CapeCodHistory.us home page, 19th Century Mass. literature, genealogy, Deyo intro

History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts

edited by Simeon L. Deyo.

1890. New York: H. W. Blake & Co

CHAPTER XXIII.

pages 747-786

TOWN OF ORLEANS.

Orleans before its Division from Eastham. — Incorporation. — Natural Features. — Wreck of the Sparrowhawk. — Roads. — Early Settlers. — Various Events. — Industries. — Churches. — Cemeteries. — Schools. — Civil History. — Villages: Centre, East Orleans, South OrleansBiographical Sketches.


THE territory embraced within the present town of Orleans was chiefly included in that valuable tract known first to the Puritans as Nauset, and was therefore included in the first grant of 1640, as noticed in the history of Eastham, and for 154 years after its settlement was a part of that ancient town. Southwest of the Nauset territory was the Potanumaquut lands on which, until their extinction, the remnant of the Nausets remained. A part of these lands now comprise the southwestern portion of the town of Orleans, while the remainder belongs to Harwich and Brewster.

      Mattaquason, sachem of Monomoyick, sold to the original purchasers the land known as Pochet, with the two islands lying before Potanumaquut and the beach and the islands upon it; also the territory known as Namskaket, extending northward to the territory owned by the sachem George; but excepted Pochet island, which the sachem reserved. In 1662 this island was purchased by the settlers, and now forms part of this town. Of the original seven families who settled old Eastham, only one can be traced to the present territory of Orleans. The homestead sites of Governor Prence and others are easily traced in Eastham, but that of Nicholas Snow, at Namskaket, is the only one definitely on the Orleans side of the division line of 1797. That subsequently there were many more, and that this part of the ancient town rapidly grew to importance, will be gathered from this history.

      The early history of the town is inseparable from that of Eastham in the records of that ancient town, as all was under one local government prior to the incorporation of Orleans. The feeling of unrest and neglect to attend the several town meetings of the year, began as early as 1700, and was increased by the vote of a town meeting in 1705, at which the people of Eastham "ordered that every person qualified to vote, dwelling within seven miles of the meeting house,

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who shall not attend at the time appointed, or by the time the meeting" is called to order, shall be fined 6d." This proceeding was submitted to the court of quarter sessions at Barnstable and allowed. From this the spirit of the division of old Eastham into another town began. The confines of the town contiguous to Harwich were defined in 1705, leaving a strip upon which the Indians resided. This in 1712 was divided between the two towns and now forms the southwest part of Orleans.

      The appropriation of six hundred pounds in 1718 for the erection of a new church, and the resolve to build it near the old one, caused the residents of this part of the ancient town to ask for a separate parish, the dividing line to be determined by Messrs. Joseph Lothrop and John Baker, of Barnstable, and Elisha Hall, of Yarmouth. In 1723 the South precinct of Eastham, as a parish, controlled its ecclesiastical affairs independently of the other parish. This was the wedge that eventually severed the old town in twain.

      In 1772 the line between the territory of Old Eastham and the town of Harwich was declared to be: "From the north bounds of Namskaket, thence southerly to a black-oak tree near Baker's pond, with a stone there placed; thence to the southwest part of the pond to a heap of stones in the edge of the pond; thence easterly to a stake and stones near the Chatham road; thence southerly following the road; thence to the southeast in the bay by a rock at the edge of the water; thence to Potanumaquut harbor, as the channel now runs," which is substantially the present boundary.

      In 1797 the South precinct, after nearly three-fourths of a century of independent ecclesiastical powers, was incorporated into the town of Orleans, Joseph Pepper being the only selectman left in Eastham by the division, and Hezekiah Higgins and Heman Linnell, the remaining two, resided in Orleans. The act of incorporation of March 3d, authorized Isaac Sparrow, justice of the peace of the old town, to issue his warrant to some principal inhabitant of the new for its first town meeting, and Hezekiah Higgins was selected. This town meeting was held March 16, 1797, at which all arrangements for a separate corporate body were settled, and the bounds defined on the north and south. The boundary between Eastham and Orleans was as follows:

      "Beginning at the mouth of Rock-harbor river, thence southeasterly by the road that leads by Nathan Smith's dwelling until it comes to the parsonage land; thence northerly on the westerly line of said parsonage lands until it comes to Joshua and Isaac Smith's land; thence easterly in the range between said Joshua and Isaac, and Josiah and Elisha Smith's land until it the line comes to Boat meadow; thence a due east course into the middle of Boat-meadow river; thence up the middle of said river to its head; thence running southerly through the

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center of the meadow and swamp, along Jeremiah's gutter (so called) into the middle of Town cove; thence down the center of said cove to Stone island; thence an east southeast course into the Atlantic."

      The bounds established the same year between Orleans and Chatham were: "Beginning in the southeasterly corner of the town of Harwich in Pleasant bay; from thence running easterly to the northward of Strong island to a stake on Pochet beach, which stake bears S. 75° E. from a black rock situated in the edge of the waters of said bay; and from said stake due east to the sea."

      Thus we have defined the limits of Orleans as recorded in its town books, and they remain substantially the same at this date. More plainly, the town is bounded north by Eastham, east by the ocean , south by Chatham and pleasant bay, and west by Harwich, Brewster and the bay. In length it is five miles, and from bay to ocean from three to four. It is twenty-five miles from the court house of the county and ninety from Boston, by land.

      The face of the town is quite uneven, but contains no high hills. Its landscape, diversified with uplands, vales, small bodies of water, and numerous inlets of the sea, presents a pleasing appearance. The necks of land between the coves are fertile, and nearly the entire town is under cultivation, yielding corn, rye, vegetables and large quantities of English hay. No large streams have their source within the town, and the most of its rivers and coves are influenced by the tides. Of these a stream west of Barley neck is the largest, being at its mouth one-half mile wide, and emptying into Pleasant bay. On the east of Barley neck are coves communicating with Pleasant bay, and which separate the latter neck and Pochet neck from Nauset beach. Another neck, northeast, nearer the ocean, unites with the others, in forming what is generally called Tonset. A long beach, terminating opposite Chatham, is called Nauset beach. This beach is skirted inside with salt marsh, which is slowly being filled with sand. The islands within Pleasant bay add beauty to the scenery, and of these Pochet, east of Barley creek, is the largest. Sampson's, southwest of the latter, contains thirty acres and much good land. South of this is Hog island, of ten acres, and southerly of this is Sipson's, of twenty acres. Namequoit neck has Higgins' river on the north, and a creek of the same name as the neck on the south. Potanumaquut is the Indian name of the south part of the town. Namskaket creek is in part the dividing line from Brewster, and forms a small harbor. There are salt marshes fringing all these harbors, bays, creeks, and even the islands. These shores and coves are productive in shellfish, sea clam, bass, tautog and eels.

      In the town are no less than sixteen ponds of fresh water, of which five aggregate 213 acres; Baker's pond, 88; Fresh pond, 43; pond

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southeast of the last, 53; pond east of the village, 11, and in the southern part of the town one of 18 acres.

      Besides Pleasant bay and its anchorage, the town has Nauset harbor on the northeast, containing several islands, the largest of. which is Stone island. Town cove, a harbor for small craft, extends from the last-mentioned harbor southwesterly into the town, forming one of the most beautiful sheets of water in the town. The distance across from this cove to Namskaket is less than two miles. Across this neck, in 1627, was the historical transportation of the crew and goods of the Sparrowhawk by the Indians and Pilgrims: Laden with passengers for Virginia, she was stranded on Nauset beach, south of the present life saving station, and the Indians, by runners, at once notified the people at Plymouth that some of their countrymen were here in distress. The Pilgrims came across in boats to Namskaket; and the unfortunate voyagers were carried to Plymouth. The stranded vessel subsequently was covered by the drifting sand, and for two centuries was hidden; but in 1863 the hulk was unearthed, taken to Boston and other cities for exhibition, and is now to be seen in Memorial Hall, Plymouth.

      New roads were laid out directly after the incorporation of the town, and pains taken to improve the old ones. For the first ten years this was the principal business of the town meetings. One main road had previously been laid out—the one from Eastham to Satucket—which, in 1668, was made to connect with the road along the Cape, and was subsequently the regular county road, being now so known and used, as it runs along the northwest side of Town cove.

