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posted October 2004

History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts

edited by Simeon L. Deyo.

1890. New York: H. W. Blake & Co

CHAPTER XXV.

pages 825-890

Town of Harwich.


by JOSIAH PAINE esq.


Incorporation. — Description. — Natural Features.— Division of the Land.— The Settlers.— The Fisheries. — The Salt Industry. — Religious Societies.— Official History.— Schools. — The Villages and their Various Institutions: Harwich, East Harwich, South Harwich, Harwich Port, West Harwich, North Harwich and Pleasant Lake.

Biographical Sketches. (separate file)

HARWICH was incorporated September 14, 1694. It then extended across the Cape from shore to shore, joining on the west old Yarmouth, on the east old Eastham and the territory of Monomoyick, now Chatham, and comprising what is now Brewster and a considerable part of the present Orleans. In 1772 the part known as Potanumaquut, but now South Orleans, was set off to Eastham—Harwich assenting—by the general court: and in 1803 the north part; then known as the North parish, after a long and somewhat bitter contest, was set off into a township, and, in deference to the memory of Elder William Brewster of the Mayflower band of Pilgrims, whose descendants were numerous in the place, as well as in other of the lower Cape towns, was called Brewster. Thus shorn of more than half of its original territory, Harwich is yet a good sized township, having an area of more than twenty square miles and containing, according to last census, 2,783 inhabitants. The town derived its name from Harwich, an old maritime town in Essex county, England, lying about sixty miles northeast of London. Who suggested the name has been, and is yet a matter of inquiry.

    Harwich, as it is now constituted, and to which the following pages of history relate, is bounded on the east by Chatham and Pleasant bay, on the south by the ocean, on the west by Dennis and on the north by Brewster. The surface of the town, though somewhat uneven, is more level than that of some of the other towns in the county. The greater portion of it yet remains in an uncultivated state, covered with a small growth of oak and pine. The soil is mostly light and sandy, but quite productive when fertilizing substance is freely used, and the season favorable. It is free from rocks or bowlders of any considerable size, and consequently is easy to cultivate.

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    The ponds in the town are somewhat numerous, several of which are large and their waters clear and pure. Seymour's or Bang's pond, Long pond, Bush Beach pond and Grass pond are a chain of ponds that lie between the town and Brewster—the dividing line passing through the center of each. Long pond, or the "Great Long pond," as called by the early settlers, is the largest, and is about six miles in circumference. Two small streams have their rise in it. One runs in a southwesterly course and empties into Hinckley's pond, while the other in a westerly course empties into Seymour's or Bang's pond. Alewives pass up the former stream into Long pond to spawn. In former times there was a small stream that flowed out of the pond across the road into Seymour's or Bang's pond, a short distance southwesterly of the house of Cyrus Cahoon.

    Seymour's or Bang's pond is a large and clear sheet of water a very short distance westerly of Long pond. Near it on the hill, many years since, lived an Englishman by the name of John Seymour, who was by occupation a tanner, and from whom the pond received its name. After his death John D. Bangs occupied the place; since his occupancy it has sometimes been called Bangs' pond. Not far from the pond in a southwesterly direction near the foot of a high hill is the site of the last meetinghouse of the Sauquatucket Indians.

    Not far south of Seymour's pond is Herring or Hinckley's pond, the source of Herring river. This is the largest pond that lies wholly within the limits of the town. On the north side of this pond was the farm of John Sequattom, the Christian Indian, and on the east the farm of Thomas Hinckley. Prior to Hinckley's settlement here, the pond was known as Herring pond, since then Hinckley's pond. It is now sometimes called Pleasant lake.

    Briggs' pond, situated in the Paine neighborhood, is a large, clear sheet of water. In the records of land bearing date 1713, it is denominated "the pond southward of Benjamin Philips." Not far north of its shore stood Benjamin Philip's house, and afterward the house of his son, Oaker, a soldier in the French and Indian wars. The sites of the houses are yet marked by the house of James T. Smalley. Some six rods in a northwesterly direction from the pond, on the south side of the Queen's road, is pointed out the site of the house which was burned on the afternoon of May 24, 1757, and in which Mrs. Dolly Eldridge perished attempting, in a distracted state, to save her bed.

    Next in size is Mill pond, situated a short distance to the eastward. It has a white sandy bottom, and the water is clear and pure. Its shore, for the most part, is covered with pebbles or small bowlders. On the high ground, on the north side of the pond formerly stood Walker's wind mill, which was unroofed in the great gale of 1816, and some years afterward removed to the eastward of the Saltwater

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pond and put up. Lieutenant Zachariah Smalley, an early settler, lived a short distance from the northeast part of the pond, and owned a large tract of tillage land adjoining.

    Among the ponds of smaller size are Walker's pond, Wolfhill pond, Bassett's pond and Clark's pond in the northerly part of the town; Berry's or Sand pond and Flax pond in the westerly part of the town, and Grass pond, Saltwater pond and Skinnequit pond in the southerly part. Grass pond is the source of Cold brook, which empties into Andrew's river. It was called by the settlers Crooked pond, and by the Indians Woonkepit. It is very shallow with a muddy bottom. The greater part of it has within a few years been converted into cranberry land. Saltwater pond—a good harbor for boats—lies a short distance from the seashore westward of Andrew's river and has an outlet to the sea. It is twenty feet deep and about 180 rods in circumference. It was called by the early settlers Oyster pond. Skinnequit pond is the source of a small stream of the same name which empties into Red river. It is situated in South Harwich. It is visited by the alewives in the spawning season. John Skinnequit, an Indian, owned land on the east side of the pond and river, and had his cabin near by, before 1692, at which date he sold most of his territory to Jeremiah Howes of Yarmouth.

    The most important of the few rivers in town—are Herring river, Andrew's river, Red river and 'Coys brook. Herring river is the largest. It flows out of Herring or Hinckley's pond in a southwesterly direction through the village of North Harwich, and through West Harwich into the Vineyard sound. On each side of the river, for a long- distance from its mouth, is a tract of meadow from which have been yearly taken large quantities of salt and fresh hay. The general name of the tract is Herring River meadow. In former years portions of the tract bore the names of "Boreman's Meadow," "Berry's Meadow," "Gage's Meadow," "Hall's Meadow," "Pog's Meadow," "Paine's Meadow," and "Boggy Meadow." Some years since an attempt was made to improve the meadow, and a tide gate was erected at considerable expense to keep out the tide water, but it proved unsuccessful. Alewives visit this river, but not in so large a number as formerly. The taking of alewives in the river is regulated by special laws. The town obtained control of the alewive fishery here in 1787. The last vessel built in town was built on this river at West Harwich.

    Andrew's river is a small stream that rises in the swamps at the place called by the Indians Poonpit. The course of the river is southerly to the sea. For some distance from its mouth northward extends a large body of marsh, from which is taken yearly salt and fresh grass in large quantities for provender for cattle. In the middle of the

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marsh, after various windings, Cold brook, the stream that rises in Grass pond and is fed by the many swamps on its borders, unites. On both branches of these streams in former days were grist mills—sites of which are yet pointed out. The swamps through which these streams run have been converted into valuable cranberry lands. The river took its name from Andrew Clarke, an early resident, who owned large tracts on both sides, and lived near by. Cold brook, the tributary to Andrew's, is valuable to cranberry growers in flowing and draining adjacent swamps.

    Red river is a small muddy stream in the southeastern part of the town, issuing from the swamps just above the marsh to the northward and flowing southwardly into the sea. It forms a boundary between this town and Chatham in that vicinity. The Indians called the stream Maspatucket. Skinnequit's farm adjoined it on the west. It runs through a large tract of marsh from which is taken yearly many tons of good salt and fresh hay. The Skinnequits river is tributary to it. The Harwich and Chatham factory was erected on the stream in 1824, but was soon removed to North Harwich in consequence of the small supply of water.

    Coys brook is a tributary to the Herring river, and rises in what was known some years since as Bridge swamp, north of R. M. Moody's house. It is a narrow stream with a muddy bottom. and flows into the Herring river near Bell's neck. In its course to unite with the waters of the Herring river, it passes through extensive tracts of cranberry land, which a few years since were valueless swamps. The brook took its name, undoubtedly, from John Mecoy, who had land granted him, "both upland and meadow," in 1667, within some distance of the river, in what has been denominated the Hall neighborhood. An island in the meadows north of Boardman's or Boreman's island, was before 1680 called "John 'Coy's island." This island was probably the one now known as Hall's. Mention of Coy's brooks in deeds appears as early as 1695. Water of several small ponds, besides Beriah's and Walker's ponds, now unite with the stream—an opening having been made to the chain of ponds for draining purposes in the cultivation of cranberries. On the west side of the river, near where the "great western " road crosses, is the site of the grist mill once owned by Benjamin Nickerson. Some distance west passed the line of the Wings, Dillingham, Winslow and others, separating their land from that belonging to the "Purchasers or Old Comers," their heirs or assigns. This boundary was known to the early residents as "Wing's line."

    The town has about 4 ½ miles of sea coast stretching from Dennis to Chatham and about 1 ½ miles of bay shore at East Harwich, stretching from Orleans to Chatham, but no good harbor. The few inlets

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are small in size, the most important—aside from Saltwater pond, which has already been noticed—being Allen's harbor, Muddy cove and Short or Round cove.

    Allen's harbor, so called, situated about four hundred rods eastward of the mouth of the Herring river, was formerly known as Gray's pond and harbor.  It is a shallow, muddy bottom pond, with a narrow outlet to the sea. Into it flows a narrow stream that rises in the lowland eastward of the house of Abiathar Doane. Around the harbor is a tract of marsh which yields yearly tons of salt hay. On the west side of the outlet is "Nohauts " or "Nohorns " neck, where, at the early settlement of the town, Indians resided. Large numbers of arrow heads have been found here from time to time, as well as other stone implements used by the aborigines in their time of quietness. when no white man had visited these parts. On the east side of the pond or harbor was the old worn-out planting land of the Indians, which, as early as 1692, was denominated as the "Mattacheeset field." In this field, not far distant from the outlet, terminated the "antient line " from Bound brook, between the town of Yarmouth and the land of the "Purchasers or Old Comers," agreed upon in 1641, and which remained the line of Yarmouth until 1681, when the line from Bound brook on the north side was changed to the west side of Herring river, and which is now the line between Harwich and Dennis. In 1692 old trees were standing that bore marks of the line of 1641 in this vicinity. The old Indian fields extended easterly from this place on the banks of the sea shore to the Oyster pond, or as now called Saltwater pond.

    Muddy cove, or Long cove as it is sometimes called, lies partly in this town. The center of it from the place called the "Eel Weir " to its mouth at Pleasant bay, is the boundary between Harwich and Chatham. In length it is more than a mile. In many places it is narrow and shallow. Some marsh borders the cove on both sides, which is covered at very high tides. Across the mouth of the inlet is the Wading Place bridge, which connects the two towns. In former times, when the Indians were numerous, they forded the river here, in their passage from one town to the other. Near the boundary stone where the tide gate has been put in, is the site of an eel weir of the Indians. At this point the river hugs the upland closely. On the west side of the cove, near the house of Hiram Nickerson, is the site of the house of captain Joseph Nickerson, the first white settler, so far as is known, in this part of the town, and near by, to the northward, the site of the house of William Long, the ancestor of the Long family of Harwich. Joshua Jethro, a Christian Indian, lived for many years, after the beginning of the eighteenth century, a short distance northwesterly from the mouth, upon the farm purchased

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of the Quasons, and after him Micah Ralph, the last Indian of pure blood in Harwich.

    Round cove, or Short cove, as it is called in old records, lies northward of Muddy cove, on the west side of Pleasant bay. It is now a haven for boats. On the west bank was the boundary between the Quasons and Sipsons, and the site of the cabin of Isaac James, an Indian of note. Many springs of water are found around the cove. The Indians called the locality north of it Wequaset. The first white settler near the cove was Thomas Freeman. The house of the late W. S. Eldridge marks the site. The last salt works in the town stood on the banks of the cove. About one-third of a mile in a westerly direction, on high ground covered with a growth of young oaks, is the burying ground of the Indians who resided in the vicinity. A few years since the writer was shown several places where tradition says Indians were buried. Isaac James and most of his family found resting places here, it is reported. Some of the graves were marked with small bowlders, well sunk into the earth. Mr. James was a good citizen, and was much respected by all who knew him. He had several children, but he survived them all.

    The territory which constitutes the township, with the exception of a large tract in the southwestern part of the town, bordering on each side of the Herring river, yielded by Yarmouth upon establishing a new line in 1681, is the south part of the tract selected for a plantation by the "Purchasers or Old Comers " and granted to them upon the surrender of the patent March 2, 1640-41. The whole territory extended from "sea to sea" across the Cape, or the "neck of land " as the record has it, "from the bounds of Yarmouth three miles to the eastward of Namskaket." The first line established between the reservation and Yarmouth was in June, 1641, by a committee appointed by the colonial court. viz.: Captain Miles Standish, Edward Winslow, John Brown and Edmund Freeman. It commenced at Bound brook, called by the Indians Shuckquam, where the Brewster and Dennis line now commences, and extended a southeasterly course, eastward of Hall's meadows, terminating at a point in "Mattacheeset field," on the east side of Aliens harbor, near the bank by the sea shore.

    The change of the line, which was effected through the efforts of John Wing, sr., John Dillingham, Kenelm Winslow and associates, the proprietors of land at Sauquatuckett, now West Brewster, and also of land west of the old line in North Harwich, 2nd west side of the Herring river at West Harwich, gave to the territory now Harwich a tract of several thousand of acres, embracing meadow, cedar swamps and timber land, which at the time had not all been purchased of the Indians. By the settlement, these proprietors were allowed to

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secure the extinguishment of the Indian titles to land unsold, and they very soon applied themselves to the work. Sachemas, the sachem of Sauquatuckett laying claim to a tract between the old line and Herring river, which parted his land from Napaitan's heirs new in possession of Wings and associates, February 18, 1689-90, quitted all claim to unsold land within the following boundaries: "Beginning upon the middle of Satuckett mill dam and from thence ranging upon a straight line due south till it comes to the south sea; and from thence ranging along the sea side westerly to the middle of the Herring River mouth, which is the bounds between Sachemas and Napaoitan, and from thence ranging northerly along the middle of the River, as the river runneth, to a marked tree which stands by said river side near to John Bell's house, which is the bounds between sd. Sachemas and said Nappaitan; and from thence ranging northerly to a marked tree which stands at the head of the uppermost great pond which is the bounds between sd. Sachemas and said Napaoitan; and from thence ranging northeasterly through the middle of the sd. Satuckett pond to sd. Satuckett mill dam which is the first bound first mentioned."

    The purchased lands within the limits of the territory above described was the tract he had conveyed to Edward Sturgis and his two sons, lying on the west side of the old line, and embracing nearly all the land to the Herring river: the tract which "Gershom Hall settled upon;" the tract sold to Thomas Boardman, and the tract held by Captain Daniel, the Indian warrior at Sauquatuckett. The first three of these tracts lie in Harwich. The tract "Gershom Hall settled upon " extended northerly from the meadows up to the Queen Anne's road, and embraced a large tract. Much of it is yet in the hands of his descendants. The tract of Thomas Boardman, or "Boreman," as he was sometimes called by the settlers, was on the north side of the Herring river, in what is now North Harwich. It adjoined a river on the northeast and the Queen's road on the southwest. It was laid out to Boardman in 1696, but there appears no evidence that he attempted a settlement upon it. The old line of the purchasers passed not far eastward of the tract.

    Besides Napaitan's heirs, and Sachemas, the Indian sachem of Sauquatuckett, the Quasons and Sipsons, Indians, were large land holders in the town. The Quasons, sons and daughters of John Quason, and grandchildren of Mattaquason, the sachem of Monomoyick, held rights to the greatest portion of the place. Their land embraced the tract between Long pond and the sea shore from the old line of the purchasers eastward to Sipson's line, which line extended from a point at Short cove, near a place by them called Wequassett, northwesterly to Bush beach, near the boundary stone between Harwich

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and Brewster. From time to time they disposed of their rights to friendly Indians, and such of the whites having authority from the proprietors of the reserve to purchase. The right at last to purchase of them their unreserved land in the reservation of the purchasers having passed into the lawful possession of John Cole, Joshua Hopkins, Daniel Cole, jr., Nicholas Snow and Nathaniel Doane, of Eastham, and Stephen Hopkins, Prence Snow and John King, of Harwich, on the 18th of May, 1711, purchased of John Quason, Joseph Quason, Samuel Quason, Josephus Quason. Sarah Pompmo, Bettie Nopie and Wawhanama, wife of Little James, all lawful sons and daughters (together with Jeremiah Quason, late deceased), of John Quason, deceased, "living in Eastham. Harwich, Monomoy and Yarmouth," all their unreserved land within the following described territory: "Beginning at a marked tree marked by the bank of a place called Wequassett, near Short Cove; from thence running northerly by the Sipson's range to the easterly end of Long Pond; thence running westerly by said Long Pond to the Herring Pond; and from the sd. Herring Pond southerly by the brook or river that runs out of the Herring Pond to the main sea; thence running easterly by sd. sea to Monomoy bounds near the Red River; thence northeasterly to the head of Muddy Cove, and so by the river that runs out of sd Muddy Cove. and so to the first specified bounds;" together with (their right to) the "Great Beach lying between Monomoy and the main sea, extending eastward and westward as far as our said deceased father, John Quason, his right did extend, with all meadows and sedge ground adjoining and every wise thereto belonging, from Sandy Point home to Sipson's bounds," with their Island in Pleasant Bay "called Chochpenacot Island,* lying between sd. Monomoy and the Great Beach."

    The reservations which they made in their deed were: a tract of twenty acres for John Quason; thirty acres for Josephus Quason; thirty acres for Samuel Quason, and twenty acres for Joseph Quason, "over and above what he holds in partnership with Little James," and "to be laid out to them between the Wading Place and Joseph Nickerson's house, to them their heirs and signs forever." Having hitherto conveyed many acres within the boundaries described in their deed, they desired that such tracts that had been "purchased according to the true meaning of the laws of the Province " should be excepted, and the grantees not to be disturbed as to their titles.

    The proprietors, upon coming in possession of the valuable tract, for which only the sum of eight pounds was paid to extinguish the title, found, as they probably had expected, hundreds of acres within the limits of the boundaries above given, in possession of purchasers

*This island is now known as Strong island, and is within the limits of Chatham.

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who had "purchased according to the laws of the Province," and also many acres in the possession of parties who had no title. Some of these squatters were obstinate, and gave the proprietors some trouble. The first meeting of the proprietors of the Quason land, who had now somewhat increased in numbers, was held, according to their record, March 24, 1713-14. After choosing Nicholas Snow, clerk, made choice of " Thomas Atkins, Stephen Hopkins, Joshua Hopkins, John Gray, Joseph Doane and Nicholas Snow, a committee to lay out their lands, or so much thereof by them might be found convenient, into lots or shares, in order for to be cast. so that each proprietor may have his just and equal proportion of sd. land "; also "to settle bounds with particular men that butted on sd land according to right and justice.'' They were authorized " to rectify the mistakes in the bounds of Joseph Quason's lot," laid out to him "towards Muddy Cove," and to aid in bounding the "fifty acres of land and meadow of Joseph Nickerson at the Muddy Cove, to the contents of his deed thereof "; also " to hear the claim and challenges " of those that "claim land within the boundaries " which, if " in their wisdom shall find to be just," settle the claims by setting out to each claimant a parcel of land "where the committee find reasonable." Thomas Atkins, of Chatham, was chosen an agent "to sue and prosecute" those "who presumed to cut timber, wood or fencing stuff " upon any part of their land.

    The committee chosen to lay out the land into lots met at the house of Nicholas Snow, situated in what is now Brewster, April 19, 1714, with the proprietors, and reported "that they had laid out twenty lots of land" on the "southerly of the road which goes from Chatham to Yarmouth, and also twenty lots on the "northerly side of sd. road, between sd. road and the great Long Pond." After mutually agreeing "to draw for their lots," they proceeded to the work. The first lot, in the north section, lying in East Harwich, on the westerly side of the road to Brewster, and bounded on the southeast by the lot set out to Menekish, and on the northerly end by the Long pond, was drawn by John Gray. Then proceeding, John Cole drew the second, which laid on the west side of the first, Joseph Doane the third, Captain Joseph Harding the fourth, Stephen Hopkins the fifth, Joseph Nickerson the sixth, John King the seventh, Micaijah Snow the eighth, Stephen Hopkins the ninth, Benjamin Philips the tenth, Captain Edmund Freeman the eleventh, Seth Taylor the twelfth, Nathaniel Doane and Israel Doane the thirteenth, Joshua Hopkins the fourteenth, Nicholas Snow the fifteenth, Lieutenant Jonathan Howes and partners the sixteenth, Elisha Hopkins and Joseph Cole the seventeenth, Thomas Atkins the eighteenth, Prence Snow the nineteenth, and Thomas Clarke the twentieth. The twentieth lot adjoined on the west the old road from Brewster to Coy's brook, on the north the land of John 

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Sequattoms, and on the south the old Yarmouth and Chatham road, sometimes called Queen Anne's road.

