose father, Elijah, was a son of Edward. Mr. Knowles followed the sea from 1844 until 1882, as master mariner twenty-seven years. He is a director of the Cape Cod National Bank. He married Mary F., daughter of Nathaniel Winslow.

    Henry Knowles, brother of Elijah E., was born in 1834, in Brewster. Mr. Knowles began going to sea in 1848, attaining to master four years later, which position he continued to fill until 1870, when he retired from the merchant service and went to Rockford, Ill., where he was a successful business man until 1889. Mr. Knowles married Lizzie D., daughter of Seth and Anna (Knowles) Collins. Their children are: Grace P., Herbert E., Abbie F., Royal E. and Eddie W. They lost two children—John C. and Effie M.

    William W. Knowles, born in 1830, in Eastham, is a son of William F, and Betsey A. (Doane) Knowles, and grandson of William Knowles. He married Temperance P. Matthews, and has two children—William M. and Hannah H.

    Edgar Lincoln, youngest son of Isaac and Desire (Foster) Lincoln and grandson of Isaac Lincoln, was born in 1829. He has followed the sea since 1844, and has been master of vessels in the foreign

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trade since 1854. He was first married to Sarah Lizzie Atkins, who died, and he married for his second wife Augusta F. Snow. They have one daughter, Edna A.

    Joseph Mayo, born in 1822, is a son of Elnathan and Susan (Paine) Mayo and grandson of Thomas Mayo. He went to New Hampshire in 1840, where he was a carriage maker until 1862, then entered the army in Company D, Fourteenth New Hampshire Volunteers. In November, 1864, at the Battle of Cedar Creek, he lost his right arm. He was discharged in 1865. He was warden of the New Hampshire state prison from 1865 to 1870. He returned to Brewster in 1886, where he now lives. He was married to Maria L. Huntington, who died, leaving two children: Herbert A. and Ann Maria. He was married again to Caroline, daughter of William Freeman. He and his wife became members of the Baptist church in New Hampshire in 1842, and in 1886 he and his present wife joined the Baptist church in Brewster.

Frederick Nickerson    Captain Frederic Nickerson was born at West Brewster, December 15, 1808, and, although he died at his city residence in South Boston, January 12, 1879, he claimed his native town as his home, and there he had passed the last eighteen summers of his life. He was left an orphan in early youth, and, with his brother Thomas, had a home with an uncle at Chatham. He was young when he went to sea; and by his diligence attained to the command of a vessel before he was twenty years old. After a term of years as shipmaster he embarked in commercial lines of business in Boston with his brother David, under the firm name of David Nickerson & Co.; later, after his brother's death, it was changed to F. Nickerson & Co.

    His integrity and intelligent management of business interests called him to fill many offices of trust and responsibility in monied and social enterprises, and it has been said of him that wherever he touched business it was dignified and made better by his influence. He was, for seven years from its organization, president of the South Boston Savings Bank, but on account of failing health resigned the position three years before his death, although continuing in the relation of trustee. He was for forty years a director in the Mechanics Bank, which trust he held until his decease. He was officially connected with the Union Pacific Railway Company, the Boston Marine Society, the New England Insurance Company, and the Boston Board of Trade. He was a member of the Commercial Club, and had large interests in several railroad enterprises in the West. In his business relations Captain Nickerson, as a type of the substantial, genial, old merchants of Boston, won the esteem of his associates, who rewarded him with honor, while his life's work was crowned with a broad financial success.

    His school days were limited. In the forecastle and the ship's

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cabin he received his preparatory course, and the counting room was his Alma Mater, yet we find him making a place for himself among the business men of a great city, and occupying and adorning a high plane in the commercial and social relations of life. He was universally beloved for his excellent traits of character, and the business world lost a master by his decease, the Unitarian church an important factor, and his family an indulgent and devoted husband and father.

    Captain Nickerson was a son of David Nickerson of Brewster, and a descendant from William Nickerson, the first settler of Chatham, in his father's line, and from Governor Hinckley in his mother's. David Nickerson was twice married; first to Priscilla Snow, and their children were: David, Joseph, Jonathan S., Frederic, Thomas and Priscilla S. He married Eunice Freeman for his second wife.

    Captain Frederic Nickerson was the fourth son, and married Adaline T. Beck of Portsmouth, N. H., on the 23d of June, 1833. Their children were: Frederick W., Alfred A., Priscilla S., Adaline, and two others who died in infancy. The mother survived the captain several years, departing this life at Brewster in July, 1887. Of the four surviving children three reside in Boston, and one, Alfred A., is now in California. At the death of Captain Nickerson the several societies of which he was an honored member passed memorials of regret, and in his native town he was greatly lamented.

    Eben W. Paine, jr., only son of Eben W. and Betsey (Snow) Paine, grandson of Eben and Thankful (White) Paine, and great-grandson of Ebenezer Paine, was born in 1837. He followed the sea in the merchant service from 1855 until 1886, and was master twenty-one years. Since 1886 he has been engaged in cranberry culture. His first wife was Laura A. Clark, who died leaving one daughter, Laura Isabel. His second wife was Mary F. Clark. His present wife is Mary Gorham. They have one son, Allen T.

    Hiram D. Rowe, son of Moses and Sarah (Brown) Rowe; and grandson of Jonathan Rowe, was born in 1828 in New Hampshire. He studied dentistry in Boston, where he practiced for three years, and since 1856 he has practiced in Brewster. He married Emily B., daughter of Barnabas and Sabia Paine, and granddaughter of Sylvanus and Susan Paine. Their children are: William E., S. Walter, Emily, and Grace, who died in infancy. Sylvanus Walter Rowe married Clara Elizabeth, daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Bird, of Foxboro, Mass., March 23, 1887.

    J. Henry Sears, born June 8, 1831, is a son of Joseph H. and Olive (Bangs) Sears and grandson of Joseph, who was a direct descendant of Richard Sears. Mr. Sears was married in 1858 to Emily, daughter of Daniel Nickerson of Boston. Their children are: Alice May, Emily N. and Joseph H. Mr. Sears, ship master and ship owner in early life, is now commission merchant.

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    Thomas D. Sears, son of Thomas and Elizabeth F. Sears, and grandson of Reuben Sears, was born in 1845. He has been a tinsmith since 1863, and since 1876 he has owned and operated a hardware store at Brewster. He was married to Asenath, daughter of Augustas Paine. They have one daughter, Alice F.

    Zoeth Snow, born in 1825, is the only son of Zoeth and Sarah (Crosby) Snow, and grandson of Zoeth Snow. He is a blacksmith and wheelwright. He served nine months in the late war in Company E, Fifth Massachusetts Volunteers. He was two years in the legislature. His first wife was Lucretia Crosby. His present wife was Rebecca A. Mayo. They have two children: Irene P. and Warren F.

    Bartlett B. Winslow8 (Benjamin7, Deacon Josiah6, Nathan5, Kenelm4, Kenelm3, Kenelm2, Kenelm Winslow1,) was born in 1829. He was thirty years engaged in mercantile trade in Brewster, and since 1884 has been engaged in cranberry culture. His first wife was Clarissa B. Fessenden, who died leaving to children: George B. (deceased) and Francis B. His second wife was Lydia E. Harwood, who died leaving one daughter, Lucy H. His present wife is Annie M., daughter of Dea. Barnard Freeman.

end