      Along the roads then in use was a scattered population—mostly in the north and east parts. The names of the settlers who, in the division from the mother town, must lay the foundation of a town that should reach its present importance, were: At Tonset, Dea. Abner Freeman, his brother John Freeman and Jonathan, son of Abner; Josiah and Joseph Crosby, and Josiah Crosby, jr.; John, Jesse, Joseph. Ephraim and Abiel Cole; Freeman, Abishai, Simeon, Moses and Seth Higgins; Freeman Hayden; Moses, Stephen, Zenas, Edmund, Jonathan, Aaron, Micajah and Elnathan Snow; James, Thomas, Josiah and Prince Rogers; Benjamin, Isaac, Josiah: Elkanah, Edmund and Thomas Linnell; Timothy and Azariah Doane; Barnabas, Jonathan and Dea. Prince Twining; Theophilus Mayo; Elkanah, Curtis and Joshua Hopkins; Elisha, Jedediah and Nathaniel Young; Isaac, David, Josiah and Thomas Snow; Isaac and Josiah Sparrow; John, David and Benjamin Taylor; Rev. Jonathan Bascom and Joseph Seabury.

      In the central part were: Micah Sherman, Asa, Sylvanus, Eliakim, Elnathan, Hezekiah, Daniel, Thomas, Lot, Samuel and Hatsel Higgins; Jabez, Solomon and Seth Sparrow; Zenas Doane, Arvin Kenrick,

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Oliver Arey, Edward Jarvis, Jonathan Hopkins, Jesse Kenney, Thomas, Simeon and Abner Mayo; Samuel and Jonathan Rogers.

      At Potanumaquut, or South Orleans were: Jonathan Kenrick, grandfather of John; Jonathan, father of Alfred Kenrick; Hezekiah Rogers, Dea. Judah Rogers, Richard and Joshua Rogers, sr.; Seth Sparrow, 3d; John Gould, Thomas Robbins, Jedediah Young, Joseph and John Hurd, Uriah Mayo and Joshua Mayo, Joshua Gould, John Sparrow, Seth Sparrow, 2d; Joseph L. Rogers, Reuben Eldredge, Heman Mayo, Judah and James Higgins.

      At Skaket were: Josiah and Thomas Freeman, Simeon and Matthew Kingman; Gideon and Heman Snow, John Young, William and Zoeth Smith; Seth, Nathaniel and Major H. Knowles; Simeon Pepper, Yates Nickerson, John Jarvis and John Myrick.

      At Rock harbor were: Ralph, Elisha, Lewis and Seth Smith; Heman and Prince Snow, John Knowles, Jonathan Bascom, Nathaniel Nickerson, Absalom and Ralph Higgins; Jonathan, Jonathan F., David and Moses Young; John Harding, and Seth and James Hurd.

      These settlers resided in unpretending dwellings, and their number was rapidly increased. Three years later the town had 142 dwellings, of which only five were more than one story high. No villages were scattered throughout the town as now, and one post office sufficed.

      In 1797 a pound was erected on land north of Simeon Higgins. That institution, in some form or place, has since been maintained, now being near the town poor house. The poor house was built in 1831, on Pochet neck, east of Town cove. In 1873 a new one was erected back of the Methodist church. To the credit of the town this has been leased as a tenement house for the past three years.

      In 1814 a landing place, from the common lands of the proprietors, was located at Rock harbor, and a road connecting it with the village was laid out. At that time the packet lines to Boston started from that side, and for many years the shipping business of the town was centered there. In 1833 the improvement of Rock harbor was attempted. A dam was built across the creek to retain the water, which, it was thought, would deepen the channel by allowing the water to escape at low tide, but after an expenditure of two thousand dollars the project was abandoned.

      In 1819 the town contained 289 families, mostly located on the neck adjoining the bay, on the county road, and along the road east of the cove to and including Tonset. The growing population did not escape the epidemic that prevailed in Eastham in 1816, and many died, but the energy of the people and their readiness to combine in assisting those who were in need gave the town an unwonted impetus in its prosperity. In 1820 the population was 1,348. At this time the

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remaining lands of the Potanumaquuts were sold, and the town received its share of the proceeds. Improvements were undertaken, one of which was the joining with Chatham in digging a channel through the back side of the beach, below Strong island, to benefit the salt meadows, but the labor was lost.

      The portion of the surplus revenue received by the town was loaned to individuals for two years on good security, but at the end of that time became a matter of dispute and disagreement. The town used a portion for town expenses, and in 1837 erected their first town house with the other portion. It stood opposite the Universalist church, on land now occupied by the cemetery. This was replaced by a better one in 1873. That year the selectmen, with Jonathan Higgins and Joseph H. Cummings as a building committee, with full powers to select and erect the house—all not to exceed five thousand dollars--erected it opposite the soldiers' monument, west of the old one. It was dedicated December 25, 1873, and is a fine building. It is centrally located, with a commanding view.

      In 1826 strong measures were taken to suppress the sale and use of spirituous liquors, the selectmen being authorized to refuse all applications for the privilege of its sale, and this has been the course of the town since.

      Among the enterprises and industries worthy of mention were the tide mills, of which only relics remain. The piles driven in the construction of the water mill, near Oliver Doane's, are still visible. It was anciently owned by Timothy Cole, but when that or any of them were erected no tradition can tell. The others were in the southwest part of the town—one at Weesquamscut or Arey's pond, built by the ancestors of Captain Arey; and the other at Kesscayogansett or Sparrow's pond, built, as was supposed, by that ancient family whose name the pond bears. Some doubt has been expressed that the latter existed: but the site is shown, and parts of the mill stones are in use as a door stone to the residence of Albert Bassett, and in the wall of Freeman Sparrow's fence, near by. These mills were constructed at an early day, for grinding corn. A narrow neck at the mouth of a pond, into which the tide was forced, was the proper place for these mills. Across this neck a dam was constructed, and the rise of water by the tide was confined, to be let out gradually against a wheel that gave the power for grinding.

      The town has had within the century past five wind mills, three of which still do work. That on Mill hill, near the cemetery, was moved from Chatham in 1830 to South Orleans, and in 1870 was moved to its present site—where an old one, 125 years old, was torn down. James H. Arey moved, owns and runs it. Many years ago another, owned by Theophilus Mayo, stood east of this on the same hill, having been

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moved from Skaket, and which is claimed as the first in the town. The mill near D. L. Young's store belongs to Jonathan Young, William F. Mayo, Joseph K. Gould and Francis and David L. Young. This was moved from the hill at South Orleans, in 1839, to its present site, where it is doing good service. Isaac Sparrow owned the wind mill now owned by Richard S. Freeman and Captain Joseph Taylor, near Lot Higgins' store. It was built soon after 1800, by Daniel Johnson, to grind salt, and is still serviceable.

      Ship-building has not been an industry of the town, except as a schooner of seventy tons was built prior to 1800, at Sparrow's pond in the south part of the town, by Reuben Cole. The timber was cut near by, and the vessel was floated by hogsheads to the deeper water after completion.

      The fishing business, in its various departments, has been largely carried on; the town having in 1837, thirty-three vessels, which employed 264 men, but, as in other towns, it now has little interest. The packet business, of which Edward Jarvis was a pioneer, was extensively carried on between Orleans and Boston; but this business was long ago superseded by other means of transportation.

CHURCHES.—In 1718 it was decided to erect the second meeting house and organize the South parish of Eastham, which is now Orleans, and this is the oldest religious society within its bounds. Samuel Osborn had been called to the pastorate of the Central parish church; but when the new church was completed, he removed to the South parish, and remained until 1738, when he was dismissed. He was succeeded, in 1739, by Rev. Joseph Crocker, who remained until his death, in 1772. Rev. Jonathan Bascom then became pastor, and served until his death, in 1807. Rev. Daniel Johnson, of Bridgewater, followed, and was dismissed in 1828. The church was supplied by Messrs. Turner, Scovel, Bartley and Boyter until 1835, when Rev. Stillman Pratt was ordained, and continued his labors to April, 1839. Rev. Jacob White commenced his labors in 1841, and continued as stated supply until 1860. The pulpit was supplied by Messrs. Dickinson, White and Tarleton until 1865, when Rev. J. E. M. Wright commenced his labors. He was succeeded, after a few years, by Rev. Charles E. Harwood, who remained ten years. George W. Andrews and H. M. Holmes filled the desk until 1887, when Thomas Bickford was called. After two years Thomas H. Vincent, the present pastor, was settled.