    Upon drawing for lots in the south division, which is the tract between the Queen's road and road from Coy's brook to Chatham, the first lot—stretching between the two roads, adjoining the Chatham line on the east—fell to Joseph Doane, Esq.; the second, lying westerly, fell to John Cole; the third lot to Jonathan Howes and partners, the fourth to Micaijah Snow, the fifth to Israel and Nathaniel Doane, the sixth to Prence Snow, the seventh to Benjamin Philips, the eighth to John Gray, the ninth to Seth Taylor, the tenth to Stephen Hopkins, the eleventh to Captain Edmund Freeman, the twelfth to Joseph Cole and Elisha Hopkins, the thirteenth to Stephen Hopkins, the fourteenth to Thomas Atkins, the fifteenth to Captain Joseph Harding, the sixteenth to Captain Joseph Nickerson, the seventeenth to Nicholas Snow, the eighteenth to John King, the nineteenth to Joshua Hopkins, the twentieth to Thomas Clarke. His lot was the westernmost in the row, and adjoined the road from Coy's brook to the north precinct, now Brewster.

    The next division of importance of the common land of the proprietors was of a tract in the eastern part of the town, which was known as the "Little Division." The lots, twenty in number, were drawn December 28, 1730. Joseph Doane, Esq., drew the first lot, John Young the second, Thomas Doane the third, Captain Joseph Harding the fourth, Micaijah Snow the fifth, Nicholas Snow the sixth, Captain John Atkins the seventh, Elisha Hopkins and Samuel King the eighth, Thomas Atkins the ninth, Stephen Hopkins the tenth, Joshua Hopkins the eleventh. Thomas Clarke the twelfth, William Long and partners the thirteenth. Stephen Hopkins the fourteenth, Lieutenant Jonathan Howes the fifteenth, Jonathan Linnell the sixteenth, Nathaniel Doane and partners the seventeenth, Captain Edmund Freeman the eighteenth, John King the nineteenth and Prence Snow the twentieth. Many of the lots in the "Little Division" were bounded southwesterly by the road from East Harwich to Brewster, while some were bounded westerly by the road from East Harwich meeting house to Orleans. The last clerk of the proprietors was Solomon Crowell; the last meeting of the proprietors held was in 1822.

    The proprietors had a narrow tract bordering the south side of the highway from Coy's brook to Chatham, to which adjoined the land of Samuel Nickerson, John Smith, Ephraim Covil, Andrew Clark and Jeremiah Howes. The tract was sold in parcels, after claims of some of the lotholders had been satisfied by gifts of small parcels, to pay the debts of the proprietors.

    The Sipsons land, or "Seventeen share purchase," lay in the eastern part of the old town, but a very small portion of it is within the

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present town limits. It was purchased at different times of Thomas Sipson and his brother. John Sipson, two noted Indian landholders residing at Potanumaquut. Many who held lots in the Quason land were proprietors of the land purchased of the Sipsons. The first meeting of the proprietors was held September 7, 1733, and Joseph Doane, Esq., of Eastham, was chosen clerk. At a meeting held September 28, 1713, Joseph Doane, Esq., Jonathan Linnell and Israel Doane were chosen to lay out lots "according to each one's interest in said propriety." The committee made two divisions of the tract into seventeen lots each. The lotholders were: Joshua Hopkins, Thomas Mayo, Nicholas Snow, Daniel Cole, Samuel Mayo, John Cole, Prence Snow, John King, Stephen Hopkins, Micaijah Snow, Joseph Doane, John Sparrow, James Rogers, Nathaniel Doane and Thomas Mayo. The line between the Sipsons' and Quason's was often perambulated. The last perambulation appears to have been in 1822. Of the above proprietors mentioned four only were residents of old Harwich, viz.: John King, Nicholas Snow, Stephen Hopkins and Prence Snow. They all lived in the north precinct.

    The Sipsons, during the summer of 1713, sold to Samuel Mayo and Joshua Hopkins their right to the "flats and sedge ground " in and around Pleasant bay within the limits of Harwich. This tract was denominated the Seven Share purchase, and the Seven Share propriety. The tract, so far as was found suitable for division, was divided into lots. The principal part of the sedge ground was adjacent to Sipsons' or Esnew's island. Much of the sedge ground is now of no value. From what can be gathered from scattering documents at least three divisions were made.

Settlers.—Among the settlers of the township before 1700 were: Gershom Hall, Benjamin Hall, Samuel Hall, Abraham Chase, Joseph Severance, Manoah Ellis, Elisha Eldridge, Samuel Nickerson, Joseph Nickerson, Samuel Berry and John Smith.

    Gershom Hall came from what is now North Dennis, and was, so far as can now be learned, the first settler. He bought a large tract near the meadows some time before 1688. His house, it is understood, stood on the high ground which overlooks the meadows, near or upon the spot where the late Isaiah Kelley's house stood. He was born in Barnstable in the year 1648. He was a man of note. He was a farmer, millwright and lay preacher. All the Halls in town are his descendants. He died October 31, 1732, in his eighty-fourth year, and was buried in the Hall burying ground in North Dennis, together with his two wives.

    Benjamin Hall was a younger brother of Gershom, and was baptized at Barnstable May 29, 1653. He doubtless was born at Nobscusset, whither his father removed after several years residence in

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Barnstable. He purchased a large tract of the territory laid out to Edward Sturgis and sons, and came thither and settled upon it. Becoming interested in the purchase of wild lands in Windham, since Mansfield, Conn., in 1708, he removed to that place and died there in 1737.

    Samuel Hall, the eldest son of Gershom Hall, came with his father and settled in what is now North Harwich, near Ryder's mill. He married Patience Ryder. He was a farmer and miller, and owned the first water mill erected on Herring river. Very many of the worn out fields now seen on the east side of the river were parts of his farm. He was known as one of the wealthiest men of his day in the old town. He died in the sixtieth year of his age, February 19, 1729, and was buried in the old yard at North Dennis, where a stone with inscription marks the spot. He left no children. Much of his property he gave his nephew, Dea. Edward Hall, who at the time of his death was a lad.

    Abraham Chase was a son of William Chase, 2d, of Yarmouth. He settled in the south part of the town. His farm contained many acres. The west part was bounded by Coy's brook. His house stood not far from the house now occupied by John F. Allen. He sold out to William Cahoon of Monomoy, now Chatham, in 1695, and removed to Tiverton, R. I. He was a Quaker.

    Joseph Severance came from the east part of Yarmouth, now East Dennis, and settled in the south part of the town upon the tract which he, with Manoah Ellis and Elisha Eldridge, purchased of Jacob Crook, Indian, in 1693, lying on the sea shore from Saltwater pond to "Yarmouth Old bounds," which terminated east of Allen's harbor, so called. He subsequently purchased a tract with Manoah Ellis of Caleb Lumbert, extending from the sea shore northerly between Andrew's river and the Saltwater pond. He resided here but a short time when he sold his right to the tracts to Samuel Sturgis, Esq., a trader in Yarmouth, and moved to the southeasterly part of the town. Mr. Severance married Martha Warden, daughter of Peter of Yarmouth. He had a family. He has no descendant of the name in the town.

    Manoah Ellis came from Sandwich, and purchased land in that part of the town, now Harwich Port, with Joseph Severance and Elisha Eldridge in 1693. He sold his right with Severance, to Samuel Sturgis of Yarmouth, and the particular spot upon which he settled cannot now be pointed out. He had a large family, and some of his descendants yet live in the town. But very little is known of his life.

    Elisha Eldridge was from Monomoy. He sold his right to land he bought of Crook, with Severance and Ellis, to Isaac Atkins, and

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removed from town. He resided in the south part of the town in what is sometimes denominated the Doane neighborhood.

    Samuel Nickerson, son or grandson of William Nickerson, the early settler of Monomoy, removed to Harwich after 1696. He settled upon the tract he had of William Cahoon, which had been Abraham Chase's farm. He married Mary, daughter of John Bell, and had children. His son Samuel came into possession of most of his estate. His house stood near the house of the late Cyrus Allen.

    Joseph Nickerson, son of William Nickerson, removed to Harwich and settled on the west side of Muddy cove, near the house of Hiram Nickerson, one of his descendants, in or about 1697, where he had purchased fifty acres of upland and marsh of Barnabas Lothrop of Barnstable. He died before 1731. His widow, Ruamah, was living at that date very aged. He left children. He has many descendants yet living in town. The site of his house in Nickerson neck, Chatham, before his removal, is yet pointed out.

    Samuel Berry came from Yarmouth, and was the son of Richard Berry of that place. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Bell, and settled on the north side of the Herring river at North Harwich, near or upon the spot where the house of the late Ebenezer Kelly stood. He died in 1704, leaving a family, among whom were sons, John and Samuel. He has descendants in the male line in the state of New York.

    John Smith settled upon the tract he had of William Cahoon, adjoining Samuel Nickerson's land, about 1697. His land on the west adjoined Coy's brook. His house stood about southwest from the house formerly occupied by Isaac Smith. He died in 1748. He had six children. He opposed the division of the town into parishes in 1746.

    After the above came, others soon followed, and before 1750 the following persons had taken up their residence within the limits of the present town: Benjamin Philips, William Eldridge, Isaac Eldridge, Prince Young, Zachariah Smalley, John Streight, Ebenezar Paine, Patrick Butler, Benjamin Small, Eleazar Robbins, Ebenezar Ellis, Thomas Hinckley and William Cahoon in the north part of the town; William Long, Thomas Kendrick, Solomon Kendrick, Thomas Freeman and Benjamin Macor in the eastern part; Andrew Clarke, Ammiel Weekes, Jonathan Smalley, Ephraim Covil, William Covil, Edward Nickerson, Thomas Burgess, Samuel Burgess, Josiah Swift. John Allen, William Gray, Elijah Doane, Daniel Doane, Elisha Doane, Beriah Broadbrooks, Isaac Atkins, William Penny and Moses Davis in the southerly part; and William Chase, Samuel Smith, Matthew Gage, Samuel Downes, Patrick Killey and Ebenezar Chase in the western part.

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    Of the above number, Isaac Eldridge, John Streight, William Long, Solomon Kendrick, William Covil, William Gray and William Penny, after a few years' residence, removed from town. Isaac Eldridge returned to Chatham, his native town, after the burning of his house and wife. John Streight returned to Rhode Island, whence he came; William Long went to Yarmouth, having married there Fear Sturgis, and died; Solomon Kendrick went to Barrington, N. S.; William Covil went to Billingsgate; while William Gray and William Penny struck out for the west, settling in what is now Putnam county, N. Y.

Industries.—The principal business of the town has been the fisheries. The branch first engaged in was the whale fishery. At first, when whales were plenty in and about Cape Cod bay, boats were employed in pursuing them, manned by crews of experienced men, who were dexterous in the use of the "harping iron." But when whales began to leave the coast for undisturbed feeding ground, sloops of various sizes were employed; and when schooners were built, they also were sent forth in the business. The sloops engaged did not venture at first far from the coast. They cruised off the head of the Cape, off Nantucket, and sometimes ventured south as far as latitude 36, making short trips. In subsequent years, when the business became more remunerative, larger vessels were employed, and the trips were more extended, both as to time and distance. The revolutionary war greatly disturbed this branch of industry; and from the effects of the conflict it never recovered.

    The business was the most extensively carried on in the North precinct, now Brewster. The leading man there in the business the middle part of the last century was Benjamin Bangs, an enterprising merchant. Some of the vessels in his employ for several years were very successful. In 1760, more than forty men from Harwich went to Nantucket to engage in the business. At this date vessels were sent to River St. Lawrence, then "Canada river," the banks of Newfoundland and to southern waters for whales. The business was attended with danger, and the loss of vessels and lives was not infrequent.

    After the decline of the whale fishery upon the close of the war, attention was turned more particularly to the cod fishery by the people of the South precinct. In 1802, between fifteen and twenty vessels, averaging forty tons each, and about half of them owned here, were employed in shoal fishing, and four, of about one hundred tons each, in fishing on the banks of Newfoundland and in the straits of Belle Isle. It was estimated that over two hundred persons, including men and boys, were engaged at this time in the cod fishing from this place. After this time vessels began to be built in town, and

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coasting business, as well as the mackerel fishery, was engaged in, to considerable extent. The last war with England interfered much with the seafaring business of the Cape, especially of this town.

    In 1837, the fishing business was no way in a prosperous condition. Only twenty-two sail of vessels were engaged in the fisheries, and about two hundred persons employed. Most of these vessels were engaged in the cod fishery the first part of the season.

    After this time the Harwich fleet again increased, and in 1841, the year of the memorable gale, when fourteen persons belonging to this town were lost, twelve vessels sailed from "Marsh Bank " besides the fleet from Deep Hole and Herring river. In 1850 the mackerel fleet was much increased, owing to the good success attending the fishery the preceding years. In 1851 the scarcity of mackerel on this coast induced many of the fleet to visit Bay Chaleur. While there in the autumn, came on the memorable gale in which so many vessels and lives were lost, and from which all of the Harwich vessels escaped destruction, excepting the schooner Commerce, John Allen, master, and the schooner Ogunquit, commanded by Stephen D. Ellis, which were lost. The former went ashore and the crew were saved, while the latter was never heard from after the gale. Since the late war, the fleet engaged in the cod and mackerel fishery has gradually decreased, owing to small returns for great outlays. The number of vessels now engaged in the fishery is reduced to two.

    The manufacture of marine salt by solar heat, by improved works, commenced here about the first of the present century, and for a time was an important branch of industry. But the decline in the price of salt, and the great increase in the cost of the construction of the works, led to the abandonment of the business. It has been many years since a foot of the works has been seen standing here, or the arms of one of the pump mills seen revolving in the wind.

    During the revolutionary war, when salt was scarce and dear, many here produced it for home consumption by boiling sea water. The work of producing salt in this manner was laborious, and, the salt being impure, it was given up when other means of getting pure salt became general.

Religious Societies.—There has never been any lack of interest in religious matters here. No less than fifteen religious societies have been organized within the limits of the present town. Of these societies, the Separatist or New Light, Free Will Baptist, Reformed Methodist and Wesleyan Methodist have become extinct.

    The oldest organization is the Congregational church. It was constituted November 12, 1747. The first minister was Rev. Edward Pell, who was ordained the same day. Mr. Pell was a native of Boston, born in 1711. He was a graduate of Harvard College in 1730.

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    He died in Harwich, after a short sickness, November 24, 1753. He was succeeded, in 1753, by Mr. Benjamin Crocker. who preached until after April, 1755. Mr. Crocker was a native of Barnstable, and was a grandson of Governor Hinckley and nephew of Rev. Mr. Stone's wife. He was a graduate of Harvard College in 1713, and seems to have spent much of his life in school teaching.

    Rev. John Dennis succeeded Mr. Crocker in 1756. He was a native of Ipswich, and was born November 3, 1708. He was a graduate of Harvard College in 1730. He preached in Harwich until the spring of 1761. He died in Ipswich in 1773. At the close of Mr. Dennis' ministry, Mr. Crocker was again invited to supply the pulpit. Accepting the call, he came in the fall of 1761, and remained until about the middle of the year 1765, when his labors terminated. He returned to Ipswich, where he died in 1766.

    Mr. Crocker was succeeded by Rev. Jonathan Mills, a native of Braintree, and a graduate of Harvard College in 1723. He was installed pastor in the spring of 1766, and continued in the ministry here till death terminated his labors, May 21, 1773.

    The religious dissensions which were commenced in the parish at its incipiency did not cease during the pastorate of Mr. Mills. Resistance to the paying of the precinct tax levied for the support of the minister of the standing order, though not so strong as formerly, was yet shown by a considerable number of the parishioners, who supported ministers of other denominations, and efforts to supply the pulpit with preachers of the denomination was unsuccessful after Rev. Joseph Litchfield's short pastorate in 1777, until 1792, when Mr. Nathan Underwood was called and ordained, a period of about twenty years. Mr. Underwood continued in the ministry here in active service till 1819, but his connection with the church was not formally dissolved until April 8, 1828. Mr. Underwood was the last settled minister in town. He died May 1,1841, at the age of eighty-eight. During his pastorate forty-two persons were admitted to the church, and 135 were baptized. Between the time of his ordination and the time of his death, he solemnized 444 marriages. The following ministers supplied the pulpit since his pastorate to the installation of Rev. William Marchant, in 1839: Rev. John Sanford supplied the pulpit a portion of the time between 1821 and 182., Rev. Nathaniel Cobb, in 1825-6; Isaac B. Wheelwright, 1826-7; Rev W. M. Cornell, 1828-9; Rev. Lucius Field, 1829-30; Rev. Mr. Powers in 1830-31; Rev. Caleb Kimball, 1832-34, and the latter part of year 1839; Rev. William Withington, three months latter part of the year 1834; Rev. Charles S. Adams, 1835-38; Rev. J. H. Avory, the latter part of the year 1838 and beginning the year 1839. Rev. William Marchant became pastor August 1, 1839, and closed February 14, 1841. Rev. William H.

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Adams was pastor from August, 1841, to April, 1844. Rev. Cyrus Stone was pastor from September 1, 1844, to October 1. 1848. Rev. T. P. Sawin was pastor from December, 1848, to March 11, 1851. Rev. Noses H. Wilder became pastor in October, 1851, and was dismissed March 1, 1858. Rev. Joseph R. Munsell was pastor from November 7, 1858, to May 3, 1868. Rev. William Beard came in November. 1869, and closed his labors December 25, 1870. Mr. Charles S. Whitney, a licentiate, supplied the pulpit from May 7, 1871, to October 6, 1872. While supplying the pulpit he was ordained a Congregationalist minister. Rev. Bradish C. Ward supplied the pulpit from October, 1872, to January, 1876. The pulpit was supplied in 1877 by Rev. Joseph Hammond: in 1878 by Rev. Smith Norton; 1879 by Rev. S. W. Powell. Since 1880 the pastors have been: Rev. R. S. Tobey, Rev. C. M. Westlake, and Rev. H. P. Cutting. Rev. Mr. Cutting closed his labors in 1888.

    The first meeting house erected by the parish or society, a rude structure, stood a little westward of the chapel. It was taken down in 1792, and another, more commodious, was erected a little to the eastward, about where the chapel stands. After standing forty years this became dilapidated and unfit for public service, and was taken down and sold. The present structure was built in 1832, and enlarged and renovated in 1854, at an expense of about six thousand dollars.

    The second church constituted was the Separate or New Light church. The first pastor was Rev. Joshua Nickerson. He was ordained on "a stage in open air," February 23, 1749. The officiating ministers were: Rev. Isaac Backus, of Middleboro, Rev. John Paine, of Rehoboth, and Rev. Nathaniel Sheperd, of Attleboro. The ordination sermon was preached by Mr. Backus. The first deacons were William Nickerson and Richard Chase, both ordained the day after the pastor's ordination. As this was the first church of the denomination in Barnstable county it caused considerable excitement and "a deal of discourse." Mr. Dunster, the pastor of the First church, the Sunday following "preached a sermon against the Newlight's proceedings." The meeting house of this society, tradition has it, stood near the burying ground west of the house now occupied by Watson B. Baker. This burying ground is now unfenced, and all the head stones have been removed to the Island Pond cemetery. It was a small structure. Mr. Nickerson, the pastor, removed to Tamworth. N. H. But little is further known of this church.

    The third church organized was of the Separate or New Light denomination. The first pastor was Richard Chase. He was ordained December 11, 1751, 'Mr. Backus of Middleboro delivering the sermon for the occasion. Other ministers officiating were Elder Carpenter, Elder Ewer and Elder Nickerson of the first Separate church. At

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the ordination were Mr. Lewis of Billingsgate, and Mr. Dunster of the First church, who interrupted the meeting. Mr. Dunster protested against the proceedings, and declared some of the members had "separated from his church." This church worshiped in a meeting house in the west part of the town. At first, this church, like the first of which Mr. Nickerson was pastor, admitted to communion all Christians, whether they had been sprinkled in infancy or baptized by immersion. It also held to the baptism of infants of believers. But at length the pastor, and a portion of the church, became adverse to pedo-baptism, and the administration of the rite was neglected. This led to the convening of a council by the aggrieved brethren, December 20, 1752, which censured the pastor and that portion of the church that held with him. The censure, however, was revoked by another council, composed of Elders William Carpenter, Isaac Backus, Joshua Nickerson, and Dea. Eleazer Robbins, August 23, 1753. and fellowship with the church and Elder Chase was publicly declared. The next day Elder Chase, becoming satisfied it was his duty to go "into the water in baptism * * * went down to the water " with Elder Backus, who now was an Anabaptist, and the rite was administered.