      In 1804 the meeting house, the only one then in Orleans, was replaced by a larger and better one. The expense of this was more than paid by the sale of pews. This edifice was torn down in 1829 and another erected. Many changes had been made in forms of religious worship. The town purchased a bass viol for the church in

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1810, and thirty pounds a year had been paid since 1805 for a singing master to educate the youth. In 1888, a still larger and better edifice being needed, the present one, on the same site, was erected, and dedicated December 30th of the same year.

      The Universalist Society was incorporated in 1834. In 1838 dissenters from the old church erected a meeting house for worship. Services had been occasionally held prior to that date. The Rev. Ezekiel Vose, the first regular preacher was ordained in 1834, and was succeeded in 1840 by Rev. James G. Burt, who remained until 1843, when Rev. Stillman Barden was settled. He remained until October, 1851, when R. K. Brush filled the pulpit until September, 1853. The same fall Rev. Earl Guilford took the pastorate for two years, succeeded by J. P. Atkinson until 1860. J. H: Campbell followed and remained until the fall of 1863. G. F. Jenks was pastor until 1866, then Edwin White for two years. Mr. Jenks and others followed as supplies, and in 1869 Mr. Willis came. George F. Jenks was recalled in 1871 and was pastor three years, followed by R. S. Pope, 1874-75; W. C. Stiles, 1876-1878; G. W. Jenkins, 1878-1882; J. L. Seabarin, 1883; G. V. Wilson, 1884-1886; Donald Fraser, 1887 to —.

      A Reformed Methodist Society was organized and a meeting house erected in 1820. Prior to this date occasional services were enjoyed, several ministers furnished preaching for ten years, but the society declined and the house was closed.

      The Methodist Episcopal church was erected in 1837 from the building of the former society, now standing across the street from the Snow Library. The society had been organized the previous year from the remains of the old society. The ministers have been: D. G. Brown for two years; Philip Crocker in 1838; Rev. P. Crandall and Rev. J. Litch in 1840; H. Perry, 1841; J. Bicknell, 1842; T. G. Blake, 1843. The next, in 1843-4, was Rev. E. B. Hinckley, succeeded by J. F. Blanchard in 1845-6; John D. King in 1847; John French in 1848, until his death, then Arnold Adams; in 1849, James B. Washburn; in 1851, John Fisher; 1852, Thomas Slater; 1853, W. P. Myrick, S. G. Usher and Franklin Sears; 1855, George S. Alexander; 1856, James H. Cooley; 1858, Henry Mayo; 1859, S. Ranks; 1861, Joseph Marsh; 1865, J. A. Steele; 1866, Moses Brown; 1867, F. Gavitt; 1869, C. Stokes: 1870, C. H. Ewer; 1872, J. W. Price; 1873, J. B. Washburn; 1875, C. A. Carter; 1876, M. Dwight; 1877, H. W. Hamblin; 1879, T. A. Turner: 1880, C. T. Hatch; 1881, W. F. Davis; 1883, L. B. Codding; 1885, W. W. Hall; 1887, W. L. Hood; 1889, O. A. Parley.

      A Baptist Society was instituted in June, 1826, by resident members of the Brewster church—eight in number. In 1828 a convenient edifice was erected in the center of the town. Rev. Otis Wing, who assisted in organizing the society, preached one-third of the time until

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the fall of 1837. Rev. Winthrop Morse began his pastorate with them in 1829, discontinuing in 1832. Rev. Enoch Chase preached until 1836, succeeded by Rev. Silas Ripley until the fall of 1837. Rev. Jesse Pease supplied a year, then Rev. Davis Lothrop was pastor for several years. The society commenced to decline, employing ministers and occasional supplies for a number of years until the church was closed. Their edifice was taken down for other uses in 1889.

CEMETERIES.—The few cemeteries of the town are well preserved. The oldest is an Indian burial place at South Orleans—the grounds of the Potanumaquuts. Their meeting house, which stood near by, has been extinct for nearly a century, and its door step is doing service for John Kenrick. A later burying ground for Indians was on the land now owned by the heirs of William G. Nickerson, also at South Orleans.

      In 1718, when the South parish meeting house of Old Eastham was erected, a burying ground was laid out near by, which is still carefully guarded by the citizens of Orleans. This is not used; but adjoining it five acres was purchased, January 15, 1850, by enterprising citizens under the organization called the Orleans Cemetery Association, and to this was added, June 13, 1876, nine acres more, forming one of the largest and best managed cemeteries in the county. The officers of the association for 1889 were: Joseph Taylor, president; Joseph Mayo, secretary and treasurer; Samuel Mayo, Joseph W. Rogers, Theophilus H. Hurd and the president and secretary, ex-officio, trustees; and Waters Taylor, superintendent. At the east of the Congregational church is a burial place, of which little is known. There is also one near the depot, belonging to the Methodist society, not now used.

SCHOOLS. —When the town was organized especial care was taken to institute schools to accommodate the children. In 1713 the territory south of the cove was made one district. In 1797 there were but three vaguely defined sections, that were provided with limited opportunities for acquiring even a common school education. The people of the town, at their first town meeting, voted to divide the town into three definite districts and build a school house in each. The eastern district was to be east of a "line drawn as the road runs from the westerly side of Thomas Mayo's house, along said road to the meeting house; thence northerly to the eastward of Dr. Seabury's." Then "a line drawn from the head of Frostfish cove, running westerly between Sylvanus and Asa Higgins', still westerly between Elnathan and widow Higgins' and. between Ebenezer and Jedediah Young's to the Harwich line," was to define the bounds between the north and south districts. This was succeeded by liberal support in the town meeting votes, and the taxes levied; and for some reason

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the open town meeting of 1799 "voted that the schoolmasters of the town have the approbation of the ministers and selectmen." Whether this was the manner of ascertaining the qualifications of the several masters, or that the approbation of the clergy and selectmen was necessary to the success of the schools, no one of that date lives to tell. It is enough that the schools nourished thus, endorsed by the church and the state.

      In 1806 a committee in each district was appointed to see that the school have everything for its advancement. In 1819 the districts numbered six, and new school houses had been erected in the new districts. The appropriations of the town kept pace with the needs of the increasing population and the demand for a higher grade of schools. This year the committee to divide the town into districts, was: John Kenrick, John Myrick, Henry Knowles, James Rogers, Daniel Comings and Judah Rogers.

      In 1827 an academy was built by a company, upon the present site of the Snow Library building. It had two stories—a school room below and a hall above. Teachers qualified to teach the high branches were employed, and it is said the institution teaching navigation was of importance to those who afterward engaged in seafaring pursuits. Teachers for the town schools were qualified for their work here. It was discontinued soon after 1855, and the building moved, for a dwelling, to a site south of the Congregational church.

      In 1834 the town was divided into nine districts and at once more houses were provided. At this time nine hundred dollars each year was raised for the support of these schools. In 1846 there were ten school districts, with seventeen teachers employed. The number of different scholars in the public schools at this time was 614—the highest of any school year, and from this year the decrease commenced. In 1850 the valuation of the town was doubled from former years, the same amount was paid for schools, and 407 scholars were given the benefit. In 1856 there were 458 scholars reported in the schools of the year, and in 1859 only 398, with twelve teachers.

      In 1873 a high school was instituted in the central building, with Hiram Myers as principal, and from this time the interest in and the standard of the schools rapidly increased. Reports of the standing, attendance, and the amount of expenditures of the schools were first printed and distributed. That year $143.27 was received from the state school fund.

      In 1876 the high school gave satisfaction, and the grammar schools numbered four, the primaries three. The attendance of scholars for all the schools for the year was 270. The examination of pupils at the close of each term in all the grades was rigid, giving candidates for admission to the high school an unusually severe test.

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      The school year ending in 1882 was fraught with changes detrimental, perhaps, to the best interest of the scholars. By a vote of the town meeting the grammar and primary schools of the east and south parts of the town were united to save expense. At this time the decrease in the number of scholars was plainly discernible, for which there were several reasons. The number of different scholars who attended school in 1860-1 was 443, while in 1880-1 it was 235. The sum of $1,900 was raised for the first and $2,400 for the second period given. In the first school year mentioned, fourteen teachers were employed and nine in the latter. The standard of the schools in 1880 was fifty per cent. better than in 1861. In 1882 attendance was largely increased by the enforcement of the truant act, and the income from the state fund was $235.95—about one hundred dollars increased since 1873—indicating a higher state of improvement. In 1887 the scholars in attendance had decreased to 184, receiving from the state fund, $311.08.