    In 1757 the Anabaptistical wing of the church having organized a church of the Baptist order, gave Mr. Chase invitation to become the pastor. He accepted and was ordained September 29th. The sermon was preached by elder Backus. Elder Chase was pastor of the church until March 31, 1777, when he was deposed from the pastoral office for disorderly conduct as a minister of the gospel. Mr. Samuel Nickerson, a Free Will Baptist, preached to the Baptists in their meeting house, which stood on the old burying ground at North Harwich, a portion of the time between 1778 and 1781. Mr. Jonathan Jeffers supplied the pulpit from 1781 till June, 1785. Mr. Enoch Eldridge became pastor in 1788, and continued till 1794, when Rev. Abner Lewis succeeded him. Mr. Lewis continued the pastor until 1809. After h;m came Mr. Eli Ball, who supplied the pulpit a short period. He was succeeded by Mr. James Barnaby, a licentiate of the First Baptist church in Providence, who was ordained August 7, 1811. Mr. J. Barnaby was pastor till June, 1819. Rev. David Curtis became pastor in August, 1822, and continued till December 11, 1824. Rev. Stephen Coombs became pastor. in September, 1826, and continued until 1829. Rev. William Bowen became pastor in 1829, and continued until March 20, 1831, when he was succeeded by Rev. Davis Lothrop, who continued until 1834. Rev. Seth Ewer was the next pastor. He left the society in June, 1837, after two years' service. Rev. James Barnaby became pastor the second time in November, 1837, and continued here until March, 1844, when Mr. Lothrop became pastor the second

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time. He continued until March, 1846. Rev. George Matthews became pastor in July, 1846, and continued until March, 1848. Rev. Mr. Huntley supplied a short time, when Rev. Mr. Barnaby became pastor for the third time. He resigned his pastorate May 26, 1855. Mr. George F. Warren was ordained and installed January 8, 1856, and continued until September, 1857. He was succeeded by Rev. W. W. Ashley, who remained until November, 1857. After services of Rev. Mr. Clark and Rev. S. J. Bronson, Mr. Barnaby for the fourth time became pastor, in April, 1862, and continued until 1877, the year of his death. His successor was Rev. A. T. Dunn, who was followed by Rev. H. C. Hickok. Rev. J. W. Holman was pastor from 1883 to 1886. The present pastor is Rev. Charles A. Snow, who succeeded Mr. Holman in 1886.

    The second meeting house of the Baptists was built in 1804, some rods southerly from the old cemetery at North Harwich. It was removed to West Harwich in 1828, to site of the present church edifice. It was taken down in 1841, and the present church erected. The dedicatory services took place November 17, 1841. This church is the eldest of the denomination in the county.

    The Arminian, or Free Will Baptist church, was constituted in this town August 10, 1779. The first pastor was Mr. Samuel Nickerson. The church was composed mostly of those who had been members of the Separate churches. Mr. Nickerson left the church and returned to his native state, and the church was dissolved, October 20, 1789. Mr. Nickerson held meeting's in the parish meeting house, and also in the Baptist meeting house at North Harwich.

    The East Harwich Methodist Episcopal society was organized in 1797. The preacher at this date was Rev. John Broadhead. The first meeting house, a very small structure without plaster or paint, was built in 1799, in the east end of the old cemetery, near the site of the house of the late Washington Eldridge, and westward, a short distance from the house of Seth Eldridge. The house was occupied by the Methodists until 1811, when the present one at East Harwich was built, then it was vacated and sold. The society was incorporated March 1, 1809, by the Massachusetts legislature as the "First Methodist Society in Harwich," with "all the powers and privileges which are enjoyed by other religious societies," in the Commonwealth. Among the preachers after Mr. Broadhead, and before 1802, were Rev. John B. Gibson and Rev. John Merrick. Mr. Gibson was the preacher here when the meeting house was built in 1799. The first Methodist preacher here before 1797 was Mr. John Kenney, a native of Chatham, but a resident of Provincetown.

    The first worshippers in the church at North Harwich were Reformed Methodists. Those who are now sustaining meetings in

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the church are the Episcopal Methodists. Rev. Benjamin Swift was the first minister of the Reformed Methodists here.

    The meeting house at South Harwich was built for the Reformed Methodists in 1836. The master builder was Almond Hinckley of Dennis. The first minister was Rev. Benjamin Swift, whose remains lie buried at the north end of the church. The society subsequently became Wesleyan Methodist, and a church was organized January 1, 1845, of this denomination, with Rev. James Wright, pastor. In 1853, August 31st, the Methodist Episcopal church was organized with Rev. Mr. Spilstead, pastor.

    A few years after this change many who had attended meeting here withdrew, formed a society, built the "Bethel," near the town line, and for many years employed Rev. Davis Lothrop of West Harwich, as the pastor. Upon his retirement., the pulpit was supplied, but not regularly. At present the society is sustaining preaching.

    Pilgrim church (Congregationalist), Harwich Port, was organized April 24, 1855, with Rev. W. A. McCollom as pastor. Mr. McCollom retired from service here on account of failing' health near the close of the year, and Rev. Charles Morgridge succeeded him, commencing his labors February 18, 1856, and closing them February 18, 1858. Rev. Frederick Hebard was the next pastor. He came August 18. 1858, and retired February 18, 1864. Rev. Alvin J. Bates succeeded him February 26, 1865. Rev. Walter Ela followed in 1868. In 1869 Rev. Isaac Pierson preached eight months, and went a missionary to China. In 1870, Rev. Henry C. Fay was installed pastor. In 1872, Rev. Davis Lothrop supplied the pulpit; leaving in February, 1873, Rev. Isaac Dunham succeeded him, supplying the pulpit until November, 1873. Rev. Edson J. Moore was pastor for some time, closing his labors April, 1878. Rev. John H. Vincent was pastor from February, 1879, to February, 1881. Rev. Minot S. Hartwell supplied the pulpit from 1882 to 1884. From April, 1884, to January. 1885. Rev. C. M. Westlake supplied the pulpit. Rev. H. P. Cutting, pastor of the Centre church, supplied the pulpit during the latter part of the year 1886, and the beginning of the year 1887, when Rev. Warren Applebee succeeded him. Mr. Applebee closed his two years' pastorate in May. 1889. Rev. W. W. Parker commenced his labors in July, 1889. Nathaniel Doane is the senior deacon of the church, having held the office since the organization of the church in 1855. Freeman Snow who died in 1884, had been deacon since 1855. His successor is Henry Kelley. The present clerk and treasurer of the society is Dea. Nathaniel Doane, who has held the office eighteen years. The church edifice was erected in 1854, and dedicated February 1, 1855. Rev. M. H. Wilder, Rev. James Barnaby, Rev. Mr. Thacher, Rev. Mr. McCollom and Rev. Enoch Pratt taking part in the services.

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    The members of the Roman Catholic church commenced the erection of their house of worship at the Centre upon land purchased of Chester Snow, in October, 1865. The edifice was finished in May, 1866. The builder was George F. Swift of Sandwich. Services commenced in it in July, 1866. The locating of the church at this point, and the success of the movement to erect and pay for it, was largely due to the efforts of Patrick Drum, since deceased.

Official History.*—The following is the list of selectmen of the town from 1701 to the present time. with the first year of their election and the number of years they served: 1701, Joseph Paine, 12 years; Thomas Freeman, 3; William Myrick, 6; 1704, Thomas Clark, 4; 1710, Chillingsworth Foster, 7; Gershom Hall, 3; 1713, Nathaniel Myrick, 19; Edward Snow, 2; Kenelm Winslow, jr., 3: 1716. John Freeman, 3; 1718, Dea. Thomas Lincoln, 8: Ens. Prence Freeman, 13;. 1725, Lieut. Joseph Freeman, 9; 1726, Capt. Edmund Freeman, 7; 1732, Nathaniel Hopkins, 1; 1733, Kenelm Winslow, 3; Chillingsworth Foster, 4; Joseph Mayo, 11; 1739, Jabez Snow, 29; 1742, William Freeman, 3; 1743, John Snow, 7; 1745, Thomas Winslow, 1; 1748, Judah Sears, 1; Nathaniel Doane, 1; 1749, Edward Hall, 24: 1750, Elisha Doane, 7; 1753, Barnabas Freeman, 5; 1754, Thomas Kendrick, 1; 1758, Edmund Freeman, 6; 1763, Heman Stone, 3; 1770, Benjamin Freeman, 3; James Paine, 16; 1773, Joseph Nye, 7; 1779, Joseph Snow, 7; Solomon Freeman, 1; 1780, Nathaniel Downes, 2; Benjamin Berry, 4; 1782, Ammiel Weekes, 1; 1783, John Dillingham, 22; 1785, Ebenezer Broadbrooks, jr., 20; 1789, Ebenezer Snow, 3; 1791, Jonathan Snow, 8; 1792, Dea. Reuben Snow, 2; 1801, John Gould, 1; 1802, Scotto Berry, 3; 1805, William Eldridge, 7; Isaiah Chase, 5; 1809, John D. Bangs, 4; 1811, Job Chase, jr., 4; 1813, Stephen Burgess, 2; Nathan Nickerson, 2; 1814, Ebenezer Kelley, 1; 1815, Daniel Hall, 1; James Long, 16; 1816, Nathaniel Doane, 12; 1817, Elijah Chase, 15; 1818, Reuben Cahoon, 4; 1825, Nathan Underwood, jr., 25; 1530, Anthony Kelley, 3; 1831, Samuel Eldridge, 2d, 5; 1832, Isaiah Baker, 1; 1885, Amasa Nickerson, 4; 1836, Elkanah Nickerson, 1; 1837, Isaac Kelley, 9; 1839, Nathaniel Chase, 4; 1841, Isaiah Doane, 5; 1843, Freeman Snow, 2; 1844, Jacob Crowell, 3; 1845, Cyrus Weekes, 8; 1848, Darius Weekes, 1; 1850, Danforth S. Steel, 14; 1853, James Chase, 2; John Kenny, 2; 1853, Benjamin F. Bee, 1; 1857, Shubael B. Kelley, 6; 1858, Isaiah C. Kelley, 5; 1860, Thomas Kendrick, 9; 1862, Benjamin W. Eldridge, 1; Sheldon Crowell, 2; 1864, Joseph C. Berry, 3; 1866, Zephaniah Nickerson, jr., 15; Isaiah Chase, 14; 1873, Watson B. Kelley, 18; 1879, Thomas Ellis, 2; 1881, Mark F. Nickerson, 2; 1884, David Killey, 4; 1885, Edward Kendrick, 4; 1888, Uriel Doane, 2; 1889, Josiah Paine, 2; 1890, Ambrose N. Doane, 1 year.

* In consequence of the loss of the first pages of the first volume of the town records, the names of the first officers of the town cannot be given.

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    List of town clerks from 1701 to 1890, with first year they served. The town clerks were chosen treasures after 1717: 1701, Thomas Freeman; 1707, Joseph Paine; 1713, *Chillingsworth Foster; 1742, Nathaniel Stone, jr.; 1777, James Paine; 1785, Joseph Snow; 1789, Benjamin Bangs; 1793, Dean Bangs; 1795, Reuben Snow; 1796, Anthony Gray; 1800, John D. Bangs; 1809, Obed Brooks; 1810, Ebenezer Weekes; 1814, Obed Brooks; 1839, John Allen; 1846, Ephraim Doane; 1848, Benjamin W. Eldridge; 1852, Obed Brooks, jr.; 1853, Ephraim Doane; 1859, William H. Underwood; 1868, Braddock P. Philips; 1870, Freeman Snow; 1881, Joshua H. Paine.

    Representatives from 1811, with the first year in office and number of years in service: 1711, John Mayo, 3 years; 1712, Gershom Hall, 2; 1713, Thomas Clarke, 8; 1717, Chillingsworth Foster, 5; 1719, William Myrick, 1; 1720, Kenelm Winslow, 1; 1720, John Gray, 1; 1725, Edmund Freeman, 13; 1741, Joseph Freeman, 4; 1749, Edward Bangs, 2; 1755, Nathaniel Stone, jr., 6; 1761, Chillingsworth Foster, 9; 1770, Benjamin Freeman, 4; 1775, Joseph Nye, 3: 1777, Solomon Freeman, 5; 1783, Kimbal Clarke, 3; 1791, John Dillingham, 11; 1800, Ebenezer Broadbrooks, jr., 5; 1801, Benjamin Bang's, 4; 1806, Ebenezer Weekes, 3; 1812, Eli Small, 1; 1813, Nathan Nickerson, 1; 1823, Rev. Nathan Underwood, 2; 1827, James Long, 10: 1827, Dr. Greenleaf J. Pratt, 1; 1828, Isaiah Chase, 3; 1832, Sidney Underwood, 1; 1834, Job Chase, 2; 1834, Zebina H. Small, 2; 1835, Samuel Eldridge, 2d, 4; 1839, Cyrus Weekes, 5; 1839, Richard Baker, jr., 2; 1842. Loring Moody, 2; :,849, Darius Weekes, 1; 1850; Obed Nickerson, 1; 1851, Nathaniel Doane, jr., 5; 1854, Anthony K. Chase, 2; 1856, Elkanah Nickerson, 2.

Schools.—At the time Harwich was incorporated it was enjoined by law upon every town in the province "having the number of fifty householders or upwards," to have "a school master to teach children and youth to read and write; " and having "the number of one hundred families or householders to have a grammar school set up" and taught by "some discreet person of good conversation, well instructed in the tongues," and "to take effectual care and make due provisions for the settlement and maintenance of such school master or masters," the selectmen and inhabitants of such towns respectively were imperatively commanded. But this town, at the time of incorporation, not having families enough, as the law required, to establish a school in which both reading and writing could be taught, early had "a school for to teach children to read." In 1708, however, "families enough" were found, and the matter of establishing a school and providing for the settlement of a schoolmaster was brought up at a meeting of the town June ninth for consideration. The

* Died in office, and Kenelm Winslow, jr., was chosen to fill unexpired term Octoher 12, 1702.

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town voted to leave the management of the school with the selectmen, but for some reason not apparent they did not comply with the provisions of the law, and at the July session of the court the town was presented, and Edward Bangs was chosen to appear, as an agent, and give reasons for the neglect. After this date the town seems not to have neglected to maintain a lawful school. In March, 1709, but a few months after the presentment, in town meeting it was voted to raise such a sum "as the law makes provisions in making town rates, to pay the schoolmasters and his board." It was also decided that the schools should commence by "removes" that had been determined upon. After this time up to the settlement of Mr. Asbon as the town schoolmaster in 1733. the town, it is evident from the records, became interested in schools and made provisions for their support.

    At the time Mr. Asbon was settled as the schoolmaster no school houses had been built, and as an inducement to some one to open his house for the school the town offered the sum of "nine pence a week for a convenient house to keep school in." Mr. Asbon's engagement was for seven months in 1713. Whether he was engaged for 1714 we have no means of ascertaining. At the time of his teaching the town was districted, and the schoolmaster made the circuit of the town in seven months. This manner of establishing the school gave each section of the town the benefit of the school, although it necessitated long vacations and gave the master continuous service. Doubtless it was the best plan that could be adopted for the time when the inhabitants were scattered, and but one teacher supported by the town.

    In 1715 Mr. Philip Selew was engaged as the town schoolmaster, with a salary of forty-eight pounds. The town was, indeed, fortunate in securing a teacher of such qualifications. Before his term expired the town authorized the selectmen to again secure his services, and give him the same salary.

    Mr. Selew came to this country, his descendants claim, from Bordeaux, and had been educated for the ministry, but choosing the vocation of a teacher, was never settled in the ministry. He was the schoolmaster of the town for over fifty years. He died May 15, 1772, at the age of eighty-four, and lies buried in the old cemetery at Harwich, where a slate stone, with inscription, marks the place of his sepulture. Mr. Selew was three times married, and has descendants, but none residing in Harwich.

    In 1753 the South parish, now the present town of Harwich, took action in matters relating to schools, and "choose Lieut. Zachariah Smalley, John Gage and Gershom Hall, to hire school masters or school mistress'," but whether they carried out the vote of the parish

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does not appear. It was doubtless the first attempt of the "South side " people to support a teacher. Whether they continued yearly to support a teacher while the regular town's schoolmaster was on the circuit the records do not show. In 1766, however, a committee of the precinct was chosen to "settle the school" and Benjamin Nickerson was allowed "four shillings and ten pence lawful money for school house room," indicating that no school house had then been erected in the precinct or parish up to this time. In 1768 the general court authorized precincts to raise money for the schools and building school houses, and the South precinct choose " Samuel Nickerson, James Gage and Reuben Eldridge to settle the schools in the precinct." In 1775 the South precinct took action in relation to sustaining schools. "Reuben Eldridge, Prince Young. John Smith. Samuel Nickerson, Nathaniel Downes and Ebenezer Chase were chosen to settle the school."

    During the revolutionary period the schools of the town were not well sustained, owing to limited means at the town's command. For not providing' a schoolmaster according to law, in 1779, the town was "presented." After the close of the war efforts were made to keep up the schools to the requirements of the state; and Joseph Smith was employed as the town's schoolmaster. He was from Barre. He made the North parish his place of residence. He was generally known as "Schoolmaster Smith." The legislation of 1789, supplemented by that of 1800, 1817 and 1827, laid the foundation of a district school system which prevailed in this town up to the time of adopting the present system.

    At the present time (1890) the town sustains sixteen schools under the graded system, and has nine school houses. The high school was established at the Centre in 1881, with A. L. Wood as principal. He was succeeded by L. T. 31cKenney in 1887. The present teacher is S. A. Hayward, who succeeded Mr. McKenney in 1889. The late Colonel H. C. Brooks caused one thousand dollars to be placed in the Cape Cod Five Cents Savings Bank, the interest on which to be annually expended for a suitable medal for every school in town, to be donated once every year to the pupil in each school who is most proficient in composition and letter writing and most excellent in behavior, to be determined by the teacher of each school.

    The leading institution of learning in this section for twenty years was the Pine Grove Seminary, established in this town by Sidney Brooks in 1844. Mr. Brooks was the principal from the beginningHe gave up the charge of the school in 1866 to engage in teaching on the state school ship. The building he sold to the town in 1869, and it is now used for school purposes. Mr. Brooks was born in Harwich and graduated at Amherst College in 1841. He died in Boston, where he had resided mostly since he closed his school in Harwich.

849

Villages.—The villages in town and localities in which post offices have been established, are Harwich, East Harwich, South Harwich, Harwich Port, West Harwich, North Harwich and Pleasant Lake.

    Harwich is the central village and the oldest in the town. It is situated upon high land, many feet above the level of the sea, and above the chain of ponds that border the northerly line of the town. Where the Exchange building stands. the land is twenty-nine feet above the level of Long pond. On what is now Main street, sixty years ago, from the house of the late E. E. Hardings to the house occupied by the late Isaac Smith, there were only ten dwelling houses, and of these eight are yet standing, together with the old school house, in which many of the old residents of the village and neighborhood received the rudiments of their education.

    The first to open a store in this place was Ebenezer Brooks, Esq., which was before 1789. In 1802 his son, Obed Brooks, became associated with him in trade, and they erected in 1807 the store which was removed in 1880 from the old corner across the street, and is now occupied as a dwelling house. After the death of the father, Mr. Brooks continued in trade until about 1833, when he became associated with his son, Obed Brooks, jr., who had been in business in Boston under the firm of Rand & Brooks. Mr. Brooks at this date enlarged the store, and put in a good stock of goods, such as was usually kept in a country store, making it the store of the town. Mr. Brooks, in 1856, becoming cashier of the bank just established in the village, gave up the business, and Mr. Obed Nickerson of South Harwich, who had for some time been engaged in the store, took charge and carried on the business for several years, when in 1876 Mr. Cyrenus S. Hunt, a young man, who had received his business training under Mr Nickerson, took charge of the old stand, and remained in business there until the erection of Brooks' block, in 1879, when he removed his stock into the room he now occupies. Mr. Hunt has, with the exception of a short period at his place of residence in trade, occupied this store.

    In 1854, through the efforts of Chester Snow, the Exchange building, as it was called, was erected; the lower story was fitted up for stores, and the upper story as a hall, which at the time was the most commodious in the county. William H. Underwood and Andrew Snow, under the firm of Snow & Underwood, in 1855 opened a dry goods store in the building. They both retiring from the business in a few years, a new firm, Brett, Smith & Co., commenced business in the store. This firm was succeeded in 1864 by Charles E.Brett, a native of Brockton, who had been a clerk for the firm. Mr. Brett was a dealer in drygoods and clothing. He remained in the store until 1874, when he removed into his new store built a few steps east of the Exchange building, 

850

where he carried on business until 1876, when fire destroyed the store and the famous Exchange building, together with the dwelling house of Mrs. Turpie, and outbuildings connected with the store. It should have been stated that upon retiring from the dry goods business, Mr. Underwood went into the grocery business in another room of the old Exchange building, and engaged in other branches of trade, holding at the time the office of postmaster and town clerk and treasurer in his store. He was succeeded by his son, Joseph Underwood, and Henry Holmes in the grocery business in 1872. The store vacated by Mr. Brett in 1874 was soon occupied by C. F. Parker of Yarmouth in the dry goods business. He was in trade here when the store was burned. Mr. Parker for a short time opened a store in Mr. Buck's building,. now occupied by Paddock Small, and removed to Osterville. Mr. Brett's present store was built in 1876. The west room is occupied by J. F. Tobey. who succeeded Mr. Brett in the grocery business.

    Nathan Ellis opened a store in his old house on the north road in 1855, and subsequently opened opposite his house on the east side of the road a store, which was destroyed by fire about 1880. In 1881 he opened, near the railroad station, a store. which he sold to Thomas Harrirnan in 1884. who carried on the grocery business until 1885, when the store was burned. In 1881 Mr. Ellis built the store now owned and occupied by his son. Samuel A. Ellis.

    Others who have stores here at present are: Rufus F. Crowell. Paddock Small, Samuel Moody, jr., J. G. Ryder. 2d, Sheldon K. Crowell and Patrick Kelly, jr.

    T. D. Eldridge and S. W. Rogers, pharmacists, have each a drug store.

    In 1856, the manufacture of soap was commenced in a building standing upon the site of the house of F. D. Weekes, by Solomon Thacher. The business was not successful, and Mr. Thacher sold out to T. P. Parker,—who had been in his employ—an experienced soap maker. After some years in the business, lie removed from the town. The shop was made a dwelling house, and some years since was destroyed by fire.

    In 1865, Jonathan Buck moved into the new building which had just been completed for him, standing upon the site of the old school house, and commenced the manufacture of fishermen's boots and slippers. He continued in the business until 1868. when a company was formed, with a capital stock of ten thousand dollars, to carry on the same business, in addition to making women's shoes, and he became superintendent. In 1870, the capital was increased. In 1873 the company closed up business, and Mr. Buck resumed the old business. He retired in 1883. Paddock Small now occupies the place.

    The building erected for the company is now owned and occupied by Henry T. Crosby, the marble worker, who came here in 1873.

851

    Harness making was first commenced here by Henry Nickerson. He was succeeded by Frank Smith. Alliston S. Doane now occupies Mr. Smith's stand, having commenced business in 1881.

    The manufacture of barrels has been carried on here for years. Among the manufacturers are J. B. Tuttle, John Larkin and Edwin L. Eldridge. The barrels manufactured are used for packing cranberries, and are uniform as to size.

    The printing business was commenced here in 1862. in a building a few yards east of Mrs. C. D. Brooks' house, by John W. Emery, who, in the same year, started the Cape Cod Rcpz~blican. The paper and job printing' were discontinued in 1864. In 1868 Mr. Emery again opened his office, and started the Harwich Press and job printing: but removed to Farmington, Minn., in 1869. In 18872, Goss & Richards commenced job printing in the room now occupied as a lawyer's office, under the control of George B. Wilcox; afterward in old exchange building, and then in their new building, and at the same date, started the Harz~~ich 71zdepe1zdc7zt, which was printed in Barnstable. In 1881 A. P. Goss succeeded them, he having' been connected with the office here since 1873. In 1886, Benjamin F. Bee, jr., commenced job printing in the south part of the village. In 1888 he built the building he occupies.

    In 1866, Benjamin F. Bee, machinist, opened a shop on Bank street for mechanical purposes. Mr. Bee is an inventor of some note. The relieved tap, safety sectional boiler, regulating water gauge, Bee's gimlet, button fastener, and cranberry picker are among the most important of his inventions. He is now perfecting a machine for marine propulsion.

    The Cape Cod Five Cent Savings Bank went into operation in 1856, with Obed Brooks, jr., as treasurer. This institution was incorporated March 16, 1855. Before the erection of the present bank building in 1875, the business was done in the office of the Bank of Cape Cod. The successor of Mr. Brooks, who retired in 1870, was M. S. Underwood, of Dennis. He was succeeded by A. C. Snow, 2d, in 1882, who is now the treasurer. The assistant treasurer is A. L. Weekes.

    The Bank of Cape Cod was chartered May 21, 1855. It went into operation in February, 1856, with Christopher Hall, of Dennis, as president, and Obed Brooks as cashier, with a capital stock of $100,000. In January, 1865, it became the Cape Cod National Bank, of Harwich. The present capital stock is $300,000. George H. Snow, the present cashier, succeeded Mr. Brooks in October, 1865. The president is E. E. Crowell, of Dennis, who has been officially connected with the bank since its organization. The presidents, beside the above named, have been Prince S. Crowell, of Dennis; Joseph K. Baker, of Dennis, and Isaac H. Loveland, of Chatham. The banking

852

house was erected in 1855. The master builder was James Moody. The assistant cashier is A. C. Snow, 2d.

    The Broadbrooks Free Library, the gift of the late Major Henry C. Brooks, of Boston, but a native of the village, containing about four thousand volumes, was formally opened January 1, 1881. It is in the west chamber of the spacious building erected by him in 1879, known now as Brooks block. It is opened every Saturday, and any person of the town, over fourteen years of age, is entitled to its privileges, if complying with the rules. Connected with the library is an art room, in which are the Rogers' group of statuary, presented to the town in 1881 by Pliny Nickerson, Esq., of Boston, also a native of the town.

    The largest structure in the town—the Exchange building in this village—was commenced in the summer of 1884 and completed in 1885. It stands upon the site of the Exchange building burned in 1876. The second story of the building contains the spacious and well fitted hall. It was erected for the proprietor, Chester Snow, Esq., by Richardson & Young, contractors, and cost about $43,000.

    The post office in this village was established in 1798. Silvanus S. Stone was appointed first postmaster April first of that year. He was succeeded May 11, 1804, by Ebenezer Brooks. At this time the office was kept in Mr. Brooks' store, upon his premises, on the north side of the road, near his house, the site of which is seen in the grove where the temperance picnics are held. The mail matter was then brought on the mail carriers' shoulders in a bag once in a fortnight, and we opine the letters and papers were few in number at that date. Later on it was brought from Boston once a week on horseback by John Thacher, of Barnstable; and still later by Freeman Winslow, of Brewster, who took the mail in saddlebags from Sandwich, the terminus of the stage route, once a week from Boston.

    Mr. Brooks was succeeded as postmaster by Obed Brooks, the son, December 29, 1822, who in turn was succeeded August 13, 1856, by Obed Brooks, jr. The latter resigned in 1858, when W. H. Underwood was appointed. Mr. Underwood resigned in 1873, when Charles E. Brett was appointed. Mr. Brett resigned in 1885. He was succeeded, in 1885, by John H. Drum. Samuel Moody, jr., succeeded Mr. Drum in 1889, and is the present postmaster. While the office was held by Obed Brooks, it was in the old store ; and when Obed Brooks, jr., was postmaster it was held in the same building.

    East Harwich is the post office designation of the eastern part of the town, and covers a large territory. The principal settlement is on the road from the meeting house toward Orleans. The church here of the Methodist denomination was erected in 1811, and is the oldest in the county. There are two cemeteries here, one adjoining the church yard, and the other in a northwesterly direction on high

853

ground. The latter was laid out in 1858. It contains four acres. and is certainly the best laid out cemetery in town. At first it contained two acres, but in 1875, it was enlarged and incorporated. Prominent among the traders are Mulford Young, A. J. Chase. Hiram E. Nickerson and Sears L. Moores. Mr. Young is a dealer in furniture, groceries and dry goods. He first commenced trade in 1851. Many years ago a public house was kept here by David Kendrick, where the late Isaac B. Kendrick resided. Here the probate courts were held while Hon. Nymphas Marston was the judge. Many from this locality go boat fishing out of Pleasant bay, to fishing grounds off Chatham, and are quite successful.

    The post office was established here in 1830. The first postmaster was Rufus L. Thacher, appointed December 24, 1830 David Snow, jr., was appointed October 24, 1832. David Snow was in business "on the corner" at the time. He was succeeded by David Kendrick January 18, 1836, who was succeeded April 8, 1839, by Benjamin F. Eldridge. Mr. Eldridge was succeeded August 26, 1841, by James G. Smith, who in March, 1843, was succeeded by Benjamin F. Eldridge. He resigned, and was succeeded April 14, 1856, by Danforth S. Steel. Mr. Steel resigned in 1862, and was succeeded by George W. Nickerson, after whom came Samuel Bassett. He was succeeded by J. H. Chase, who was succeeded by Hiram E. Nickerson. Sears L. Moores is the present postmaster, having been appointed in 1887. Until the appointment of Mr. Steel. the post office was at the corner near the meeting house. Since then it has been kept in the north neighborhood where it is now. The mail is taken directly to the office from Harwich once a day.

    Salt making at the cove was carried on early. Samuel Eldridge, Esq., had works on the west side of the cove near his house. His works were the last seen in that part of the town.

    The old wind mill, which ground the grists of the good people of the neighborhood, familiarly known as "Uncle Elnathans' mill," graced the high lands of "Weguasset,"—the territory so called by the Indians north of Short cove, overlooking Pleasant bay.

    South Harwich is the post office designation of the southeastern part of the town. The settlement is principally on the main road from Chatham to Harwich Centre. This neighborhood, though thinly settled. has been an active part of the town. The activity here was mainly due to the late Amasa Nickerson, who successfully carried on the fisheries at the Deep Hole for many years before his death. Among others who were engaged in the same business, were Cyrus Weekes and Caleb Small, under the style of Weekes & Small, and Caleb Small after the dissolution of the firm in 1868; Zephaniah, Stephen and Alden Nickerson; Tuttle & Godfrey, Nickerson & Small: Darius F.

854

Weekes & Co., and Levi Eldridge. The only firm engaged now in the fishing is Kendrick & Bearse, who have only two vessels engaged. This firm has two stores, one at the wharf and the other at South Harwich station. The wharf here has suffered destruction by the ice several times, and has as many times been rebuilt in consequence. Most of the above named had fitting out stores. At the west of the Deep Hole, salt making was engaged in early. There are many now living who remember the salt works that stood near George W. Nickerson's house, owned by the late Nathan Nickerson. The principal stores on Main street forty years ago were Joseph P. Nickerson & Co. and Abner Nickerson. Boat building was carried on here many years ago by Zebina H. Godfrey.

    The post office was established here in 1831, with Joseph P. Nickerson, postmaster. He continued in the office till his death in 1859, when his daughter, Loretta Nickerson, succeeded him. She was followed by William M. Eldridge in 1864, and the office removed to its present location.

    The Methodist Episcopal church is situated here. The only cemetery in this section is near by. Cyrus Eldridge, the portrait painter, one-half a century ago, was a native of this village. The traders of to-day are Sears Brothers, H. L. Crowell, W. M. Eldridge. Kendrick & Bearse, David Ellis and L. Clarke.

    The oldest house in town, so far as is known, is yet standing in the village, and now owned by N. T. Gorham. The first occupant was John Long, and the second his youngest son, James Long, who was a leading man in town fifty years ago. The earliest residents were Jonathan Smalley, Joseph Severance, Joseph Ellis, Ammiel Weekes, Acus Tripp, John Long and John Paine. Will Tobey, the slave of Mr. Zachariah Smalley, also lived in this section near or on the spot where Mr. E. P. Nickerson's house stands. For the faithful service he rendered his master, the heirs of Mr. Smalley in 1779 provided for his support during his natural life. An oak tree now standing on the farm of James S. Paine yet bears the mark of his axe made more than 140 years ago, when the tree was young and standing by the road, while he was assisting the owner, Ebenezer Paine, in making fence.

    The overall business was started here by Mrs. Hannah C. Stokes in 1865. In 1872 E. L. Stokes & Co. started the same business and soon commenced the manufacture of shirts. They run thirty machines by steam, and keep fifty hands at work at the shop, besides employing 250 persons outside, in this and adjoining towns.

    The watch business was started in this place by Warren Freeman in 1835. He continues repairing and dealing in watches, clocks, jewelry, etc.

855

    Pilgrim Lodge, F. & A. M., received its charter March 14, 1860. The charter members were Frederick Hebard, Warren Freeman, Z. H. Godfrey, Charles Jenkins, Zenas D. Eldridge, Stephen Nickerson, B. G. Philips, Timothy Baker and Caleb Nickerson. It held its meetings in Freeman's Hall until 1880, when a lodge room "was fitted up in Brooks' block, in which the lodge has held its meetings since that time.

    Harwich Port lies on the south side of the town. It owes much of its growth to the fisheries and the coasting trade. There are many yet living who remember when the houses were few in number and far apart. Records show that for many years before 1753 the territory upon which the village stands was held by Ephraim Covel, who lived near Grass pond: but at which date, he being dead, it was in possession of his daughters, viz.: Thankful, wife of Edward Nickerson; Sarah, wife of Benjamin Nickerson: Mercy, wife of Samuel Burgess; and Mary, wife of Thomas Burgess. Three of the above—Thankful, Mercy and Mary—were at that time living upon the tract, though not in what is now the village. The Burgess' possession was the western part of the tract which extended westerly from the Salt Water pond between the shore and lower end of Grass pond, while the Nickerson's was the eastern portion bordering Cold brook and Andrew's river on the east and Grass pond on the west. Up to 1804 there were no public roads leading to or through "inland," as it was then known. The way from the Centre by the east end of Grass pond was crooked and through bars most of the distance. This way was made a town road in 1831, with some alterations in its location at the Port. The way through the village, now Main street, was laid out in 1827 as a county road by the county commissions. Most of the old ways at the Port years ago, and remembered by the aged of to-day, were made by Ephraim Covel for his convenience, and the Burgess who succeeded to his estate in the "inland."

    Vessel building upon the shore commenced here before 3800. In 1792 the schooner Industry was built, in 1793 the schooner Delight, in 1800 the schooner Polly, and in 1804 the schooner Combine. After 1830 several were built on the shore. Among them the schooners Eliza, Ostrich and Emolous. The Eliza was built near the marsh bank, and was commanded by Laban Snow, jr. The Ostrich and Emolous were built west of Allen's harbor, at the place called "No-horns," by Anthony Thacher. The Emulous was for awhile under the command of Captain Z. H. Small.

    The water mill, where afterward stood the sash and blind factory, was built for Thomas Burgess in 1763. The mill was erected by Captain Pepper, the famous millwright of Eastham. It appears the mill was in full operation in December of that year. It was sold

856

to Benjamin Lovell of Barnstable, who removed here and settled on the west side of the brook after the revolutionary war. Mr. Lovell did not long continue in charge of the mill. Benjamin Small, jr.. his son-in-law, was in possession of the mill and other real estate on the west side of the river in 1798, when the same was conveyed to his father. Some time after 1820 a "carding machine" from North Harwich was put in for carding wool. The water privilege was some years since purchased by Ephraim Doane, who, with Elkanah Hopkins, commenced the manufacture of doors, sashes and blinds. He was succeeded by G. H. Tripp, who, about 1857, gave up the business.

    The tanning business was started here by Elkanah Nickerson and Lorenzo D. Nickerson. Their tannery was south of the house of Captain T. A. Nickerson. It has long since disappeared.

    Sail making was commenced in the village after the fishing business revived. Timothy Baker had a sail loft on the west side of the road near his house. In 1850 Kelley & Doane established the business in a loft overlooking the shore, where it is now carried on by S. B. Kelley, who succeeded Mr. Doane in 1858. Abner L. Small was long engaged in the business in a loft near his house. Gilbert Smith also was engaged in the business at the Port.

    Boat building has been carried on in this village by Charles Jenkins for thirty years. Mr. Jenkins succeeded David Godfrey & Son in the business they established in 1847.

    Henry Kelley opened a lumber yard here about 1850. In 1853 he formed a partnership with his brother, Watson B. Kelley, under the firm of H. Kelley & Co., and have since carried on the lumber, coal and hardware business, occupying the same stand as from the start.

    Among the early traders here were: Jeremiah Walker, Valentine Doane, Laban Snow, jr., Benjamin W. Eldridge, Ephraim Doane, Elbridge G. Doane, Emulous Small and L. S. Burgess. Jeremiah Walker kept a variety store near his house. Valentine Doane at first opened a store near his house, which he occupied until its removal to the shore, near the present house of Theophilus Burgess. He was a dealer in flour, corn, groceries, etc. Laban Snow, jr., started a store on the corner where the house of Charles Jenkins stands, having for his partner, until 1848, B. W. Eldridge. Some time after Mr. Eldridge retired Lindsey Nickerson, jr., became Mr. Snow's partner. B. W. Eldridge, soon after leaving Mr. Snow, opened a store westward, on the north side of the road, where he carried on business until his death in 1862. In 1849 Ephraim Doane, who had been a clerk in Valentine Doane's store, opened a store on the corner where Shubael B. Kelley's store now stands. He gave up the business after some years, and Mr. Kelley succeeded him. The store was burned in 1887. It was rebuilt the same year, and is now occupied by Mr. Kelley.

857

    Emulous Sma1l engaged in business in the store under 'Onion Hall after the closing of the "Union store," which had been opened in 1850, and in company with his father, under the firm of E. Small & Co., remained about three years in business. when his father retired. He then carried on the business until 1876, when he sold out his store to Joseph K. Robbins. Mr. Robbins continued the business until April, 1889, when he sold out to Samuel J. Miles.

    Lovell S. Burgess started in the clothing business here in the village in 1864, Freeman E. Burgess being connected with the custom department. In 1877 Simeon K. Sears purchased the store, and now keeps a dry goods store. In 1879 Mr. Burgess became a partner with F. E. Burgess, who had started the clothing business, but after a year here went to Dennis Port and opened a dry goods store, leaving his partner, who continues at the old stand.

    Among other prominent traders of to-day here, are C. F. Nickerson, P. N. Small, George D. Smalley, W. R. Burgess and Elisha Mayo. Mr. Mayo opened his boot and shoe store in 1887.

    The village blacksmiths are William H. Cole and Thomas Freeman. Mr. Cole succeeded Josiah B. Hallett in 1870. In connection with his blacksmith work he carries on carriage work.

    Social Hall, located a little north of Main street. was erected in 1869. It is owned by a stock company, which holds 971 shares. The meetings of the town have been held in it the past twelve years.

    Satucket House, built in 1886, is occupied as a reading room and library. It is managed by a board of trustees annually chosen. Watson B. Kelley is the president and S. K. Sears secretary.

    The Sea View Circle, composed of ladies, contributed to its erection. Their library of nearly six hundred volumes, called also Sea View Library, is in it, and is open on Saturdays. T. R. Eldridge is librarian and Miss Sabra F. Smith assistant librarian.

    The hotel in the eastern part of the village, known as the Sea View House, is kept by Rinaldo Eldridge. Just south of this hotel, on the west side of the road, were the salt works of Captain Theophilus Burgess, an energetic ship captain, who was lost on a voyage to Russia in 1832.

    Marsh Bank wharf was built in 1841. It was the first built on the shore east of the Herring river. The second was Union wharf, east of Marsh Bank wharf, built in 1849. The third was Long wharf, east of Union wharf, and West of Salt Water pond. These wharves have all been destroyed by ice. The only wharf now upon the shore is at the foot of Sea street, and is owned by Henry Kelley & Co. and T. B. Baker. This wharf has been rebuilt several times in consequence of ice. It stands upon the site of the old "Marsh Bank wharf."