      The ten districts throughout the town, long previous to the establishment of grammar schools, had been consolidated and four large school buildings termed Northwest, Central, East and South schools, with the high school at the center, tools their place. On the morning of September 29, 1887, the Central house was burned. This school was continued in the town house until the close of the school year. Another was erected on the site, in which a grammar school was commenced December 16, 1889. The schools of 1888-9 were four grammar departments and four primary, with an attendance of 154 different scholars. The income from the state fund was $304.82, and the school year closed with a report of decided progress. The usual appropriation of the town for its schools is now $2,200 annually. The school committee for 1890-1898 consists of Robert E. Oliver, Joshua H. Smith and Freeman Higgins.

CIVIL HISTORY.—This branch of the history of Orleans, prior to 1797, is inseparable from that of old Eastham. The enactments of the latter governed the present territory of Orleans, from which a large proportion of the officers were chosen. The civil list of Eastham from its incorporation to March, 1797, will be found in Chapter XXII, and by the officers there named the present territory of Orleans was served.

      The Indians of Potanumaquut—now the south part of Orleans—had a court and magistracy of their own, established by the general court in 1682.

      The people of the town acted in concert with the patriots of other towns during the troubles of the revolutionary war, and the so-called whigs were largely in the ascendency; and in 1800, after learning of the decease of George Washington, a public service was held, at which

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the freemen, by a strong vote ordered the oration of Rev. Mr. Bascom to be published. In 1809 the town first made distinct assessments for the support of the ministry, the voters at this time numbering about 120. In 1812 the town passed 139 votes. The political tendency of the town was promptly indicated in 1814, when British cruisers anchored in sight of its shores, threatening destruction unless a certain amount of money was raised. A decisive vote of refusal was given, and every attempt of the enemy to land was repulsed.

      In cases of humanity the political parties were united, as was the case in 1816, when the epidemic brought death to many and burdensome bills to others. At this time the vote was unanimous that the town pay the doctors' bills for those persons not able. In 1818 the town, being largely enraged in the manufacture of salt, chose an efficient committee to represent to congress the importance of the continuation of a duty on the importation of this article. During these years the vote of the town was to pay three cents for the head of an old crow, 1½ cents for that of a young one, and three cents a dozen for crows' eggs; for a blackbird's head one cent, and 1½ cents for a dozen of its eggs. The shell fish of the coves and ponds of the town were annually protected in the votes of the town meetings, and heavy penalties laid for encroachment from non-residents.

      In the town meeting of May 27, 1861, a strong union feeling was shown by adopting a long preamble and seven strong resolutions in which the action of the Southern states was condemned and a promise given to. stand by the Union at all hazards.

      The widening of old and laying out of new roads, the management of the fisheries, the changes made in the schools and the erection of new poor and town houses have occupied the town meetings of the town for many years. The perambulation of the town boundaries is recorded every few years in the records of the town.

      The names of the deputies who served prior to 1797 in the general court may be found in the Eastham chapter, and the names of the representatives from the incorporation of the town of Orleans until 1857, when it formed a district with other towns, are included in the following list, with the year of election and the number of years of service in each case where more than a single year was served: 1798, Simeon Kingman, 5; 1800, Richard Sparrow, 6; 1808, Jonathan Bascom, 4; 1817, Daniel Cummings, 7; 1825, John Doane, 4; 1830, John Kenrick, 2; 1831, Sparrow Horton and Elisha Cole, 5; 1833, Thacher Snow, 4; 1834, Elisha Hopkins; 1835, Eben Rogers, 2; 1836, Thomas Mayo; 1837, Edward Barber, 2, and Richard Sparrow; 1838, Luther Snow, 2; 1839, Nathaniel Freeman; 1840, Joshua Doane, 2; 1842, Seth Higgins, 2; 1844, Alexander Kenrick, 2; 1849, Thacher Snow; 1850, Leander Crosby, 3; 1854, John Kenrick, 2; 1855, Josiah Freeman, 2; 1857, Chapman Seabury.

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      Since Orleans has exercised its own corporate powers the following have served as selectmen, the number of years being denoted when more than one, with the year of first election: 1797, Hezekiah Higgins, 4; Heman Linnell and Dea. Judah Rogers, 16: 1798, Jonathan Hopkins and Thomas Arey; 1799, Dea. Richard Sparrow, 13; 1801, Barnabas Twining, 3; 1804, Nathaniel Knowles, 7; 1811, Gideon Snow, 2; 1812, John Myrick, 11; 1813, Stephen Snow; 1814, Daniel Cummings, 14, and Jabez Sparrow, 3; 1817, Thomas Higgins, 6: 1818, John Kenrick, 13; 1820, Asa Rogers, 4; 1824, Jonathan Freeman: 1827, Joseph L. Rogers, 5; 1828, Elisha Cole, 7; 1829, Zoeth Taylor and William Smith; 1832, Sparrow Horton, 2; Matthew Kingman, 2; 1834, Joshua Doane, 5; 1835, Edward Barber, 3, and Asa Hopkins, 7; 1842, Joseph G. Sloan, 2; 1844, Josiah Freeman, 7; 1846, Ziba Eldridge, 2; 1850, Alfred Kenrick, 3; 1851 Thomas S. Snow. 3, and William P. Myrick, 3; 1852, Ensign B. Rogers, 2; 1853, Harvey Sparrow, 2; 1854, Jonathan Higgins, 3, and Edward Barber; 1855, Jesse C. Snow, 9. and Joseph W. Rogers; 1858, Calvin Snow, 3; 1859, Joseph Cummings, 3; 1861, George W. Cummings, and Edward Crosby, 3; 1864, Ira Mayo, 4, and Freeman Doane, 2; 1866, George W. Cummings, 2; 1867, Ensign B. Rogers, 2; 1868, John Kenrick, 2, and Joshua L. Crosby; 1869, Freeman Doane, 9, and Ira Mayo; 1870, Ensign B. Rogers, 7, and Joseph W. Rogers; 1871, John Kenrick; 1872, James H. Arey, 4; 1876, Joseph W. Rogers, 3; 1877, Alexander T. Newcomb, 14, to 1891; 1878, Marcus M. Pierce, 2; 1879, Freeman Doane, 8; 1880, Joseph K. Mayo, 2; 1882, Winthrop M. Crosby, 9, to 1891; 1887, Samuel Mayo, 4, to 1891.

      The offices of town clerk and treasurer have been filled by the same person. The year of the first election of the successive incumbents stands recorded thus: 1797, Benjamin Taylor; 1800, Timothy Bascom; 1814, Gideon Snow; 1834, Barnabas Snow; 1840, William P. Myrick; 1850, Jonathan Higgins; 1855, Thomas A. Hopkins; 1861, Thomas Higgins; 1865, Freeman Mayo; and since March, 1889, David L. Young.

VILLAGES.—The village of Orleans, called by its people the Centre, occupies the first settled territory of the town. It embraces Skaket and Rock harbor—parts of the town settled in 1643 by one of the original purchasers. The village has grown westerly around the railroad station in later years; but the principal street winds southeasterly and then easterly, with its beautiful residences and extensive business places on either side, until the post office at East Orleans is reached. There are three villages in the town, with no definite bounds except the natural division of post office conveniences. The churches, town house and cemetery are as convenient for one community as another, and are near the geographical center of the town. In 1797 no village existed here. The establishment of a post office on

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the county road for the sparsely settled community soon formed the nucleus of the present principal village.

      The manufacture of salt was commenced about 1800, and was carried on many years by several enterprising citizens. At the head of the Town cove Seth Smith had works, which were subsequently sold to Gideon S. Snow. On the northerly side between them and the Eastham line, were the works of Nathaniel Nickerson and of Jonathan Young, grandfather of D. L. Young. On the southerly side, in 1808, were in full blast the plants of Asa, Elisha and Josiah Hopkins, John Doane, Joseph and Isaac Seabury, and Daniel Higgins. Along the bay between Namskaket and Rock harbor were the works of Edward Jarvis, Blossom Rogers, Joseph Hurd, James Engles, Major Henry Knowles, Joseph G. Sloane, Captain Nathaniel Knowles, Jesse Snow, Captain William Smith, Sparrow Horton, Isaac Knowles, Sears Rogers. Josiah Freeman, Isaac Hopkins, Joseph Atwood, Seth Knowles, Edward, Edmund and Abiel Crosby and William Myrick. In 1837, fifty plants made 21,780 bushels of salt. These, after furnishing employment for a large number of men, gradually declined and but little salt was made after the middle of the century. Every inducement was given for the encouragement of the enterprise, and we find by the records that not until 1823 was a committee appointed to confer with the owners of these plants in relation to taxing them.