    It was at the old Marsh Bank wharf, in 1847, that Valentine Doane

858

started the fishing business. He continued in business on this wharf, assisted by his sons, Valentine, jr., and Ambrose N. Doane, until 1867, when Valentine, jr., removed to Portsmouth, N. H., and started the same business, Ambrose N. continuing with his father. Mr. Doane removed his business from this wharf to Long wharf. and after its destruction by ice carried his business on at "Job Chase's wharf," west of Herring river. At this place he continued from 1882 to 1884, when he quitted business.

    At Marsh Bank wharf, Laban Snow, jr., carried on the fishing business until Union wharf was built, which was in 1849. At Union wharf, under the firm of Snow & Nickerson, he continued business. At this wharf B. G. Philips & Co. carried on the business, succeeding Snow & Nickerson. The successors of B. G. Philips & Co. were Lindsay Nickerson and Theophilus B. Baker, under the firm name of Nickerson & Baker. In 1869 Mr. Nickerson retired, and Mr. Baker continued in the business until 1889, when he disposed of his remaining vessels and gave up the fishing business. The last two firms had fitting out stores at the shore.

    The firm that carried on business first at the Long wharf had also a store at the wharf. This firm was not long in business.

    The first inspector of mackerel at the port was Caleb Snow. He first had a stage near the Marsh Bank for packing.

    The post office was established here in 1851, Ephraim Doane being the first postmaster. Benjamin W. Eldridge succeeded him January 20, 1854. :Mr. Eldridge was succeeded in 1861 by Shubael B. Kelley, who held the office until 1885, when W. R. Burgess was appointed. The present postmaster is Benjamin C. Kelley.

    The Satucket Lodge of Good Templars, organized in June, 1888, meet in Florence Hall, over C. F. Nickerson's store. The present membership is sixty-nine. The worthy chief templars have been Willie L. Killey, Ebenezar Weekes, 2d, and Albertus Small.

    West Harwich is situated in the southwestern part of the town, and lies on both sides of the Herring river. The west part of the village is the most thickly settled. The people here were early engaged in the fishery, and most of the men are yet engaged in seafaring pursuits. This part of the town was not very early settled, on account of its remoteness, and the difficulty of getting to the neighborhood. The first to settle within the town line, west of the river, so far as is now known, was William Chase, son of John Chase. He settled at the mouth of the river. He was boon followed by Samuel Smith, who erected a house near where Amos Smith's house stands, For some years these two settlers were the only residents the west side of the river. The early settlers on the east side were located in the Snow neighborhood. They were Benjamin Hall. who went to Connecticut;

Ginn house

Residence of D. R. GINN, M. D.,
West Harwich, Mass.

Ginn's Bazaar

Ginn's Bazaar.
Dennis Port. Mass.

859

William Gray, who went to New York State about 1746, and Dea. Nathaniel Doane, who settled upon Gray's farm, and his only son, Elijah Doane.

    The building of the bridge over the river, near Job Chase's house, in 1804, and the throwing open a public way from the Dennis line to the bridge, in 1808, by Job Chase, sr., through his lands, aided much the growth of the place, especially on the west side.

    Vessel building on the river and near its mouth commenced early after the beginning of the present century, and was continued at times until 1848. Among the number built, of which mention has been made, were the Hope and Polly, built for Job Chase, sr., in 1805; the Dorcas, built on the east side of Herring river, by Patrick Kelley, in 1817; the Superb Hope, for Job Chase, jr., and Sears Chase, in 1824; the Experiment, for Isaac Bee, in 1830, near his house, and also the schooner Triumph, and the Job Chase, in 1848. The latter was a schooner of about seventy tons. It was built by Anthony Thacher for Job Chase, at a place on the west side of the river, south of Erastus Chase's house, called the "Snake Hole." This was the last vessel built in Harwich. Mr. Chase was actively engaged in the fishery during most of his life. as was his father, bearing the same name. He had a store for many years, near the river, a little to the eastward of Erastus Chase's store.

    The post office here was established in 1827. The first postmaster was Elijah Chase, appointed January 6th, of that year. His successor was Samuel P. Bourne, appointed May 20,1841. Mr. Bourne resigned in 1843, having been appointed cashier of the Falmouth Bank, and Anthony Kelley was appointed November 17. Mr. Kelley resigned in 1848, and was succeeded by David H. Small, appointed July 20. Anthony K. Chase, appointed December 23, 1856, succeeded Mr. Small, and was followed by Erastus Chase in 1861. Charles H. Kelley succeeded Mr. Chase in 1885. and Henry C. Berry succeeded Mr. Kelley in 1889.

    The only public house here for many years, was kept by Isaiah Baker. The site is marked by the house of James W. Eldridge, a few rods west of the Baptist meeting house. In 1881 Ozias C. Baker opened the Central House, which is now kept by him. In 1883, William P. Baker, his son, started a livery stable in connection with the hotel; and it is the terminus of his express and stage route from North Harwich railroad station through Dennis Port to this village.

    Among those who have stores in the village, are: Erastus Chase, dealer in clothes and groceries: Henry C. Robbins, Davis Lothrop, jr., and C. H. Kelley.

    The largest building in the village is Ocean Hall, near the Dennis line. This hall was erected in 1865, costing about seven thousand

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dollars. Bartlett White, of Yarmouth, was the builder. The first story contains the public hall, the second story is occupied by Mount Horeb Lodge, of Freemasons, and the Sylvester Baxter Chapter, and the third story is used for a dining room. The lodge room was furnished at an expense of about fifteen hundred dollars, and dedicated December 25, 1865. Rev. Dr. Quint, of New Bedford, delivered the dedicatory address.

    Mount Horeb Lodge of Freemasons was constituted, December 25. 1855. The following officers, representing the Grand Lodge, were in attendance: Sylvester Baxter, M. W. G. M.; Rufus S. Pope, D. G. M.; A. C. Nickerson, G. S. W.; H. W. Rugg, J. G. W. The marshal for the -occasion was Anthony Kelley. The officers for the year ending December, 1856, installed were: Nehemiah D. Kelley, W. M.; Joseph K. Baker, S. W.; William E. Ansel, J. W.; Anthony Kelley, jr., secy.; Remark Chase, treas.; Samuel D. Chase, S. D.: Benjamin W.Eldridge, J. D.; and Anthony Kelley, marshal. The masters of the lodge have been: N. D. Kelley, Joseph K. Baker, Anthony K. Chase, Veranus Nickerson, Ozias C. Baker, Benjamin P. Sears, Abner L. Ellis, Luther Fisk, David Fisk, Erastus Chase. Sylvester Baker, Sylvester F. Baker, and Henry H. Fisk. The secretary of the lodge in 1889 was James B. Hopkins.

    The Sylvester Baxter Chapter meets in Mount Horeb Lodge room. The charter bears date December 7, 1870. The principal officers the first year were: N. D. Kelley, H. P.; Joseph K. Baker, K.; Watson B. Kelley, sec. The principal officers of 1889 were: John E. Hamer, H. P.: Henry H. Fisk, K.; and Erastus Chase, S. Charles H. Kelley has been secretary during eleven years of the existence of the chapter. Besides the above, who acted as H. P. since the chapter was instituted, was Abiathar Doane. The members are scattered over the adjoining towns.

    North Harwich is the post office designation of the village in the northwestern part of the town. This part of the town was early known, as here was built the first grist mill in the south part of the old town. It stood upon the Herring river, and was known as Hall's mill. The site is now marked by the Ryder's mill. It was owned by Samuel Hall, the first resident here, sometime before 1700. A short distance north of this mill, on the river, stood the cotton and woolen factory, removed from South Harwich in 1825, and again removed in 1851; and also the gist mill and mill for carding wool. The site of these mills is marked by Rogers' mill. Below Hall's mill, or "Middle mill," as it was sometimes called, was Kelley's mill. Near the site of this grist mill, in 1867, was erected the tap and die factory, which was burned in December, 1868. Near by was shortly after erected the building for making safety sectional boilers, under the superintendence

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of B. F. Bee, the inventor, who also was superintendent of the tap and die factory. The village now contains two houses of worship and one school house. The railroad station for accommodation of Dennis Port and West Harwich, is situated in the western part of the village.

    Stores here were formerly kept by Ebenezar Kelley, Nathan Foster, Sheldon Crowell and Elijah B. Sears. The present stores are kept by Richard Baker and J. C. Baker.

    The first public house in this section of the town, so far as is now known, was opened here. It was first known as Downe's tavern, and afterward as Howes' tavern. The site is now marked by John E. Ryder's house.

    The Baptist meeting house stood in this place up to 1828, when it was removed to West Harwich. The old cemetery of this society is near the site of the meeting house. It has been enlarged, and is now occupied as the cemetery of the village.

    The post office was established here in 1862, with Sheldon Crowell as postmaster. He was succeeded in 1867 by Elijah B. Sears, who was followed by Mrs. E. B. Sears. Mrs. Sears was succeeded by Jonathan Burgess. Joseph Raymond succeeded Mr. Burgess, and James C. Baker followed Mr. Raymond.

    Pleasant Lake is the post office designation of the settlement at, and near the west end of Long pond, and at Hinckley's pond. The first postmaster was Patrick F. Cahoon. He died a few years after his appointment, and Alvin H. Bassett, the present postmaster, was appointed. The Old Colony railroad passes through this place, and has a flag station near the post office. The people of this vicinity have a small house of worship, called the "Free Methodist Chapel," situated on Queen Anne's road, so called, built in 1880, and a school house near by. Cranberry culture is the business the people are mostly engaged in. Here resides Alvin Cahoon, the first to experiment in cranberry culture. It is also the residence of Cyrus Cahoon, a prominent cranberry grower, who early engaged in the business. This place was early settled. Among the first residents were Thomas Hinckley, Micah Philips, Reuben Philips, James Severance and James Cahoon.*

*Mr. Paine is not responsible for the remaining portion of this chapter.—Ed.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

    Edward B. Alien, born in 1823, is the second son of James, grandson of Seth, and great-grandson of John Allen. His mother was Bettie Baker. Mr. Allen followed the sea from 1837 to 1880, as master thirty-four years. He was married in 1846, to Mehitabel Doane. She died in 1878. They had four children: Susan D., Lora F., Ella and

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James E., who was lost at sea. Mr. Allen was married again in 1882. to Mary E. Phillips. Mr. Allen's grandfather, Seth Allen, was a revolutionary soldier. He was discharged in New York at the close of the war and walked home, with the other privates, arriving before the officers, who rode their horses. Mr. Allen has the wills of his father, grandfather and great-grandfather. John Allen gave five acres each, under and around their several dwelling houses, to his four sons: William, Seth, Paine and Elisha.

    Mark Allen, the carpenter, born in 1846, is a son of William and Marana (Small) Allen, and grandson of William and Tabitha (Kelleyj Allen. Since October, 1886, he has had charge of the Harwich town farm. He was married in 1876, to Lizzie, daughter of James Scott.

    Joseph 3. Atkins, son of Prince and Betsey (Nickerson) Atkins, and grandson of Thomas and Tabitha Atkins, was born in 1844. He followed the sea from 1855 to 1879, and since that time has been engaged in cranberry culture. He was married in 1869, to Clara, daughter of Alvin and Clarissa (Young) Cahoon. They have two children: J. Berlie and Alice May.

    James C. Baker, born in 1860, is a son of James, grandson of James and great-grandson of Anthony Baker. Mr. Baker is a machinist by trade. He opened a grocery store at North Harwich in 1886, and since 1888 he has been the postmaster there. He was married in 1886, to Annie L. Taylor. Their son, Benjamin, was born in 1887.

    Joseph G. Baker, born May 23. 1842, is a son of Joseph O. and a grandson of Joseph, whose father was Anthony Baker. Mr. Baker has been a mariner since 1856, and since 1863 has been master. He was married in 1869, to Abbie F. Nickerson. They have five children: Orlando N., Abbie S., Josephine R., Phineas O. and Walter N.

    Ozias C. Baker was a son of Isaiah and grandson of Isaiah Baker. He was married to Data K., daughter of Elijah Chase. She died in 1886, leaving one son, William P., born June 13, 1866, married in 1885, to Lura B. Bisbee, and has one son, Ozias C., jr.

    Theophilus B. Baker, born in 1830, is a son of Joseph and Catherine (Ellis) Baker, and grandson of Anthony Baker. He was a mariner from the age of eleven to thirty-six years. He was married in 1852, to Camelia H. Allen. They have two children: Theophilus B., jr., and K. Florence.

    Alvin N. Bassett, son of Ephraim and Reliance (Nickerson) Bassett, and grandson of Daniel and Joanna Bassett, was born in 1836. He followed the sea until 1878, and has since been engaged in cranberry culture. He was married in 1858, to Emily, daughter of Patrick F. Cahoon. They have one son, Alvin H., who has been postmaster, station agent and merchant at Pleasant Lake since 1883.

    John F. Bassett, son of John A. and grandson of Josiah Bassett,

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was born in 1856. He has been carpenter for the Old Colony Railroad Company for two years. He was married in 1878, to Deborah, daughter of Carmi H. and Deborah Ann (Bassett) Nichols, who died in 1862. They have one daughter, Sarah J.  Mr. Nichols married for his second wife Susan S., daughter of Josiah Bassett, jr. Mr. Nichols went to sea until 1872. Since 1873 he has been carpenter for the Old Colony Railroad Company.

    Benjamin F. Bee, son of Isaac and Mercy (Nickerson) Bee, and grandson of Isaac Bee, was born in 1825, and is a machinist by trade. In 1886 he built a shop near his residence. He has made several important inventions, such as the safety section boiler, the relief tap, universal button fastener, a cranberry picker, and others. He was engineer in the Union navy from 1862 to 1865. He was married in December, 1848, to Amelia S., daughter of Zebina H. Small. They have had three children: Isaac N. (deceased), Benjamin F., jr., and Amelia S.

    Henry C. Berry, born in 1833, is a son of James and Basheba (Nickerson) Berry, and grandson of Judah Berry. He began going to sea in 1842, continuing until 1885, and was master twenty-six years. He was married in 1884, to Mrs. Marinda N. Berry, daughter of Freeman Smith.

    Obed Brooks, jr.Beriah Broadbrooks, the ancestor of the Broadbrooks and Brooks family, was a settler after 1700. He was twice married. His first wife was Abigail Severance, daughter of Joseph and Martha Severance, to whom he was married November 17, 1700. She died about 1742. He died after 1762. He had, it is certain, nine cildren, viz.: John, Martha, Joseph, Beriah, Maria, Ebenezar, William, Desire and Mary.

    Ebenezar Broadbrooks, the son, born in 1717, married Lydia Smalley, daughter of Jonathan and Damaris Smalley, in 1747, and settled upon the spot where the house of the late Ezekiel Wentworth stands, where his father Beriah had resided. He removed in the latter years of his life to the house of his son, Ebenezar, standing a few rods eastward of the Brooks' mansion, on the south side of the road, where he died in the eight-sixth year of his age, April 20, 1802. His wife, Lydia, died March 3, 1802, in her sevety-eighth year. They were both members of the Congregational church, he uniting in 1766, the first year of Mr. Mill's pastorate. He had six children: Hannah, who married Daniel Chase; Ebenezar, born December 19, 1750; Eleanor, who married Benjamin Hall; Lydia, who married Nathaniel Robbins; Nathan; and Sylvia, who married first Nehemiah Nickerson, and 2d Benjamin Nickerson.

    Ebenezar Broadbrooks, the son of Ebenezar and Lydia Broadbrooks, born in 1750, was a man of prominence. He was selectman

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of the town twenty years, representative six years, justice of peace twenty-five years, postmaster sixteen years, and parish clerk and treasurer many years. He married Tamesin Hall, daughter of Seth and Elizabeth Hall, February 2, 1775. He first resided on the south side of the road where his father died; but building a house on the opposite side of the road, upon the farm he purchased of Samuel Ellis in 1798, he there resided until his death, which took place February 4, 1828. His wife, Tamesin, died January 1, 1828. Mr. Broadbrooks and family took the name of Brooks by legislative enactment in 1806. He was the principal merchant in town for many years before 1800. His children by wife Tamesin, were: Naomi, who married Calvin Gifford; Ruth, who married John Hall; Obed; Roxana, who married Ebenezar Weekes, jr.; Asenath, who married Levi Snow; Tamesin, who died unmarried in 1807; Lucy, who married Enoch E. Harding; Ebenezar; Seth; and Sabra, who married Benjamin K. Hall.

    Obed Brooks, son of Ebenezar and Tamesin Brooks, was born January 27, 1781, and married for his first wife, Sally, daughter of Ebenezar and Barbara Weekes in 1807. She died December 21., 1836. He married for his second wife, Asenath, widow of Captain Theophilus Burgess, June 23, 1839. He died August 4, 1856. His children by wife Sally were: Sidney, born November 14, 1807, died July 11, 1809; Obed, born August 21, 1809; Roxana, born March 5, 1811, married Stephen G. Davis; Sidney, born April 5, 1813, who married Susan S. Whittaker, and died in Boston, March 25, 1887; a daughter January 10, 1816, died January 24, 1816; Harriet N., born May 10, 1817, died April 3, 1876: Tamesin; and a son, Gem, born February 3, 1821, the latter of whom died soon; Henry Cobb, born May 16, 1824, died in Boston, May 28, 1886, a well known merchant; Sarah Godfrey, born January 2'7, 1827; and a daughter born November, 1832, who died soon after. By his second wife, Asenath, he had one son, Horace, who was lost at sea while master of the bark Aurelia, in 1874, leaving a wife and children. Of the members of Mr. Brooks' large family only Miss Tamesin and Sarah G. Brooks survive. Like his father, Mr. Brooks was a man of prominence. He held many official positions in the town and county. He was town clerk and treasurer twenty-six years, postmaster from 1821 to 1856, justice of the peace thirty-five years, and many years inspector of the port of Harwich. He was county commissioner from the establishment of the office in 1828 to 1837. Mr. Brooks and wife, Sally, were both members of the Congregational church. In politics he was of the Jeffersonian school, as was his father.

    Obed Brooks, son of Obed and Sally Brooks, whose engraved likeness appears on the opposite page, was born in Harwich, August 21, 1809. Deciding upon entering the mercantile business, he went to

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Obed BrooksBoston in April, 1826, and entered as a clerk, the store of Thompson & Willey, No. 57 Long wharf. With them he remained until 1830, when he became a deputy wharfinger, on Long wharf, under Elijah Loring. Here he remained until 1831, when he entered business at No. 57 Long wharf, with Thomas Rand, under the firm of Rand & Brooks. They dissolved partnerships in 1833, when Mr. Brooks returned to his native village, and entered his father's store, and commenced business under the firm of Obed Brooks & Co. He relinquished the business in 1856, to become the cashier of the Bank of Cape Cod, just established, and also treasurer of the Cape Cod Five Cents Saving's Bank then going into operation. Mr. Brooks retired from his position in the former, which had now become the Cape Cod National Bank, in 1865, and from his position in the latter in 1880. He was appointed one of the commissioners to examine Cape Cod harbor in 1852, and the same year by Governor Boutwell, was appointed commissioner of the Mashpee Indians.

    He was elected in 1852 town clerk and treasurer, but held the offices only one term. He was postmaster four years, succeeding his father in 1854. He held the offices of justice of the peace' and notary public many years. He was the efficient clerk and treasurer of the Congregational society for nearly a quarter of a century. In all the movements for public improvements in the town he took an active part. The erection of the church edifice in the village, in 1832, and its renovation in 1854, the establishment of the two banks in 1855, and the extension of the railroad from Yarmouth were largely due to his influence, and determined and persistent effort.

    He married for his first wife Miss Clementine Guigon, daughter of Peter Guigon at Boston, January 22, 1836. She was a native of Montauban, France. She died at Harwich, June 14, 1847. For his second wife, he married Susan Dodge of Harwich, daughter of Dr. Franklin Dodge. His daughter, Mary Frances, born September 13, 1837, married Rev. James McLean in 1864, and died in the same house in which she was born, October 9, 1887, leaving five children: Helen C., James Walter, Henry B., Lewis G. and Ralph D. Mr. Brooks died November 18, 1882.

    Freeman E. Burgess, son of Freeman E. and Theresa (Small) Burgess and grandson of Michael Burgess, was born in 1836, and began going to sea at the age of seven years. From 1857 to 1879 he was master mariner. He was married in 1857 to Laura F., daughter of Joseph C. and Betsey Berry of Harwich.

    Rufus P. Butler8 was born in 1843. He is the eldest son of Lorenzo7 and Mary Ann (Pease) Butler and grandson of Freeman6 (Daniel5, Gamalie14, John3, Captain John2, Nicholas Butler1). Mr. Butler followed the sea from 1857 to 1887 in the fishing and merchant 

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service, excepting three years (1864-5-6), when he was in the United States navy. Since 1887 he has been a fruit grower and farmer. He was married in 1873 to Huldah P., daughter of Isaac G. and Huldah Eldridge. Their daughter is Sarah E. S.

Cyrus Cahoon    Cyrus Cahoon, Esq., whose engraved likeness is presented on the opposite page, was born in the eastern part of Harwich January 21, 1810. His business career was commenced on the seas at the age of eleven years. By activity and perseverance he soon rose to the command of a vessel, but after many years in seafaring business he retired and engaged in business at home, in which he has been very successful. The cranberry culture has engaged his attention since 1847, the year in which he began to set vines, and by close attention he has become one of the most successful cranberry growers in the county. Besides attending to his cranberry land he has found time to devote his attention to other affairs. He was for many years in the wood business, a number of years an auctioneer, real estate agent and justice of the peace, and was for twenty-one years officially connected with the Cape Cod Five Cents Savings Bank. He was one of the commissioners appointed in 1871 to examine and define the boundaries of all lands rightfully held by individual owners in the town of Mashpee, and properly describe and set forth the same in writing, with authority to divide and sell at public auction the common lands, excepting meadow and hay land: also one of the commissioners appointed in 1878 to divide the proceeds of the sale of public lands of said town among those entitled to the same, and also one of the commissioners appointed in 1882 to divide the meadow and hay ground among those desiring portions, and sell the remaining portion at public auction, and divided the proceeds among those entitled to receive the same. He has now retired from business life, in which he has been so long actively and successfully engaged.

    Mr. Cahoon married Lettice Cahoon, daughter of James and Lettice (Bassett) Cahoon, July 20, 1830. To them have been born nine children, viz.: Cyrus, who died in infancy; Lettice M., born July 26, 1833, who married Joshua Maker: Cyrus C., born October 24, 1835, who married Mary Walker of Brewster November 28, 1856; Cyrenius B., born November 30, 1837, who married Lucy F. Snow of Brewster, and died January 1, 1860; Clement A., born May 25, 1839, who married Emma L. Rodman, July 31, 1865; Chester F., born January 29, 1841, who was lost overboard from the ship Amos Lawrc7zcc off Cape Horn, October 18, 1860; Letitia P., born March 21, 1845, and Lucretia D., born June 19, 1848, who married Paddock Small, April 7, 1880, and died June 29, 1889. Mrs. Cahoon, the mother, born January 9, 1808, and the only living member of her father's large family, yet survives in feeble health.

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    Mr. Cahoon is descended from William Cahoon, an early settler of the town, who resided near or on the spot where the house of the late Allen Kenney stood, and who died in 1768, leaving his wife Sarah and five sons and four daughters. His youngest son, Reuben, born about 1737, had two sons, Jesse and John. Jesse Cahoon, his son. born March 10, 1763, married Thankful Bassett of Chatham in 1781. by whom he had seven children. After her death he married the widow of his brother John, and resided in south Barnstable, where he died in June, 1830. His second son, Simeon, born January 14, 1785, married Priscilla Linnell, daughter of Thomas of Orleans, January 21, 1802, and had seven children. Their third child and second son is the Cyrus Cahoon of this sketch.

    Emulous A. Cahoon, born in 1848, is a son of Alvan and grandson of James and Lettice Cahoon. He has three brothers and one sister: Samuel S., Benjamin G., James F. and Clara. Mr. Cahoon followed the fishing business until 1876, and since then has been engaged in cranberry culture. He was married in 1876, to Lucy F., daughter of Eben Eldridge, jr. They have two children: Eva A. and Herbert R.

    Patrick H. Cahoon, born in 1843, is a son of Patrick F. and Anna (Small) Cahoon, and grandson of James Cahoon. Mr. Cahoon is engaged in cranberry culture and land surveying. He married Eliza K. Paine, who died leaving two children: Clenric H. and Oscar J. His second marriage was to Carie A. Woodward. They have two children: Harry S. and Eliza E.

Job Chase    Job Chase.—This family name, originating in this country with William Chase of Yarmouth, in 1640, has been prominent in every industry of the Cape. We find one Job Chase a settler in the southwest part of Harwich soon after the middle of the last century, owning the entire tract of land from the river near the present Erastus Chase's store, westward to the Dennis line. Here he reared a large family and here he died at the advanced age of ninety-seven yea,rs. He was actively engaged in fishing and agriculture, leaving to his posterity an ample inheritance and those peculiar business traits that have been so marked in the lives of his descendants.

    Job Chase, the subject of this sketch, was one of his sons. He was born August 8, 1776, at the ancestral home, near which, on the west bank of the river, he subsequently reared a home, where he died January 12, 1865. The limited means for obtaining an education in his boyhood were scarcely improved when he embarked upon his business career, in which he must rely upon a retentive memory and a keen perception for his measure of success. He engaged in a fishing and mercantile business in which he attained a

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high point among those of the south shore, owning the controlling interest in as many as fifteen vessels at a time. In 1831 he erected, on the river, a store which was used by him and his sons until a few years ago, and in this he kept the first post office of West Harwich. In 1842 he built the wharf which is still in use, and also built the schooner Job Chase, of eighty-five tons, from timber cut upon his own lands, lands now robbed of their trees, but where, before his time, his father, Job, had also cut the timber for vessels which he built there. Other vessels were built for his use at Hamden, Me., and at Dartmouth. In his fishing business he fitted out a large fleet.

    He was largely interested in public affairs, also in affairs of the church, and in both was an important factor. He served his town as a selectman, and was a representative from Harwich in the legislature. In the erection of the West Harwich Baptist church he was a large contributor, continuing' substantial material and spiritual aid during his life. He was one of the original stockholders in the old Yarmouth bank, and was among the foremost in all the public enterprises of his day, giving employment to a large number of men 'in building up the interests of West Harwich. In his death the town sustained a severe check to its growing business and a great loss in its social and religious circles.

    He was first married to Polly Eldridge, who died May 26, 1816, leaving nine children: Hope, born May 4, 1797, married Isaiah Baker of Dennis, and had nine children: Isaiah, David, James, Ozias, George, Mary, Maria, Sarah and Daniel W. Of these Isaiah, James and Sarah are dead.

    Job, the eldest son, born January 12, 1799, married Hannah Nickerson, and as a shipmaster was lost at sea, leaving two children: Job and Ellen, the latter only surviving.

    Jonathan, born October 14, 1800, married Hannah Burgess, and while acting as master was lost at sea, leaving four children: Jonathan, Rebecca, Phoebe and Mary, the last two surviving.

    Sears, who was born August 2, 1802, married Ann Knowles, and as master was lost at sea, leaving a daughter, Ann, who, with her mother, long ago departed this life.

    Ozias, the fifth child, born January 22, 1804, was lost at sea while in command of a vessel.

    Whitman, born August 20, 1806, was also lost at sea.

    Darius, born November 11, 1808, married Annie Meriman. He and his wife, with their children, Darius and Lilla, now reside at West Harwich. He is by occupation a restorer of oil paintings.

    Ziba, born May 12, 1811, became a mariner, and was lost at sea.

    Judah E. was born March 6, 1813. He married Emily Fish, and is a retired merchant of Harwich. Their only child is Frederick W.

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For his second wife Mr. Chase married Phebe Winslow, who died August 25, 1839. There children were: Joseph W., Alfred, Mary E.. Joshua S., Erastus, Joshua S., Caleb, and a daughter who died in infancy. Mr. Chase was again married, his wife being Eunice Drurey, who died in 1863. The succeeding seven paragraphs, include brief histories of the children of the second marriage.

    Joseph W., born May 6, 1817, married Rose Kelley. and resides at West Harwich. He chose the occupation of a farmer, in which he is prominent. His only child is Phebe W.

    Alfred was born March 28, 1819, and married Azubah Taylor. Of their five children, Cora, Helena and Emma survive; the deceased are Eunice the eldest, and Alfred the youngest.

    Mary E., born April 27, 1822, married Captain George Nickerson, now a retired sea captain of South Dennis. Their children are: Erastus, Phebe W., George and Arthur, their daughter Nellie having died young.

    Joshua S. was born June 23, 1724, and died in boyhood, the parents perpetuating the name by conferring it upon a later born son.

    Erastus, born May 29, 1826, married Sarah Abbie Trevette, and of their four children Frank E. and Herbert T. survive, and reside at Grand Rapids, Mich. The second son, Job, died in infancy, and the third son, also named Job, died quite young. Erastus Chase is in mercantile business at West Harwich near Herring river—a continuation in part of his father's business—having kept the post office twenty-four years and acted as deputy collector of internal revenue a period of four years.

    Joshua S., born February 24; 1830, married Abbie E. Fish. and has had two children—Lizzie and Willis, the latter now deceased. Joshua S. Chase originated the manufacturing firm known as the Union Paste Company of Boston, which is continued by his son-in-law, Anthony Kelley. The wonderful fish product called Chase's Liquid Glue has become celebrated.

    Caleb Chase, the youngest survivor of the seventeen children of Job Chase, whose portrait appears here, was born December 11, 1831. He married Salome Boyles, and not content with the opportunities offered in the business of his ancestors, at the age of twenty-three went to Boston, where he entered the employ of Anderson, Sargent & Co., a leading wholesale dry-goods house. He traveled in the interests of this house on the Cape and in the West until September, 1859, when he connected himself with the grocery house of Claflin. Allison & Co., which connection was severed January 1, 1864, and soon after the firm of Carr, Chase & Raymond was formed. It 1871 the firm of Chase, Raymond & Ayer was organized, which existed until 1878, when the present firm of Chase & Sanborn commenced

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business. Mr. Chase is now the head of this house, than which save one other, there is no larger concern in the coffee trade in America. They have branch houses in Montreal and Chicago. He owns the homestead at West Harwich where his summer vacations are spent.

    Wilson W. Cole, son of Daniel and Mercy (Higgins) Cole, was born in 1844 in Eastham, and is a blacksmith by trade. He has owned and run a blacksmith shop at Harwich Port since 1870. He was married in 1869, to Hannah M. Flinn. They have two children: Ernest L. and Alton S.

    William F. Crapo, born June 28, 1848, in New Bedford, Mass., is a son of Squire G. and Hannah (Devoll) Crapo, and grandson of John Crapo, of Fall River, Mass. Mr. Crapo came to Harwich, July 8, 1865, where he has since dealt in old iron and paper stock. He was married January 28, 1868, to Mrs. Mary C. Crowell, daughter of Seth Cahoon, who was a son of Seth and grandson of Seth Cahoon. They had one son, William F., jr., who died.

    Henry T. Crosby, born in 1845, in Orleans, is a son of Joshua and grandson of Joshua, who was a naval officer in the war of 1812, and was with Commodore Perry at Lake Erie. He was with Commodore Hull when he took the Guerriere, and also with him when chased by the British fleet off the coast of New Jersey. Mr. Crosby's mother was Thankful, daughter of Abijah and Thankful Baker, of Orleans. Mr. Crosby opened marble and granite works at Harwich in 1873, having been a marble and granite worker for seven years prior to that time. He was married in 1870, to Eliza D. Snow. They have three boys: Wilfred H., Bertram D. and Orwell S.

    Anthony S. Crowell6, born in 1837, is a son of Gross5 (Solomon4, Gross3, Jabez2, John Crowell1). Mr. Crowell followed the sea as a fisherman for twenty-five years prior to 1874. He is now engaged in cranberry culture. , He was married in 1858, to Senora, daughter of Bangs Nickerson. They have three children: Anthony E.. Senora E. and Everett L. They lost one.

    Sheldon K. Crowell, born in 1837, is the only surviving child of Sheldon, and grandson of Shubael Crowell. His mother was Cordelia Kelley. He has been engaged in the mercantile trade since 1862. Prior to that he followed the sea. He was married in 1858, to Thankful B. Allen. Their children are: Joseph A., Ella K. and Ada S.

    Nathaniel Doane, esquire.— This is a family name which for more than two hundred years has frequently recurred in the civil, business, political and ecclesiastical history of southeastern Massachusetts. In the old town of Eastham lived Dea. John Doane, and there he died in 1686, at the age of ninety-six years. Branches of this family are found in the early history of the towns from Truro to Falmouth, and the name at least is still more widely represented in other parts of New England.

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    The children of Dea. John Doane, so far as is known, were: John, Daniel, Lydia, Abigail and Ephraim. The second of these, Daniel Doane, was born in 1636, and until his death, December 20, 1721, resided in that part of Eastham which is now Orleans. He was twice married, and reared sons and daughters. He bore, as his father had, the title of deacon, and after him his son Joseph, who was born in 1668, received the same insignia of ecclesiastical prominence. This Deacon Joseph married Mary Godfrey, January 8, 1690, and for his second wife Desire Berry. in 1727. He settled in what is now Orleans, where he was a distinguished man in the affairs of town and county, and where he died July 27, 1757. To trace all his descendants through his twelve children would be foreign to our present purpose, but to that line which is now known in Harwich, where the family name is represented, more than a passing mention should be given. His son Elisha, born February 3, 1705-6, married Elizabeth Sparrow, March 14, 1732-3, and removed to Harwich about 1746. He resided southeasterly from the dwelling house of Captain Nathaniel Doane, near the west side of the lowland. He occupied public positions in Harwich, was selectman and parish assessor a number of years, and died, "much lamented," of a fever, August 1, 1765, aged sixty years. He had six children.

    Elisha Doane, his only son, born in Eastham September 9, 1744, married Mehitable Nickerson, October 18, 1764, and died December 26, 1805. He was the grandfather of the three Doane brothers, Valentine, Nathaniel and Abiathar, who represent the oldest surviving generation in the town of Harwich. Their father, one of the seven children of Elisha Doane, was Nathaniel Doane. who was born August 13, 1781, and married Mary Paine, daughter of Nathaniel and Sally Paine, December 25, 1803. He was a master mariner in early life, and held the offices of selectman and justice of the peace, and died July 24, 1866. His wife died October 17, 1871, aged eighty-eight. Their children are: Valentine, born July 20, 1804, married Lydia Nickerson; Mehitable. born September 21, 1806, married Cyrus Weekes, September 25, 1826, and died August 31, 1877; Sally Young, born November 17, 1808, married Isaiah C. Kelley, January 24, 1833; Mary, born March 3,. 1813, married Nehemiah D. Kelley, October 8, 1832; Elbridge G., born September 20, 1813, married Temperance Kelley, October 8, 1835: Nathaniel, born February 1, 1816; Priscilla, born May 14, 1818, married Anthony Kelley, jr.; Abiathar, born August 16, 1820; Eglantine, born November 1, 1822. married Benjamin F. Chase, April 30, 1843.

The family name has been thus perpetuated through generations which have each in turn maintained it as it came to them, and these of to-day are transmitting it to their children, all descendants of Dea. John Doane, of Eastham.

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    Nathaniel DoaneNathaniel Doane, born February 1, 1816, whose likeness and autograph appear on the opposite page, is a well known and respected citizen of Harwich. He received his education in the public schools of his neighborhood, and went to sea at the age of sixteen years. He soon rose to the command of a vessel, and continuing in the coasting trade, winters excepted, until 1860, he retired from sea life altogether, and commenced the culture of cranberries, in which he is now quite actively engaged. During his business career on the sea, he found time, besides teaching winter schools. which he did for twelve winters, to serve his townsmen in the legislature and on the school board. In 1850, while at sea, his political friends of the whig party, well assured of his ability to represent his town in the legislature, elected him a representative, and he took his seat in the house of 1851, which was distinguished for its able members, and memorable on account of the part it took in the election of Hon. Charles Sumner, the coalition candidate for United States senator, after a long contest in the face of determined opposition. He was elected to the house of 1852, and again to the house of 1853, thus serving three consecutive terms. In 1858 he was again brought forward for legislative honors by the republicans, and elected representative from his district, which embraced the towns of Yarmouth, Dennis, Harwich and Chatham. and took his seat in the legislature of 1859. He has held the office of commissioner to qualify civil officers, and has been a justice of the peace for more than forty years. In ecclesiastical matters he has taken a deep interest. He has been clerk and treasurer of his parish sixteen years. He is a member of Pilgrim church, Harwich Port, and has been one of its deacons since its organization in 1855.

    Mr. Doane married Mrs. Zilpha Harding, of Maine, widow of Joshua Harding, and daughter of Nathan and Mary Doane, and granddaughter of Bangs Doane, in 1862, and has three children: Mary L., born September 10, 1863; Nathaniel, born September 25, 1865; and Jennie B., born October 18, 1869. The son, Nathaniel, was married June 26, 1889, to Ella F. Brigham, of Manchester, S. H., where they now reside. Airs. Doane, by her former husband, has one son, Joshua Orlo Harding, born November 7, 1850, married Emma L. Hall, and resides in Boston.

    Valentine Doane, of Harwich Port, is the brother of Dea. Nathaniel Doane, to whose biography the reader is referred for the ancestry of the subject of this sketch. He was born July 20, 1804. At the age of fourteen he commenced life on the sea and at his majority was in command, which position he continued very successfully, in various vessels, for the ensuing twenty years.

    He was married January 95, 1827, to Lydia Nickerson, who died March 22, 1880, aged seventy-one years, eight months and ten days.

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    Their children were: Lydia N., Valentine, jr., Julia F., Irene T.. Ambrose N., Eglentine, Enos N., Celia F. and Harrison N.

    Lydia S., born October 20, 1829, married Edwin R. Chase, December 11, 1849, who died leaving two daughters, one of whom is still living, and is the wife of Willis G. Myers, and has two children. Mrs. Chase subsequently married Dr. C. M. Hulbert, of South Dennis, and died in 1885.

    Valentine Doane, jr., born April 17, 1833, spent a few years in early life on the sea, and at seventeen entered the store of his father. where he continued seventeen years. He served as justice of the peace twelve years of this time, and declines further office. He is now engaged in cranberry culture, and is general agent of the Acme Heel Trimmer Company. He was married June 19, 1856, to Susan M., a daughter of Shubael and Sarah (Kent) Kelley, born at Eaton, Madison county, N. Y., April 25, 1805, and was a descendant of that illustrious family. She was born July 7, 1836. Their children are: Victoria A. and Frederick V. Victoria, born March 16, 1858, married December 7, 1880, Edward C. Matthews, of Portsmouth, N. H., and has four children.

    Mr. Doane's third child, Julia F., was born May 22, 1835, and died May 7, 1839.

    Irene T., born July 23,1837, married Emulous Small, November 12, 1856, and resides in the same village with her father and brother.

    Ambrose N. was born November 22, 1839, and married Martha S. Foster, November 24, 1860.

    Eglentine, born April 24, 1842, was married January 8. 1863, to Thomas A. Nickerson, and their children are: Adison D., Thomas H., Ambrose N. and Eglantine.

    Enos N., born January 5, 1846, died September 14, 1847.

    Celia F., born May 17, 1848, was married December 16, 1880, to Frank T. Spencer.

    Harrison N., born May 19, 1851, died March 6, 1853.

    On the 26th of January, 1881, Valentine Doane, the subject of this sketch, married Mrs. Charlotte E. Long, daughter of Rev. J. R. Munsell, and is spending the evening of his active life in his pleasant home in Harwich Port. But few have been more conspicuous in business affairs and the building up of his community. As early as 1828, under Governor Lincoln, he was appointed captain of state militia, was for fifteen years director of the Harwich and Dennis Marine Insurance Company, and was president of the Harwich Marine Insurance Company during its existence. He was a director in the County Insurance Company for thirty years, and during the twenty-five years he was a director of the National Bank of Yarmouth he was seldom absent from the weekly meetings. In 1845 he commenced the fishing business

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as owner and outfitter, which he continued many years, and has thus been identified in the welfare of the village in its every relation.

Abiathar Doane    Captain Abiathar Doane.—The careful reader of the two preceding articles already knows how the Doane family of Harwich have descended from the sturdy deacon who, in 1644, planted the family tree in old Eastham, and at page 871 the name Abiathar appears as the youngest son of Nathaniel and Mary (Paine) Doane, born August 16, 1820. His birthplace is the old homestead near which he now resides, and from which he went out to get, at school and at sea, his education. At the age of fifteen he commenced coasting, and the year that he attained his majority he had the command of a vessel destined for Chagres, South America, from whence he carried a load of passengers to Kingston, Jamaica. After the first voyage as master he owned more or less interest in the vessels he commanded. and for twenty-five years he continued in foreign voyages. without accident, never during the time calling upon the underwriters for a dollar's damage. He was at Galveston, Texas, when the confederates hauled down the stars and stripes, and those on board his vessel heard his loyal prophecy: "That flag will have its resurrection." He assisted in the war of the rebellion, and among other important commissions entrusted to him was the transportation of the gun known as The Swamp Angel, which, with a load of stores for the government forces, was carried from New York to South Carolina. In 1866 he left the sea, but kept an interest in coasting and fishing vessels until a few years ago.