      The older taverns of the village usually had a small store connected with them. In 1800 and many years after Major Henry Knowles kept an inn near the present hotels on the county road; and near him in 1829 was the inn, store and stage office kept by Simeon Higgins, who brought the mail by stage from Yarmouth. Near these is the present hotel of W. N. Steele, established in 1882. Abel Shattuck bought of Simeon Higgins about 1852 and opened a tavern, in the house now owned by James Boland. He remained there until the erection of the Shattuck House in 1874, to which he removed. That house was kept by him until his death in 1886, and his wife and son, C. H. Shattuck, ran it until she died in 1887, when it was leased, June 23d of that year, to the present proprietor, George S. Nickerson. The livery business in connection with the house, and adjoining, was commenced by C. H. Shattuck in 1871, near his residence, where he was burned out in 1873. He then purchased a building, moved it to the present site, and refitted it for his extensive business. Another old tavern, mentioned in the town records, was that of Kezia Harding, where the officers went in 1802 to swear in and finish the town meeting.

      As early as 1808 Gideon S. Snow had a store on the county road nearly opposite the inn of Major Knowles, and later Barnabas Knowles had another near by. About 1828 Richard Sparrow opened a store in

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a dwelling house near Cedar pond, and after a term of years sold to his nephew, Nathaniel Atwood, who continued in the same place. In 1861, J. H. Cummings bought the goods, and in 1863 bought a store that he moved to a suitable site near by, where he continued trade until 1878. That year he removed his stock to his present commodious building opposite the Shattuck House.

      On the county road near the Town cove, Jonathan Young opened in 1829 a boot and shoe store and manufactory, which he continued on the same corner until 1849, when he enlarged the building and began trade in general merchandise. In 1869 he sold to David L. Young, his son, who continues on the same site in a large store, which he has transformed from the former.

      Timothy Bascom had an old store just after the town was established, and Jonathan Bascom had another near where was the office of Esquire Doane. Widow Lucia Snow kept one of those old-fashioned stores on the site of C. H. Shattuck's new residence. These old stores of a hundred years ago, kept usually in dwellings, were very primitive, and their principal groceries were molasses and tobacco, and the current dry goods was mostly rum.

      A hardware and tinware store was opened in 1836 on the east side of Main street by Calvin Snow, who continued until 1855, when he sold to Jesse Snow, jr., who discontinued after a few years. In 1867 Aaron Snow built and opened on the depot lot a grain store, which he continued about ten years. It was burned, and J. F. Eldridge erected and continues in the present building on the site. In 1884 W. H. Snow, son of Aaron Snow, opened a store for the sale of grain, coal, flour and hardware on the east side of the street, opposite his father's old grain store, where he continues, and is running a vessel to New York in connection with the business. Thomas S. Newcomb, in 1860, left the sea and opened with his son a hardware and tinware store opposite the present store, near the northern bank of Town cove. In 1883, A. T. Newcomb, the son and present proprietor, purchased the store, and in 1884 moved it across the street, remodeled it to its present proportions, continuing the trade in hardware, paints, oils, agricultural tools, and the general merchandise of his line.

      Captain Sparrow Horton opened a general store on the west side of Main street, which he subsequently sold to Captain Jesse Snow; about 1843 Davis Hurd purchased the business, removing it to the opposite diagonal corner, where he continued until his death.

      A drug store was opened in 1880 by Dr. S. T. Davis, near the depot, where he continued until 1883, when he sold to A. N. Chase, who, in the fall of 1889, removed to his fine new building, east side of Main street. Another drug store was opened in the Snow block, near the depot, in 1889, by Dr. Ellis P. Jones. Other places of business are a

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variety store by Elijah E. Knowles; a confectionery store by Abner Higgins; a shoe store by S. L. Smith; the fancy store by Fannie M. Smith; a produce business by Joshua Hurd, and the store of Joel H. Sparrow's estate, near Cedar pond.

      In 1885 John M. Smith was employed in a bakery near the Methodist church, and after acquiring a thorough knowledge of the business, he, in 1887, built the present building near J. H. Cummings' store, where he at once opened on a more extensive scale. In 1889 he pulled down his ovens and built better and larger ones. His two wagons supply Brewster, Orleans, Eastham and Wellfleet.

      Josiah Sparrow started a marble factory many years ago, which, after his death, was continued by Thomas A. Hopkins, near the present factory of W. M. Crosby, to whom he sold in 1862. Mr. Crosby carried on the business in the shop in the orchard until after he had purchased his present residence, and in 1886 remodeled the old store into a suitable shop and salesroom, where he continues.

      Warren H. Hopkins started a carriage manufactory, in 1867, on the county road west of the Shattuck House, where he continues in all branches of the business.

      In 1873 Joseph H. Cummings and William H. Howes, under the firm name of Cummings & Howes, engaged in the manufacture of shirts, overalls and pants, in the store building near Cedar pond. Their increasing business led to the erection of the present store building, occupied by Mr. Cummings, to which the manufactory was removed in 1878. A wing was subsequently built on the west to accommodate the business, then an addition in the rear, and then the east wing was built. The skating rink near by was next purchased, and in October, 1888, their manufactory was removed to that more suitable structure. They discontinued the making of shirts and overalls, as their other work for jobbers increased. From fifty to seventy-five sewing machines have been kept running, and during December, 1889, fifty more were added. The establishment is now run by steam power, and furnishes employment for 125 to 200 people. For two and a half years prior to September, 1888, all the pants of the Plymouth Rock Pants Company were made at this factory. Since that time Cummings & Howes have made here all the goods put on the market by the Bunker Hill Pants Company, and have built up a large trade with the clothing jobbers in nearly every state in the Union.

      In 1885 Aaron Snow built the block north of the railroad track for a wholesale pants factory for John Wilson, who was succeeded in the business in 1888 by George F. Snow, son of Aaron, who continues. From twenty-five to thirty-five hands are employed, according to season, and over one hundred families of this and adjoining towns are supplied with work outside of the factory.

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      The only wharf along Town cove is one erected in 1879 by Aaron Snow, in the rear of his residence. About forty years ago he started in the fishing business—one of the first to build or purchase a five-ton, schooner-rigged vessel—and within a few years a fleet of twenty-two similar vessels went from the cove. The decrease of the profits of the business led to its discontinuance.

      The old academy had a hall that accommodated the town until the erection of the town house. The present house has a large and pleasant hall on the second floor. In 1882 Aaron Snow erected the block near the depot, in which is a large hall. Higgins' Hall is in the block opposite the depot, and Mechanics' Hall is next west of the Shattuck House. These furnish suitable meeting places for the societies, and the town hall for all public, religious and social occasions.

      A post office was established here soon after the town was incorporated. The first postmaster Simeon Kingman, was appointed July 1, 1800. He was followed by Jonathan Bascom, July 1, 1807. The next incumbent, appointed October 18, 1819, was Daniel Johnson, with David Taylor as assistant, who kept the office at his dwelling. Taylor was appointed postmaster October 14, 1828, and was succeeded May 8, 1834, by Elijah Knowles, who was followed by Rufus L. Thatcher April 22, 1837. Simeon Higgins was appointed September 1, 1837, and held the position until June 11, 1841, when Sparrow Horton was appointed. May 4, 1847, Matthew Kingman was appointed, and was followed by Betsey D. Knowles November 10, 1848. Leander Crosby, appointed January 7, 1851, was the next postmaster, and he was followed by Edward Barber in 1858. Azariah Snow was appointed postmaster in 1861, and kept the office near the Library building. At his death his daughter, Eliza A. W. Snow, received a commission, serving until 1866, when her sister, Amelia Snow, was appointed. She held the office until January, 1885, when Amos O. Hurd was appointed. It is now kept by Heman F. Atwood in a building on the east side of the street, near the railroad station. From this office a daily mail is conveyed to the offices at East and South Orleans.