    Captain Doane was married May 23, 1845, to Abigail, daughter of Edward and Abigail Sears. Their children are: Abiathar Doane, jr., of Chelsea, who married M. Louisa Robinson, and has one son, Carlton; a daughter, Abigail B., who, after completing her school education, became proficient in music, and began teaching with great success in Harwich and adjoining towns, continuing the study of music and harmony and acting as organist in the Catholic church at Woods Holl, still living at home with her parents; and another daughter, Priscilla S., who married George R. Fogg of Boston, and whose children are Catherine and Preston Fogg. Mrs. Doane died July 20, 1855, and May third of the following year the captain married Mercy C. Rogers, daughter of David Eldridge of Chatham. She lived until October 10, 1862, when she died in New York. Their children, Mercy Louisa and Arthur F., died in infancy. The present Mrs. Doane— married April 10, 1863—is Josephine, daughter of Paul Higgins of Orleans, and their four children were: Paul Doane, now at Milford in the employ of Swift Brothers; Ralph W., with the electric light company, Boston; Lillian Josephine, with her parents at home, and Irene Thacher, who died September 9, 1884, aged nine years.

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    In 1847 Captain Doane purchased the acres of his present homestead, erecting the residence, which he has at times added to and remodeled into its present form of convenience and beauty. Before he left the sea he began the culture of cranberries, and now, with nine acres under the best of cultivation, he is ranked among the successful growers. When he had his first plants set he departed widely from the custom of the day, and was laughed at for his pains, but his plan has been followed by all successful growers. The idea of setting out large hills, eighteen inches apart, he condemned, and was the first to set only two or three sprigs in a hill, placing the hills much closer together. He was the first to make a specialty of the cultivation of early black, and has no other. He has largely sold and introduced this vine.

    His life long interest in the affairs of the town and the Commonwealth, has never degenerated into a selfish thirst for official honors, nor diverted his attention from his own legitimate vocations. He has served in arbitrations and was elected to the legislature in 1866, which term he filled so acceptably that he was reelected for 1867 without opposition. He attends the Congregational church and renders aid to its support. His energy and caution, that made him successful on the sea, are his leading traits, through which in affairs on land his success is also assured. He has through life carried just sail enough to produce the most satisfactory results, while in his private life, where beauty or deformity of real character become most conspicuous, Captain Doane of Harwich is not found wanting..

    Alliston S. Doane, son of Freeman and Azubah (Cole) Doane, and grandson of Lewis Doane, was born in the town of Orleans in 1858, and has been a harness maker at Harwich since 3881. He was married in 1882 to Lelia Maker. They have one son, Arthur P.

    Anthony P. Doane, born in 1839, is a son of Calvin6 (Elisha5, Elisha4, Elisha3, Joseph2, Daniel Doane1). His mother was Bethany (Phillips) Doane. He has been master mariner since 1858, and since 1879 master of a steamer. He was married in 1867 to Rosealtha, daughter of Joseph and Betsey Snow. Their only daughter is Alice (Mrs. W. E. Keach).

    Daniel Doane, son of Josiah, and grandson of Daniel Doane, was born in 1821, and went to sea from 1831 to 1875. He was master from 1846 until he retired on account of his health. He was married in 1847 to Hannah P., daughter of Isaac Kelley. They have one son living, David K., and have lost five children.

    Joshua Doane, son of Josiah and Amy (Wixon) Doane, was born in 1824. He was a mariner from 1834 until 1888, and became master of a vessel at the age of twenty-one. He was married in 1845 to Eliza A. Baker, by whom he had two children; Mary E. and Eliza A., who

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died. His second wife, was Lizzie A. Their children were: Linwood F.. Joshua F., Allen C. (deceased), Robert M., Lizzie M., Charles H. and Chester.

    Lewis B. Doane, son of Uriel and Susan (Berry) Doane, and grandson of Joseph Doane, was born in 1838. He began going to sea at twelve years of age, and has been master mariner since 1861. He was married in 1862 to Araminta D., daughter of Isaac and Mercy (Nickerson) Bee. They have children: Mercy B., Lillian and Lewis B., jr.

    Uriel Doane; born in 1866, is a son of Uriel, grandson of Joseph, and great-grandson of Elisha and Mehitabel (Nickerson) Doane. Mr. Doane went to sea from 1852 until 1882, as master twenty-three years. He was married in 1860 to Didama, daughter of Isaiah Kelley.

    John H. Drum, son of Patrick and Ann (Clarking) Drum, was born in 1855. He has devoted considerable time to agriculture, and has kept a livery stable at Harwich since 1874. With his sister, Adelia M., he occupies the homestead of their father.

    Joseph N. Eldridge, born in 1838, is the youngest son of Isaiah and Rebecca (Davis) Eldridge, grandson of Isaiah and Tamsen (Cahoon) Eldridge, and great-grandson of Thomas and Sarah (Gage) Eldridge. Mr. Eldridge followed the sea from 1847 to 1883. and has been engaged in the butter, cheese and lard business for three years. He was married in 1865 to Martha W., daughter of Nathan and Esther (Eldridge) Nickerson.

    Rinaldo Eldridge, born August 23, 1838. is a son of Isaac G., grandson of Samuel and great-grandson of Bangs Eldridge. Mr. Eldridge worked as a carpenter in early youth, then kept a stable in Boston, later kept store at Harwich, and in 1880 he opened the Sea View House at Harwich Port, which he has since conducted. He has been twice married. By his first wife he had a son who died in infancy. By his present wife he has two daughters: Bertha Rinal and Hilda Ophelia.

    Thomas R. Eldridge, born in 1853, is a son of Benjamin W., and grandson of Elijah Eldridge. His mother was Caroline, daughter of Laban Snow. In 1876 Mr. Eldridge engaged in the wholesale hay and grain business in Harwich as a member of the firm of Bakers & Eldridge. In 1880 Mr. Eldridge bought out the two Mr. Bakers, and since that time has continued the business alone. He was married in 1887 to Emma W., daughter of Watson B. Kelley.

    William M. Eldridge, born in 1829, is a son of Samuel and Lydia (Tripp) Eldridge, and grandson of Isaac Eldridge. Mr. Eldridge is a painter by trade. He was married in 1851 to Hannah A., daughter of Jacob Crowell. Their two sons are: William A. and Jerry A. who keeps an apothecary store at South Harwich, and is a member of the class of April, 1890, in the Boston College of Physicians and Surgeons.

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    Zenas D. Eldridge, born in 1814, is a son of Zenas and grandson of Nathaniel, who was taken prisoner by an English man-of-war in the revolution, and was detained two years. His father was Jehosaphat Eldridge. Mr. Eldridge went to sea from 1828 to 1862, after which he kept a store at Harwich Port for a few years. He is now engaged in cranberry culture. He was married in 1838 to Elizabeth N.,. daughter of Stephen and Olive (Covil) Burgess, and granddaughter or Thomas and Elizabeth (Nickerson) Burgess. Their children are: Erastus B., Elizabeth A., Susan W., Olive B., Stephen B. and Jonathan A. Mrs. Eldridge's father, Captain Stephen Burgess, was a prominent citizens. He was second lieutenant of county militia, was engaged in an encounter at Barnstable and was successful in preventing the English from landing. He was selectman several years and did much public business. He was a shipmaster in foreign trade.

    David Ellis, born in 1812, is a son of Nathan and Delana (Saunders) Ellis, and grandson of Nathan Ellis. He went to sea from 3824 to 1873, and was captain forty years. He was married in 1834 to Sally Smalley, who died leaving four children: Alverado, James, Aruna and Ruth, who has since died. He was married again in 1857 to Mrs. [?] Weekes, daughter of Samuel Eldridge. Their son is Adelbert

    Nathan Ellis, son of Elisha and grandson of Nathan Ellis, was born in 1830, and followed the sea from 1837 to 1855. From that time until 1888 he was a merchant at Harwich. He was married in 1855, to Joan Eldridge. They have one son, Samuel A., who is a merchant at Harwich. He was married in 1873, to Lucy Robbins. She died in 1883, leaving two sons: Nathan A. and Edward A. He was married again in 1884, to Georgian B. Snow.

    Warren Freeman8 was born in 1814. He is descended from Thomas7, John6, Jonathan5, Edmund4, Edmund3, Major John2, Edmund Freeman1, who came to this country in 1635. Mr. Freeman was married in 1837, to Priscilla Long. She died leaving two children: Thomas and one who since died. He was married in 1848, to Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth (Allen) Weekes. They have three children: Rose I., Ambrose E. and Susan F. They lost two.

    Nathaniel T. Gorham was born in 1823. He is a son of Joseph and Sally (Tripp) Gorham. His grandfather served in the revolution under General Washington. His mother was a daughter of Reuben and granddaughter of Acus Tripp. Mr. Gorham has been a house and ship painter in East Boston since 1844. He was married in 1850, to Sarah A., daughter of Isaiah Eldridge. They have two children living: Mary P. and Nathaniel T., jr.; they have lost five children. The last ten years Mr. Gorham has spent at his summer residence in South Harwich.

    Alton P. Goss, son of F. B. Goss, was born in 1855 in Barnstable.

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He has been engaged in the printing business since 1868. In 1873 he took charge of the Harwich Independent office, and since 1880 has owned and edited the paper. He is a member of the republican town committee. He was married in 1876, to Emma F. Taylor. They have one son, Edwin P.

    Roger S. Hawes, born in 1848 in Chatham, is the youngest son of Samuel, grandson of Samuel Hawes and great-grandson of John Hawes. His mother was Betsey Harding. Mr. Hawes began going to sea at fourteen years of age, and since 1872 has been master of a vessel. He was married in 1871, to Gertrude, daughter of Job Kelley. They have two children: Edith S., born in October, 1872; and Mollie E., born in August, 1883.

    Benjamin F. Hall. born in 1822, is a son of Freeman and grandson of Benjamin Hall. He went to sea from 1831 to 1874. He was married in 1842, to Hepsibeth, daughter of William and granddaughter of William Ryder. They have three children: Benjamin F., jr., Prince E. and Sarah F. The latter married Anthony H. Ryder, who was born in 1844, and is a son of Anthony K. and Mehitabel T. Ryder. They have one son, Herbert A. Mr. Ryder has been a wheelwright and blacksmith at North Harwich since 1876.

    Belle K. Hoyt is a daughter of Ensign and a granddaughter of Jonathan and Mehitabel (Chase) Burgess. Her mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of James and Betsey (Kendrick) Clark, and was beloved by all who knew her. Mrs. Hoyt was married in 1852, to Curtis Hoyt, who died at sea. He was first mate of the ship Oscar, of New Bedford, engaged in whale fishing. They have one daughter, Susan, who married Henry Young. Her daughters are Belle B. and Grace D. Young.

    Cyrenus S. Hunt, born in 1850, is a son of Alfred and grandson of Ziba Hunt, whose father, Lemuel, was a son of Lemuel, who came from Shaftsbury, England, to Chatham. His mother was Asenith Ellis. He was married in 1883, to Cordia Megathlin, who died in 1886. In 1889 he was married to Margaret Watson, of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Mr. Hunt is a member of the South Harwich Methodist Episcopal church, and was Sunday school superintendent five years.

    Charles Jenkins, son of Wilson R. and Betsey (Small) Jenkins, was "born in 1827 in Falmouth. At the age of seventeen he began to learn the trade of boat-building, and since 1848 has been engaged in that business at Harwich. He was married in 1850, to Amanda, daughter of Freeman and granddaughter of Christian Nickerson. Her mother was Cynthia, daughter of James, granddaughter of James and great-granddaughter of Zebina Small. They have daughters: Amanda W. (Mrs. Edgar D. Kelley), Dora C. (Mrs. Charles A. Kelley) and Meta G.

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    Ensign L. Jerauld, born in 1834, is a son of James and Olive (Eldridge) Jerauld, and grandson of James and Hannah (Cash') Jerauld. Mr. Jerauld has been engaged in fishing since 1845, and since 1857 he has been captain of a fisherman. He was married in 1857, to Keziah N., daughter of Isaac and Bethia (Nickerson) Bearse. They have six children: Wilbert H., Myra E., E. Curtis, Ellen K., Oliver D. and Ermond G.

    Asa L. Jones, son of Joseph B. and grandson of Asa Jones, was born in 1840. His mother was Love C. Robbins. Mr. Jones enlisted in the war of the rebellion in 1862, in Company A, Thirty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers. In March, 1863, he was made sergeant, and in the fall of the same year he was commissioned second lieutenant in the Sixth Regiment U. S. Colored troops. He was discharged in September, 1864, on account of wounds. He was keeper in the government lightship and lighthouse service from 1870 to 1886. Since February, 1889, he has kept an undertaking store at Harwich. He was married in 1874, to Clara F. Paine. They have one son, Maro B.

    Allen F. Joseph, youngest son of John and Tamsen (Allen) Joseph, was born in 1832, and followed the sea from 1846 to 1875. He was married in 1855, to Marietta S. Cahoon, who died ten years later. Their children were: Adelia E., Mary T., Samuel A. and Albert F., who was born September 25, 1862, and died May 8, 1876. He was married again in 1869, to Betsey C. Weekes5, descended from Isaac4, Isaac3, Ammiel2, Rev. George Weekes1.

    Charles H. Kelley, born in 1838, is a son of Nehemiah D. and a grandson of Anthony Kelley. His mother was Esther, daughter of Sears Kelley. Mr. Kelley was postmaster at West Harwich from September, 1885, to July, 1889. He was married in 1862, to Elizabeth J. Chase. They have ten children: Anna F., Esther M., Lena E., Kate W., Nehemiah D., Hattie L., Charles H., jr., Walter W., Ada F. and Amy B. Mr. Kelley is secretary of Sylvester Baxter Chapter.

    Nehemiah B. Kelley was born in 1848. He is the oldest son of Caleb R. and Cynthia K (Baker) Kelley, and grandson of Dea. Joseph Kelley, whose father and grandfather were both named Joseph. Mr. Kelley began going to sea at the age of eleven years, and has been captain since 1869. He was married in 1872, to Mary D., daughter of Jonathan and Sabra Young. They have four children: Sabra D., Emma R., Harold B. and Nehemiah B., jr.

    Watson B. Kelly.—Patrick Kelley was the first of the surname who settled in Harwich. He came from Yarmouth, where he was born in 1723, and settled on the east side of Herring river near or on the spot where the. house of the late Sheldon Crowell stands. He built the water mill below his house on the river, known as the "Lower Mill," in or about 1762, and was the miller many years. He

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was twice married. His last wife was widow Betsey Nickerson, whom he married in 1782. By his first wife, he had Patrick, Ebenezar, Samuel, Oliver and other children. His father was Eleazar Kelley; and his grandfather was Jeremiah Kelley, both of Yarmouth, where their ancestor, David Kelley, resided.

    Patrick Kelley, the son, born in Harwich in 1753, married Dorcas Chase, daughter of Sylvanus and Charity Chase, and settled upon the Penney farm, which he purchased of Isaac Weekes in 1788. The house which he built and in which he resided until his death, is now occupied by Marshall Kelley, standing northwesterly from the Harwich railroad station, and is one of the oldest houses in town. He was a shipwright by trade. Among the vessels he built was the schooner Dorcas of this town, which was launched in 1817. He died October 28, 1834, aged eighty. His wife died April 13, 1834. He had eleven children—eight sons and three daughters.

Watson Kelley    Henry Kelley, the eldest son, born July 8, 1777, married for his first wife, Temperance Baker, daughter of Shubael Baker, December 4, 1800, by whom he had twelve children, six of whom yet survive, viz.: Relief Paine, Henry Kelley, Temperance Doane, Abigail Nickerson, Shubael B. Kelley and Watson B. Kelley. The mother died August 3, 1827, and for his second wife, Mr. Kelley married Lucinda Swift of Rochester, Mass., and had five children, of whom three only survive: George F., Alfred S. and Mary E. Allen. Mr. Kelley's second wife, Lucinda, died February 8, 1864. He died January 19, 1870, in his ninety-third year, having been in his usual good health up to within a few days of his death.

    Watson B. Kelley, Esq., the youngest of the twelve children of Henry Kelley, by his wife Temperance, was born in Harwich, December 11, 1824. At the early age of eleven years he commenced the seafaring life, and at the age of eighteen years became master of a vessel. After an active life upon the sea, as master, he retired, in 1853, and at once engaged in the lumber and coal business at Harwich Port, with his elder brother, Henry, under the firm of Henry Kelley & Co., in which business he still continues. He is now largely engaged in cranberry culture, having in cultivation and under his management many acres. He has found time besides managing his own business, to serve his townsmen in official positions. In 1869 he became president of the Harwich Marine Insurance Company, and served ten years. He represented his district, comprising Harwich and Chatham, in the legislature of 1881 and 1882. He is now a selectman, assessor and overseer of the poor of Harwich, having held the offices for eighteen consecutive years; and also is holding the office of justice of the peace. In politics Mr. Kelley is an earnest republican. He married Rebecca D. Allen of Harwich, February 4, 1847. Their

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children are: Rebecca E., born September 14,1851, died May 28,1870; and Emma W., born November 13, 1856, married Thomas R. Eldridge, a grain and flour dealer.

    Mrs. Kelly's father was Captain Joseph Allen, who was lost at sea in September, 1837. Her mother was Thankful Burgess, daughter of Seth and Mary (Nickerson) Burgess, and granddaughter of Lieutenant Thomas Burgess, whose maternal grandfather was Ephraim Covel, of whom mention is made in the village history. Their children were: Rebecca D., born May 29, 1829; Pamelia H., born March 8, 1833, married Theophilus B. Baker; and Joseph, born November 6, 1836, died at St. Thomas, January 3, 1854.

    Alonzo Kendrick, born in 1846, is a son of Jonathan and Anna (Doane) Kendrick, and grandson of Jonathan Kendrick. He followed the sea from 1859 to 1884, fishing and coasting. Since 1884, in company with George N. Bearse, he has carried on the fish and store business at South Harwich, which has been run since 1850 by Caleb Small. Mr. Kendrick was married in 1875 to Bethia, daughter of Caleb and Pamelia (Rogers) Small. They have one son, Bernard L.

    Thomas D. Kenney, born in 1836, is a son of John, and grandson of John and Zylphia (Kendrick) Kenney. His mother was Polly, daughter of Thomas, and granddaughter of Joseph Doane. Mr. Kenney followed the fishing business until 1884, and has since "been engaged in agricultural pursuits. He was married in 1858 to Emily J., daughter of Warren Nickerson. Their children are: Arthur N., John A. and Louise A.

    Gustavas H. Long, son of Elkanah, and grandson of Elkanah Long, was born in 1842. He followed the sea until 1879. Since IS87 he has been engaged in the grocery business in East Boston. He was married in 1863 to Ellen, daughter of Isaac and Ruth (Kelley) Small, granddaughter of Paddock, and great-granddaughter of Daniel Small. They have one son, Herbert H.

    Charles E. Lothrop, born in 1845, is a son of Rev. Davis and Elizabeth (Freeman) Lothrop, grandson of Robert and Susan (Allen) Lothrop, and great-grandson of Ebenezer and Elizabeth (Davis) Lothrop. Mr. Lothrop is a paper hanger and house decorator. He was deputy collector of revenues at Dennis Port from April, 1887, to June, 1889. He owns and occupies the homestead where his father lived for forty-one years, prior to his death in 1889. Rev. Davis Lothrop was born in Barnstable November 28. 1804, and was a direct descendant of Rev. John Lothrop, the first settled minister of Barnstable. At the age of seventeen he learned the hatter's trade, and after working one year, connected himself with the Congregational church and began preparations for the ministry. He afterward retired from the Congregational society and was ordained as a Baptist preacher in the church 56

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at West Harwich, December 10, 1828, and from that time until 1887, was pastor of some church in Barnstable county.

    James Loveland, youngest son of David and Reliance (Small) Loveland, was born in South Harwich in 1841. He went to Boston in 1854, where he has since been engaged in house, ship and sign painting. For the past few years he has spent his summers in South Harwich. He was married in 1863 to Loretta, daughter of Joseph P. and Almira (Eldridge) Nickerson. Their children are: Harold, James W. and Charles M. N.