      In this village is one of the best libraries of the county, established in 1877, through the munificence of David Snow, of Boston, a native of this town. The deceased gave five thousand dollars to the town to establish a library if a suitable building should be secured for its use. The present fine edifice was erected in 1877, and across its front may be seen in modest characters—The Snow Library Building. The school committee formerly were the trustees of the fund, of which four thousand dollars remains; but by a law of 1888 trustees are now elected. From the interest of this fund an average of one hundred volumes are annually added to the shelves. The number of volumes in 1890 was 2,110, from which the reading public aggregate four

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thousand selections annually. The trustees for 1890 were: Joseph W. Rogers, David L. Young and Hiram Myers, with Addie B. Smith librarian.

      We find here an unusual interest manifested in social and benefit societies. One is Friendship Council, No. 19, O. U. A. M., instituted July 2, 1881, with fifty-five members. None but American born citizens are eligible, and to its social interest can be added a sick benefit and insurance. The society meets in Mechanics' Hall.

      The Order of the Iron Hall was established February 15, 1887, with twenty-six members. It is a benefit and social organization of growing strength, numbering forty-six members in 1889. Prior to December last the society had paid $750 in benefits. In 1887 Simeon L. Smith was chief justice and James Smith, vice. In 1888 James Smith was elected chief, which office he held in 1889, with Alvin Smith, vice.

      The Sisterhood Branch of Iron Hall is a ladies' organization of the same society, established January 15, 1889, with thirty-eight charter members.

      A side degree of the Order of United American Mechanics, for American-born ladies and gentlemen, was instituted April 14, 1881, as United Council, No. 6, Daughters of Liberty. Its workings are similar to the parent society. Elections are held semi-annually. The place of meeting is Mechanics' Hall.

      Morning Star Lodge, No. 415, K. and L. of H., was instituted March 18, 1881. The officers are elected semi-annually. The first presiding officer was Joseph H. Cummings, for three terms.

      The eldest society is the Knights of Honor, instituted April 21, 1879, as No. 1,556. The officers were at first elected semi-annually, and since 1882, annually. The first dictator was Joseph H. Cummings. Thomas Smith served in 1880 and the first half of 3881, the year being completed by David L. Young. The years 1882-83 by Eldridge F. Small; 1884, by W. H. Howes; 1885, John Kenrick, jr.; 1886, Simeon L. Smith; 1887-88, Joseph Mayo; 1889, Sparrow Higgins. Doctor Davis is the medical examiner of this as well as four other societies. Place of meeting, Higgins' Hall.

      Another society of local, mutual insurance, called the Nauset Council, 939, Royal Arcanum, was instituted December 14, 1885. It has twenty-seven members. The officers when instituted were: Samuel E. Mayo, R.; Amos Sherman, V. R.; Sylvanus L. Eldridge, O.; Dr. S. T. Davis, P. R.; Daniel M. Smith, S.; James F. Eldridge, C.; Francis M. Smith, T.; John W. Howes, chap.; Wallace A. Smith, G., and Charles A. Jones, S.

      Each of the three churches has a benevolent society composed of ladies. These are productive of much good in the support and aid of worthy objects. Articles of incorporation have been issued to the

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Progressive Lyceum Association, of which Celia M. Nickerson is president and Eliza L. Rogers treasurer. The object of the association is to establish and maintain places for libraries, reading rooms and social meetings. This village, with its manufactories and other industries, is not so seriously affected by the decline of the fisheries as some others, and continues its solid prosperity.

      East Orleans is in the eastern part of the town, with a division line from the main village, just east of the Congregational church. It includes the several communities of Tonset, Weesit—the extreme northern part of the neck,—Pochet and Barley neck. Its territory embraces a large portion of the most fertile land of the town, sloping northerly toward Nauset harbor and southerly toward Pleasant bay. Reference to the settlers here in 1797, as described in the commencement of this chapter, will show that this territory was quite early settled.

      The salt manufacturers here at an early day were: Lewis Doane, Joseph Crosby, Josiah Sparrow, Zoeth Taylor, Elkanah Linnell, who were located on Nauset harbor and Barley neck; and William Myrick, who had a plant at the head of tide water near Lot Higgins' store. The wind mill near there was originally used for grinding salt.

      Old stores were opened here as early as in any part of the town by Josiah Foster, Elisha Hopkins and others. Isaac Sparrow had a store before 1825, which he conducted several years. Before Sparrow discontinued William Myrick opened another east of the church, which he sold to Freeman H. Myrick, who after a score of years sold out to Lewis Doane. It was then kept on the north side of the street opposite the present post office. Leander Crosby became a partner and the business was conducted under the firm name of Doane & Crosby. A few years subsequently Doane sold to Crosby, and he in 1858 to Lot Higgins, who moved the store to its present site and there continues in trade. The store was enlarged by adding to its front before it was removed.

      Elisha Hopkins started a store here prior to 1855, which after a few years he sold to Samuel Hopkins. In 1854 Aaron Snow started a small store near the Hopkins store and in a few years purchased the goods and building of his neighbor, Samuel Hopkins. He consolidated the two stores and continued in the business until 3875, when he sold the goods to his brother, Elkanah L. Snow, who continued the business in the same building until in 1884, when he purchased a millinery store near the head of the cove, on the Knowles place, which he moved to East Orleans. This he remodeled into his present place of business. In 1889, Lot Higgins and Elkanah L. Snow were the only tradesmen in East Orleans.

      The post office is kept in the store of Lot Higgins, who is postmaster. He was appointed in 1859, soon after he purchased the store.

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His predecessors in the office were: Seth Sparrow, 3d, appointed January 19, 1835; Lewis Doane, jr., May 9, 1843; Leander Crosby, March 8, 1847; Freeman Doane, November 30, 1848, and Leander Crosby, appointed July 11, 1859.

      We find here the oldest library in the town. It was kept in the central village prior to the organization of the Snow library, when it was removed here. It contains sixteen hundred volumes, and has a small, suitable building. It was organized December 10, 1854, as the Orleans Library Association. Isaac Doane was for years its first president, succeeded by Joseph Taylor for many years. Calvin Snow is now the president, with Emma J. Linnell secretary and treasurer. The executive committee in 1889 consisted of Joseph Taylor and Dr. B. F. Seabury. Six young ladies act as librarians—each in succession: Winnie Hopkins, Julia Cummings, Mary Mayo, Susie Knowles, Emma J. Linnell and Lettie Cole.

      There are no lodges or societies here, but the residents are more or less connected with those of the main village. East Orleans is in fact only a continuation of the same village with the meeting houses quite as near, and the town house contiguous. Joseph Mayo, the undertaker of the town, has his rooms east of the Congregational church in the west bounds of East Orleans.

      In this vicinity is the office of Benjamin C. Sparrow, superintendent of the Second division of the U.S. life saving stations, one of which is on the beach east of the post office.

      This village, scattered over Tonset and Pochet, has attractions for the lover of rural beauty, and the summer visitor here finds the ocean and its grandeur in the midst of a most hospitable people.

      South Orleans embraces the territory formerly a portion of the Indian community Potanumaquut. The purchasers' lands formerly included the territory, and it was part of the old town of Harwich. The east bounds of the Indian territory mentioned extended from Namskaket southeasterly to Kesscayogansett pond—since known as Sparrow's pond. That part of the town south of this line has been designated as South Orleans, but the division line between this and the main village is a little north of the pond. There are yet extant in the soil the mementoes of this unfortunate race, and the residents often find them. John Kenrick and Freeman Sparrow each has a fine collection of arrows, hatchets, pestles and other stone implements found here.

      The surface is quite uneven, with banks sloping toward Pleasant bay and its numerous inlets. The territory was settled as early as 1693 by Edward Kendrick, ancestor of the Kenricks. At that date he bought one hundred acres of John Sipson, sachem, with the

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privilege of cutting wood on any lands owned by said sachem. In 1713 Samuel Mayo and Joshua Hopkins took a deed of a large tract north of the former, and of these tracts the descendants, not only hold the original deeds, but some branches of the respective families reside on parts of the same land. Its settlement was subsequent to other portions of the old towns of Harwich and Eastham, for the Indians reserved it till the last sold.

      Salt was manufactured by the evaporation of sea water soon after the business had been commenced elsewhere. Thomas and Joseph Arey, Nathaniel and Thomas Gould, Asa and Adna Rogers, Thomas Mayo, John Kenrick, Henry Kendrick, Thomas Eldridge, Eliakim and Thomas Higgins were among the several who had plants around the ponds and coves of that territory. The oldest tavern here was opened about 1800, and was continued many years by Thomas Linnell, who catered to the taste of the public. There are none now.

      The village needed a post office, and in 1829 the inhabitants asked the assistance of the selectmen in establishing one, which was opened in 1835, with Seth Sparrow, 3d, as postmaster. After his death his son, Seth Everett Sparrow, was appointed, July 17, 1862, and held the office a few years; and September 9, 1865, John Kenrick, the present incumbent, was appointed, who, like the former officials, has the office in a store.

      There were early stores here, one of which was owned by Dea. Judah Rogers, south of where John Kenrick resides. Asa Higgins had one in 1820 and prior near the pond, north of the present post office, where Fred Percival resides. Elisha Hopkins started a store soon after 1800, and prior to 1830 he sold to Seth Sparrow, 3d—where the first post office was kept. He was succeeded by Seth E. Sparrow, who sold to John Kenrick in 1865. Mr. Kenrick erected a store in 1840 across the road, and after about ten years sold to Seth Sparrow, 3d, who combined the business, moving the building to the site now occupied by Warren Sparrow as a residence. When Mr. Kenrick purchased, he removed the building to its present site, and, adding to it, has made his present commodious place of business. Mr. Ryder had an old store here early in this century; and, later, about 1830, Israel Linnell had one south of the present post office. These were discontinued prior to 1840.

      Agricultural pursuits are mostly followed by its inhabitants. It is a chosen spot for summer resorts, and is destined to become important. The sloping banks of Pleasant bay, in which, and in its tributaries and coves, the best of fishing abounds, the wooded knolls and healthful breezes render the territory a conspicuous site for pleasure seekers. The land about Weesquamscutt and Namequoit points to

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the extent of three hundred acres has already been purchased for cottages by Boston gentlemen, and on Namequoit point John Kenrick and his son have a large tract upon which cottage building has commenced. The high lands of South Orleans have been planted with growing trees of different varieties, but mostly pine and larch, which add to its beauty. Hundreds of acres have been thus utilized by the residents, John Kenrick having planted over one hundred acres for his portion of the task. This hamlet is on the direct road to Chatham and Harwich, and has many attractions for the tourist.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

      James H. Arey, son of Joseph and Dorathea (Eldridge) Arey, and grandson of Thomas Arey, was born in 1815. He was for twenty-five years master of a vessel in the fruit trade. He retired from the sea some years ago, and for the last seventeen years he has owned and run a grist mill at Orleans. He was three years selectman, has been a member of the school committee since 1880, and has held other town offices. He married Tempy, daughter of Joseph Atkins. She died, leaving six children: Benjamin L., Rebecca, James O. (deceased), Jane, Austin and Sarah E. His second wife was Mrs. Susan Wade, daughter of Lewis Phillips.

      Josiah L. Cole, son of Ephraim and Mehitabel (Linnell) Cole, was born in 1834. From 1846 until 1873 he followed the sea, after which he was on the Orleans United States life saving station fourteen winters. He married Celistia M., daughter of Joseph and Sally (Ward) Weekes, of Harwich, she being the ninth generation from George Weekes, the pioneer. They have four children: Idella W., Everett A., Mabel D. and Lettice.

      Winthrop M. Crosby, born in 1840, is a son of Joshua, grandson of Joshua, and great-grandson of Joshua Crosby. He has been a marble and granite worker at Orleans since 1860. He has been a member of the board of selectmen since 1882. He married Etta F., daughter of Jabez C. Ryder. They have one son, Orville W.

      Joseph H. Cummings, born in 1840, is a son of Joseph and Hannah H. (Knowles) Cummings, and grandson of Daniel and Lydia (Sparrow) Cummings. Mr. Cummings has been a merchant at Orleans since 1861. He married Helen C. Linnell, and has six children: Ebenezer L., Henry K., Francis C., Helen J., Mary C. and George.

      Beriah Doane, son of Beriah and Elizabeth (Cole) Doane, and grandson of Timothy Doane, was born in 1829. He is a farmer, and owns and occupies the homestead of his father. He married Ruth E., daughter of Joseph K. and Betsey (Sears) Mayo, and has one son. Beriah W.

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      HON. JOHN DOANE.—This lawyer, mentioned at page 210, died in Orleans March 23, 1881. He was the sixth child of Timothy and Jedidah (Higgins) Doane. He was not in the habit of pleading his cases in court, but when there was occasion secured the services of Nymphas Marston or some other person. He was especially known and consulted as a conveyancer and counsellor. He was noted for his good judgment, honesty and an earnest desire for the welfare of the community. He was familiarly known all over the Cape as "Squire Doane," and was universally respected and loved. He was a friend to young men, helping them to obtain an education, his own opportunities in that direction having been limited. He was an academy builder, being deeply interested in general education and having eight children of his own to educate. He was one of the earliest, if not the very first, to engage in arboriculture in the country, and planted many acres of old lands to pines and oaks.

      November 23, 1820, he was married to Polly, daughter of Barnabas and Zipporah Eldridge. She was born July 28, 1796, and died January 3, 1875. They had eight children: Thomas, born September 20, 1821, a civil engineer, prominently identified with the work on the Hoosac Tunnel, and now living in Charlestown. His first wife, married November 5, 1850, was Sophia Dennison Clark. She died December 5, 1868, and he was married to Louisa A. Barber November 19, 1870. Caroline, born August 14, 1823, married Captain A. H. Knowles April 4, 1849, and died December 30, 1882; John, jr., born April 28, 1825, married Almira C. Starkweather January 1, 1853, died August 25, 1873; Martha, born September 13, 1827; Mary, born August 17, 1829, married Captain Seth Doane, who died February 16, 1877; Lucy, born September 13, 1831, died November 22, 1849; Henry, born January 22, 1834, a law graduate of Harvard, served one year as captain in the war of the rebellion, and died September 2, 1865, of disease contracted in the service; and Charles Watson Doane, born July 9, 1840, married Mary Appleton Doane June 13, 1877, living in Crete, Neb.

      Hon. John Doane was a descendant in the sixth generation from Dea. John of Plymouth, who settled in Eastham in 1644. It is believed that the ancestors of the family were Northmen and went over from Normandy to England with William the Conqueror. The Doane crest is made up of five arrows, indicating that they might have been the king's foresters; and their motto is "Omnia mihi dona Dei"— "All my gifts are from God." Dea. John Doane was assistant to Governor Thomas Prence in 1633.  Hon. John Doane, a few years before his death, set up a granite post by the side of the cellar hole of the house in which Dea. John Doane once lived, with the inscription, "John Doane here in 1644." He also found stone posts with the

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initials I D and a large rock on the Nauset beach with the same initials, marking the boundaries of Dea. John's estate. John Doane, jr., a son of Dea. John, by wife Abigail, was born about 1634, and married Hannah Bangs. Their son, Samuel, born March 2, 1673, married Martha Hamblen December 30, 1696. Dea. Simeon Doane, son of Samuel and Martha, was born in 1708 and married Apphia Higgins in 1730. Their son, (Deacon) John, born about 1739, married Betty Snow about 1761, and their son, Timothy, born May 13, 1762, was the father of the subject of this sketch. Timothy Doane married Jedidah Higgins March 7, 1781. They had twelve children, one of whom died in infancy. Timothy Doane died January 19, 1822, and his wife died March 4, 1847.

      OLIVER DOANE.—A prominent figure in the early history of this part of Cape Cod was John Doane, of Eastham, who settled there in 1644. He bore the title of deacon, that insignia of Puritan importance, and is known in history by this title; and has been referred to in Pratt's History of Eastham as dying in that town at the advanced age of 106 years. He and Governor Prince were the only ones of the seven first settlers of Nauset whom the records dignify with the title of Mr. He came to New England early, but not in the ship Fortune, as Rev. Pratt stated, neither did he come in either of the first three vessels. The tradition also regarding his remarkable age has been widely copied, and very generally accepted as true. The fact is, he died February 21, 1686. His will was made May 18, 1678, in which he declared his age as "88 or thereabouts." This will was admitted to probate June 2, 1686.