    Elisha Mayo, born in 1844, is a son of Elisha and Reliance (Wixon) Mayo, and grandson of Elkanah and Rosana (Kelley) Mayo. He went to sea from 1853 to 1887. and was captain nineteen years. He was married in 1867 to Georgianna, daughter of Joseph C. Berry. She died in 1881 leaving one daughter, Jessie L. He was married in 1887 to Ida, daughter of Edward Smalley. They have a daughter, Lina A.

    Samuel J. Miles, son of Samuel T. and Jerusha (Nickerson) Miles. was born in 1844. He began going to sea at the age of eleven, and was master at nineteen. From 1875 to 18S7 he was- in New York in the steamboat service. He was married in IF65 to Abalena, daughter of Jonathan Young.

    James M. Moody9, born in 1859, is descended from James8, Samuel7, Samuel6, James5, Joshua4, Rev. Samuel3, Caleb2 and William Moody1, who came from England and settled in Maine. Mr. Moody is a carpenter by trade. Since 1884 he has dealt in lumber and builders supplies at Harwich. Since 1887 he has been in the ice business. He was married in 1881 to Anna L. Bassett. Mr. Moody, with his brother Sidney B., obtained a patent in 1888 on a railroad rail joint and in 1890 a patent on a cylindrical latch and lock.

    William P. Nichols, son of James and Caroline (Chase) Nichols, was born in 1849. He has been employed on the track of the Old Colony railroad since 1870. He was married in 1872 to Sophia. daughter of Ozias and Deborah Bassett. They have three children: Eugene F., William H. and Charles F.

    Cyrus Nickerson, born in 1831, is the eldest son of Alden, whose father, Alden, was a son of Bassett Nickerson. Mr. Nickerson went to sea from 1845 to 1873, and has since been engaged in the lumber and fishing business. He was married in 1854 to Dorothy Weekes8, (Benjamin F.7, Ebenezer6, Ammiel5, Rev. George4, Ammiel3, Ammiel2, George Weekes1). They have three children: Benjamin W., Louis and Malva.

    James M. Nickerson, born in 1834, is a son of Michael and Sylvia (Eldridge) Nickerson and grandson of Benjamin Nickerson. Mr. Nickerson followed the sea until 1881. He was married in 1855 to Polly A., daughter of Simeon Baker. They have two sons: James F.

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and William H. James F. was married in 1878 to Tamsen Bassett, and has four daughters. William H. was married in 1882 to Ida F. Nickerson, and has one son.

    Joseph H. Nickerson, born in 1833. is a son of Zenas and Abigail (Higgins) Nickerson and grandson of Silas Nickerson. Mr. Nickerson followed the sea in the merchant service and fishing until 1870, and since that time has been engaged in boat fishing. He was married in 1859 to Martha A. Cahoon. She died in 1865, leaving two children: Joseph A. and Frank M. He was married again in 1866 to Sarah J. Coombs. Their children are: Ephielo Z., Marguerite K. and Emmie P. Mr. Nickerson owns and occupies the homestead of his father.

    Mark F. Nickerson, born in 1821, is a son of Zepheniah and Betsey (Gorham) Nickerson and grandson of Bassett Nickerson. He went to sea from 1836 to 1871 in fishing and coasting vessels, as master the last thirty years. He has been tax collector in Harwich seven years and selectman two years. He was married in 1845 to Lucy, daughter of Jonathan Myrick. She died in March. 1889.

    Stephen E. Nickerson, born in 1840, is the eldest son of Stephen and grandson of Seth Nickerson. His mother was Charity, daughter of Nathan Nickerson. Mr. Nickerson followed the sea from 1853 to 1876,  and since that time has been engaged in the fish business. In 1877, with his father and two brothers—A. R. and A. E.—under the firm of S. Nickerson & Sons, he went from South Harwich to Booth Bay, Me., where they are carrying on an extensive fish business. Mr. Nickerson was married in 1867, to Emogene, daughter of Edward Smalley. They have three children: Rosa H., C. Dora and Carlton B.

    Thomas A. Nickerson, born in 1841, is the eldest son of Joshua and Mercy E. (Small) Nickerson, grandson of Elkanah, and great-grandson of Phineas, who was a son of John Nickerson. Mr. Nickerson has been master mariner since 1868. He was married in 1563, to Eglentine, daughter of Valentine Doane. They have four children: Addison D., T. Hulbert, Ambrose N. and Eglantine.

    Warren J. Nickerson was born in 1833. He is a son of Warren, whose father, Seth, was a son of Stephen, and grandson of Ebenezer, who was a descendant from William Nickerson. Mr. Nickerson was a school teacher for fifteen winters, and a member of the school board for several years. He was married in 1854, to Mary, daughter of Joshua and Rebecca (Nickerson) Atkins. They have seven children living: Joshua A., Albert E.. Ernest C., Oscar C., Thomas C., Geneva A. and Warren S. They lost five children.

    Josiah Paine, mentioned at page 271, was born in Harwich, September 7, 1836. He is a descendant of Thomas Paine, of Eastham, of the seventh generation, and married Phebe A. Long of Harwich,

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December 22, 1868. Of their children, Frederick W., was born January 18, 1875, and died June 23, 1875; Helen C. was born September 28, 1876, and died suddenly December 29, 1876; and John Howard was born May 30, 1883.

    Joseph Raymond, born in 1832, is the eldest son of Peter Raymond, who was born in Portugal in 1810, came to Massachusetts in 1823, and died in 1885. Peter married Keziah, daughter of John Ellis. She was born in Dennis in 3812, and died in 1851. Their children were: Joseph, Peter T., Ensign R., Albert F. and Keziah. Joseph was married in 1851, to Laura, daughter of Josiah Doane. She died in 1883, leaving three children: Joseph W., born March 25, 1858, married to Mattie Crowell; Clara P., married Joseph L. Evens, and died January 12, 1888, and Jessie H., born January 19, 1870. Mr. Raymond was married October 11, 1885, to Mrs. Lowena Wixon, daughter of William Eldridge. They have one child, Clara B., born February 17, 1888. Mrs. Raymond has two children by her first husband: Lowena and Mary Wixon. Mr. Raymond followed the sea from 1841 to 1871. He has been station agent at North Harwich since 1877, and was postmaster from April, 1877, to October, 1888.

    Benjamin F. Robbins, born in 1823, is a son of Freeman and Deborah (Mayo) Robbins, and grandson of Nathaniel Robbins. His father was twice married; first to Polly Nickerson, and second to Deborah Eldridge, a widow, whose maiden name was Mayo. Her father, Paul Mayo, went from Orleans to Chatham when he was seven years old. He lived there under the Great hill. and worked as a blacksmith. The porch of the old house where he lived and brought up his family is still standing. Mr. Robbins is a wheelwright by trade, and has a shop at Harwich center. He was married in 1852, to Emily Frances Chism (deceased), of Maine, daughter of Theodore Chism. They had three children: Charles Burlich, Caroline Avesta and Harriet Victoria; and one grandchild: Emmie I?. Robbins.

    Henry C. Robbins, born in 1820, is a son of Henry and Priscilla (Baker') Robbins, and grandson of Henry and Elizabeth (Crowell) Robbins. He was a mariner from 1831 to 1876, and master thirty-three years. Since 1877 he has been a grocery merchant at West Harwich. He was married, in 1866, to Sarah K., daughter of Sylvester and Sarah (Kelley) Chase, granddaughter of James, and great-granddaughter of Job Chase. By a former marriage Mr. Robbins had three sons: Edwin M., Theodore P. and Cyrus C.

    Joseph K. Robbins, son of Nathaniel and Huldah Robbins, was born in 1853. Nathaniel Robbins was a seafaring man in his early life, and later he devoted his time to cranberry culture and mercantile trade. He died in December, 1888, aged eighty-one years. Joseph K. now occupies his father's homestead, and is engaged in cranberry culture.

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He was married in 1876, to Helen C. Paine. The) have one son, Stanley C.

    Simeon K. Sears, born in 1851, is a son of Benjamin, and grandson of Lot Sears. His mother was Phebe W., daughter of Simeon and Paulina (Snow) Kendrick. Mr. Sears began going '-0 sea at the age of nine years, continuing until 1871. He was clerk one year in a store at West Harwich, and five years in a dry goods house in Boston. He was married in 1874, to Clara A., daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (Doane) Ellis. They have two children: Benjamin and Clara P.

    Philip N. Small, born in 1813, is a son of Lovell, and grandson of Benjamin Small. His mother was Tamar, daughter of Philip Nickerson. Mr. Small went to sea from 1827 to 1846, after which he learned the trade of a shoemaker, and for the last thirty years he has kept a boot and shoe store at Harwich Port. He was married in 1835, to Mary Y., daughter of Elisha Eldridge, and granddaughter of Daniel Eldridge. Their children are: James F., Everett P., Rhoda T. and Patience E.

    Samuel Small, born in 1835, is the only surviving child of Samuel and Julia (Cahoon) Small, grandson of James, and great-grandson of Benjamin Small. His mother, Julia, was a daughter of James, and granddaughter of James Cahoon. Her mother was Lettice, daughter of Richard Bassett. James Small married Anna, daughter of Rev. Samuel Nickerson, a Baptist preacher, of New Jersey, who at one time filled a pulpit in the eastern part of Harwich. Samuel Small was a merchant and insurance agent at South Harwich for a number of years, and for the last three years he has devoted all his time to the insurance business. He was married in 1852, to Mary B., daughter of Eldredge Small, who was a son of Eli, and grandson of Benjamin Small. They have four children: Samuel N., John F., Julia C. and Winnie B.

    Samuel N. Small, son of Samuel and Mary B. Small, was born in 1853, and is an architect and designer of furniture in Boston. He was married in 1875, to Mary O. Nickerson. She died, leaving two children: Leon C. and Susan B.

    John F. Small, the other son, was born in 1858. He is an architect and designer of furniture in Boston. He was married in 1885, to Maria L., daughter of George W. and Helena (Nickerson) Eldridge. They have one daughter, Helena.

    Zebina H. Small, whose busy and varied life in the prosperity of his native town came to an end September 22, 1882, proved his devotion to duty by the faithful discharge of every trust committed to his hands. His father, Benjamin, a son of Benjamin Small, was born and lived in Harwich, rearing five children, of whom Zebina H. was

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the youngest, born April 2, 1798. At the tender age of eight years he went to sea, which business he followed more or less for forty years, retiring in 1845. At the age of nineteen he was master in a foreign commerce, and after the year IS33 was engaged mostly along the American coast, closing his seafaring life as master of the last vessel he had built for his own use—the Emulous.

    He was married February 24, 1820, to Ruth A. Nickerson, daughter of Ebenezer Nickerson, and they reared seven children, of whom sketches are given in the succeeding paragraphs.

    Charlotte, born March 27, 1822, grew to womanhood, and in 1843 married Cyrus W. Carver, a son of Phineas and Phœba (Weeks) Carver. Mr. Carver died in 1849, and his wife died April 28, 1853. They had two daughters, Henrietta and Charlotte, of whom the older, Henrietta, survives; and being the only survivor of this branch of the family, owns and occupies the home of her grandfather.

    Zebina H. Small, jr., born May 29, 1824, was an efficient shipmaster at an early age. He married Anna S. Colesberry, but was not permitted to enjoy a long period of married life, for he was lost in the gulf stream—washed overboard in a gale—January 10, 1849.

Zebina Small    Ruth N.,born May 29,1827, married Isaac H. Smith, son of Samuel Smith, in 1850. Mr. Smith has been a successful mariner most of his life. They have had two daughters: Ruthie S., who survives, and another who died in infancy.

    Amelia S., born January 22, 1830, married Benjamin F. Bee of Harwich, and of their three children two survive: Benjamin F., jr., and Amelia S.

    Benjamin F., born April 6, 1832, grew to manhood, married Augusta C. Post, and died June 1, 1882, leaving, besides his widow, three children: Charlotte A., Benjamin F. and Ruth N.

    Harvey C., born October 15, 1840, died when three months old.

    Emulous, born December 20, 1834, in Harwich Port, married November 12, 1856, Irene T., daughter of Valentine Doane. He was for twenty years largely interested in mercantile business near his residence; retiring in 1876, he has since turned his attention to cranberry culture. He is also a director of the Cape Cod National Bank.

    Zebina H. Small, deceased, father of the above named children, was a representative man, and his pure executive ability was often called into action in the settlement of difficult arbitrations. He was a director in the Cape Cod National Bank from its inception to the close of his life, and the board of which he was a member, and who perhaps knew him best, speak highly of his upright business qualifications. His enterprise is marked by the fact that in 1845 he sold his vessel and commenced preparing a cranberry bog, placing him among the first at Harwich in this industry. In his life journey of

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over four score years he left many footprints on the sands of time for the benefit of future generations.

    Henry Smalley, born in 1842, is a son of Edward and grandson of Edward Smalley. His mother was Barbara, daughter of Ebenezer Weeks. Mr. Smalley enlisted in the war of the rebellion, in 1861, in Company A., Thirty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, serving until the close of the war. He has been cashier of the freight department of the Boston & Lowell railroad since 1866. He was married in 1870, to Ellen A., daughter of Simon Jones. They have one daughter— Nellie E.—two children having died—Henry and Catharine M.

    Freeman Smith, born in 1830, in Orleans, is a son of James and Abigail (Robbins) and grandson of Isaac Smith. He is a carpenter by trade, and has lived in Harwich since 1852. He was married in 1853 to Rebecca H., daughter of William Allen.

    Alexander F. Snow, born in 1842, is a son of Thomas Snow, who came from Fredericksburgh, Va., to Harwich. Mr. Snow has been a master mariner since he was twenty-three years old. He was married in 1863 to Mary F., daughter of Judah and granddaughter of Judah Berry.

    Augustus C. Snow, 2d, born in 1849, is a son of Hiram7 and grandson of Osborn Snow. His mother was Sally C. Rogers. Mr. Snow entered the Cape Cod National Bank as clerk in 1864, and for the last twenty years he has been assistant cashier. He has been treasurer of the Cape Cod Five Cent Savings Ban1 since 1882. He was married in 1872 to Dora M. Sears. They have one son, Ralph H.

    Rev. Charles A. Snow was born in Providence, R. I., May 12, 1829, and was one of a family of thirteen children. His father was a carpenter by trade and in too poor circumstances to give any of his children a liberal education. They enjoyed, however, the advantages of the common schools. Charles, after graduating from the high school in Providence, entered the commission house of J. C. Peckham & Co.. in that city, where he remained nearly a year. But since his conversion, which had occurred a year or two before, he had felt a restless desire for a liberal education, by which he might become fitted for the ministry of the Gospel, to which he believed himself specially called. With this end in view he devoted his evening and early morning hours to earnest study. His employers becoming interested in his purpose, showed their substantial sympathy, by releasing him from his engagement, and by the present of a small sum of money. Aside from this kindly aid, he was thereafter thrown almost wholly upon his own resources. By close economy and the enduring of many privations, he was able to work his way through Brown University and Newton Theological Seminary, graduating from the latter institution June 30, 1858. A call to become pastor of the

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Temple church in Fall River had been previously received, and he was ordained July 7th. He remained in their service six and one-half years. During this period, by leave of absence from the church, he served as chaplain in the army in 1862-3, in connection with the Third Massachusetts Volunteers. Leaving Fall River in November, 1864, he became pastor of the Stewart Street Baptist church in Providence, remaining there about six years. Other pastorates have been held in South Abington (now Whitman) New Bedford (North church) and Fall River (Third church). He came to West Harwich in April, 1886, under circumstances which plainly indicated that the hand of Divine Providence had opened the door for him to enter this important field.

    Elisha Snow was born in 1810. He is a son of Elisha and Betsey (Wing) Snow, and grandson of Elisha Snow. His father was born in 1778, and lived to be ninety-five years old. Mr. Snow went to sea from 1822 to 1868, and was master mariner thirty-four years. He was married in 1835 to Didama, daughter of Deacon Joseph Kelley. They have two daughters: Louise B., wife of Amos Crowell; and Annette, wife of Captain Thomas L. Snow, son of James Snow of Dresden, Me.

    Elijah L. Stokes, born in 1850, is a son of Elijah and Hannah C. (Small) Stokes, the latter a daughter of Jonathan and Mercy (Phillips) Small. Mr. Stokes was married in 1874 to Augusta, daughter of Elisha Doane. Their children are: Arabella H., Elijah L., jr., Wilber E. and Lura A.

    Barnabas Taylor, born in 1832, was the only- son of Barnabas Taylor, who died in New Orleans in 1832. His mother was Deborah, daughter of Barnabas Ellis. Mr. Taylor was in the stage and express business from 1856 to his death, January 27, 1890, when he was succeeded by his son Barnabas. He was married in 1855 to Jane, daughter of Gamaliel Cahoon. They had eight children: Wallace B., Barnabas, jr., Elmer E., Charles H., Herbert L., Ida B., Ella J. and Winnie B.

    John B. Tuttle, born in 1824, in Haverhill, Mass., is a son of Jesse Tuttle, who was born in New Hampshire, and a grandson of Simeon Tuttle. Mr. Tuttle came to South Harwich in 1849, where he was for several years engaged in the fish business with his brother Jesse. In December, 1863, he enlisted in Company A, Fifty-eighth Massachusetts Volunteers, and served until the close of the war. He kept the lighthouse at Monomoy point ten years, and since that time has been engaged in the manufacture of cranberry barrels. He was married in 1847, to Olive B. Duston, who died leaving one son, William T. He married, second, Mrs. Love C. Jones, who died leaving one daughter, Sarah J. He married, third, in 1882, Eunice, daughter of Samuel Moody.

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    William H. Underwood was born in 1822. He is the eldest son of Nathan, who was the eldest son of Rev. Nathan, who was seven years in the war of the revolution. He came to Harwich in 1792. He was a son of Joseph and Eunice (Smith) Underwood. Mr. Underwood's mother was Rebecca Bray. He was nine years town clerk, and from 1880 to 1886 he was county treasurer. He has been for seventeen years an officer of the Cape Cod Five Cents Savings Bank. He was married in 1845 to Almira Baker. Their children are: Rebecca B., Joseph, Elizabeth, William H., jr., Alice, Almira B., Franklin D. and Susan L.

    Jeremiah Walker, son of Marshal and Rebecca (Burgess) Walker, and grandson of Jeremiah Walker, was born in 1824. He followed the sea from 1835 to 1867. He was married in 184s to Sarepta, daughter of Josiah Nickerson. They have one daughter, Eucelia M., married to William Bourne.

    Darius F. Weekes8, born in 1833, is the eldest son of Darius Weekes7 (Ebenezer8, Ammie15, Rev. George4, Ammiel3, Ammiel2, George Weekes1). His mother was Priscilla, daughter of James Long, Mr. Weekes followed the sea from 1846 to 1868, after which he was nine years in the store and fishing business at South Harwich. He has been deputy sheriff since January, 1887. He was married in 1855, to Rhoda T., daughter of Phillip N. Small. They have two children living: Sarah P. and Charles H. Their daughter Lettie L., died in 1873, aged thirteen years; and Rosetta W. died in 1865, aged eighteen months.

    Ebenezer Weekes, 2d, born in 1853, is a son of Benjamin F.7 (Ebenezer6, Ammiel5, Rev. George Weekes4). His mother was Louisa, daughter of Alexander Nickerson. Mr. Weekes was engaged in the fishing business until 1880, since which time he has carried on a butter, lard and cheese business at Harwich Port.

    Rev. George Weekes4 was born in Dorchester in 1689, and in 1714 he came to Harwich. His son Ammiel was the father of Ebenezer, whose youngest son, Benjamin F., was the father of Alphonso, who married Mary C. Burgess. Their only son is Alphonso L. Weekes, who was born October 3, 1860, and married Nellie F. Snow in 1882. They have one son, George Leroy Weekes.

    William S. Willson, son of Hubbard Willson, was born in 1850 in Lowell, Mass. He has been in a livery stable at Brockton, Mass., since 1884. He bought a residence in Harwich Port in 1887, where he has lived since that time. He was married in 1878, to Zella B., daughter of James and Marinda (Smith) Berry. Their children are: Minnie S., Hubbard, William S,, jr., and Harold.

    Mulford Young, born in 1821, is the only surviving child of Mulford and Betsey (Young) Young, grandson of John, whose father,

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Prince, was a son of John Young. Mr. Young began keeping a small store at East Harwich in 1851. He has continued to increase the business until he now has a general country store, beside a large stock of furniture and house furnishing goods. He was married in 1858, to Eliza A., daughter of Samuel Holmes. She died two years later. He. married again in 1865, to Mrs. Emily Baker, daughter of Henry Kelley. Their children are: Harry M., Sparrow M., Eglantine F., Mary H. and Betsey I.