      The male line of descent from the deacon to the subject of this sketch, inclusive, is John, John, Samuel, Deacon Simeon, John, Timothy, Lewis and Oliver. Timothy, the grandfather of Oliver, was born in 1762, and in Orleans reared eleven children: Beriah, Lewis, Timothy, John, Isaac, Nancy, Abigail, Hetty, Betsey, Sally and Melinda. These became heads of families, and, excepting Melinda, died in Orleans.

      Lewis Doane was born September 24, 1787, on the site now occupied by his son, Oliver, the old home having been removed and the present one built early in the present century. He owned and was interested in many thousand feet of salt works along the farm shore. He married Tamzen, daughter of Dea. Abner Freeman, on the 19th of March, 1812. Their eight children were: Captain Truman, born December 28, 1812; Lewis, jr., born February 28, 1815; Freeman, December 23, 1816, who died young; Freeman, April 7, 1819; Julia A., September 1, 1821; Tamzen, May 10, 1825; Benjamin, July 3, 1827; and Oliver, born December 10, 1831.

      Truman, the eldest of these, adopted a sea-faring life, and arose to

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prominence as a master. On his retirement from sea, during the years he remained in the town, he served two terms in the legislature and several years as selectman. Soon after the close of the rebellion he removed to Florida, purchased a cotton plantation, and there died in 1881, leaving six children: Captain Alfred, Adelia, Victoria. Thankful, Leander and Tamzen.

      Lewis, jr., the second son, was a merchant and farmer of note, who subsequently removed to Florida; but returned to Marblehead, where he died, leaving a son—Elisha C. Doane.

Oliver Doane      Freeman was a merchant in Orleans, filling the office of representative two terms, and that of selectman for fourteen years, acting as chairman the greater part of the time, and which office he held at his death. He died at Orleans, leaving two daughters—Olive and Ella— and Alliston, a son.

      Julia A. married Leander Crosby, of Orleans, on the ninth of May, 1844, and has since resided in the town. Mr. Crosby served in the general court as representative, and was a delegate to the convention for the revision of the constitution. He died March 1, 3872, leaving a daughter—Mary Celia Crosby.

      Tamzen married Clarington Mayo, of Victor, N.Y.,—a former resident of the Cape— on the 17th of January, 1871, and was left a widow March 6, 1873. She subsequently removed to Orleans, and now resides with her sister, Mrs. Crosby.

      Benjamin died when a young man, and unmarried.

      Oliver, the youngest of the children, was educated at Orleans and Harwich, remaining with his father on the homestead. He was married March 11, 1873, to Sarah C. Harding, daughter of Prince S., and granddaughter of Ephraim, who was direct in the line from Joseph, who came from Eastham in 1644 with Dea. John Doane, his uncle.

      Mr. Doane still occupies the ancestral estate in that quiet, social manner peculiar to him, unmolested by the cares of office or business beyond that of his farm and dairy, of which he has made a success. The emoluments of office have no charm for him, and knowing there are others equally as capable, as well as willing, to administer the affairs of the town, he declines. In his political preferences he firmly supports the cause of the republican party, and to the Methodist Episcopal church he renders material aid. In his meridian, surrounded by the refinements of the present day, and in the companionship of an excellent wife, this worthy representative of that ancient family is passing the afternoon of his life in that home  so dear.

Doane homestead

"The Doane Homestead."
Residence of Oliver Doane.
East Orleans, Mass.

      Gilbert A. Dodge, of Orleans, Mass., was born in Farmington, Me., in 1839. His father was William, son of Benjamin Dodge. Gilbert A. was in the late war nine months with Company I., Third Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, and since his discharge from the service

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his occupation has been railroad repairs and constructions. He has lived in Orleans since 1865, was married in 1866, to Sarah W. Gould and has one daughter, Carrie Gould Dodge. His wife was a daughter of Captain Nathaniel Gould, who was lost at sea in 1856 on a foreign voyage. He was one of the ablest men of the town. His wife was Hannah K. Crosby, by whom he had five children—two sons and three daughters. Joshua was a veteran in the late war in Company F., Twenty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, from 1862 to the time of his death, which occurred April 4, 1864, at United States General Hospital, New York. Captain Nathaniel followed the sea and was master of the ships Agener Conqueror for years, and is now a resident of Petaluma, Cal., where he is general manager and owner of a steamboat line from Petaluma to San Francisco. Nancy B. is married to Cyrus J. Littlefield of Natick, where they now reside, and Theresa M. to Eldonis A. Hopkins of East Orleans.

      Richard S. Freeman, son of James and Mercy (Sparrow) Freeman, and grandson of John Freeman, was born in 1831. He began going to sea at the age of fourteen, continuing until 1872, having been in command of a fishing vessel about twelve years, and is now a farmer. He is a member of the Congregational church. He married Olive G., daughter of Sylvanus and Olive (Linnell) Snow. Their children are: Albert A., Julietta W. and Olive M.

      Nehemiah S. Harding, son of Henry and Almira (Smith) Harding, and grandson of Ephraim Harding, was born in 1842, and has followed the sea since 1857. He married Ellen A., daughter of Clarington and Effie (Rogers) Smith, and granddaughter of Asa Smith. Mrs. Harding is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church.

      Benjamin Higgins, son of Benjamin and Tamesin (Rogers) Higgins, grandson of Moses Higgins, and great-grandson of Elnathan Higgins, was born in 1827, and has worked at the shoemaker's trade since 1847. He married Azubah S., daughter of Dean S. Nickerson.

      Eli S. Higgins, son of Judah and Betsey (Small) Higgins, and grandson of Samuel Higgins, was born in 1824. He is a farmer and engaged in shipping clams to Boston. He was several years a member of the school committee. He married Laura A. Nickerson, who died, as did also her only son. He married for his second wife, Mehitabel, daughter of Adnah Rogers. She died, leaving four children: Enos O. (deceased), Charles E., Josiah F. and Laura M.

      Freeman Higgins, 2d, only surviving child of Eliakim and Rebecca F. (Kingman) Higgins, grandson of Eliakim, and great-grandson of Eliakim Higgins, was born in 1832. He was a carriage maker and cabinet maker from 1851 until 1885, and since that time he has been a farmer, owning and occupying the homestead of his father, grandfather and great-grandfather. He married Bathiah B. Warren, who died leaving one daughter, Alice H.

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      Joseph L. Higgins is a son of Jabez and Alice (Linnell) Higgins, and grandson of Moses Higgins. He married Eliza D., daughter of David and Polly (Doane) Snow, and granddaughter of Stephen Snow. Their only child, Washington S., was born in 1844. He followed the fishing business for twenty years, and for the last six years has been a farmer.

      Lot Higgins, born in 1809, is a son of Lot and Mercy (Sparrow) Higgins, and grandson of Lot Higgins. He began going to sea at the age of eleven years, attained to master of a fisherman at the age of twenty-one, continuing at sea until 1854. After being a grain merchant for eight years he began keeping a general store at East Orleans, where he has also been postmaster since 1862. He was representative to the legislature in 1872 and 1873. He married Sevillie, daughter of Isaac Snow. They have two children living—Mercy and Sparrow; three having died—Lot S., and two in infancy.

      Thomas W. Higgins, son of Thomas and Susan (Snow) Higgins, and grandson of Thomas Higgins, was born in 1842. At the age of fourteen he began going to sea, and since 1870 has been master of coasting vessels. He is a member of the Orleans Congregational church. He married Deborah C., daughter of Samuel and Deborah (Snow) Sparrow, and grand-daughter of Samuel Sparrow. They had one daughter, Ellen J., who died at the age of twelve years.

      Francis Hopkins, son of Davis and Thankful (Myrick) Hopkins, grandson of Elkanah; and great-grandson of Joshua Hopkins, was born in 1834. He followed the sea in early life, and has been superintendent of government works in Boston harbor since 1871. He married Abigail9, daughter of Joshua8 and Dorinda (Cole) Sparrow, granddaughter of Joshua7, (Richard6, Isaac5, Richard4, Richard3, Jonathan2, Richard Sparrow1). They have two sons—Francis W. and Charles W.

      Warren H. Hopkins, son of Edward and Mary A. (Doane) Hopkins, and grandson of Moses Hopkins, was born in 1845, in Brewster, and came to Orleans in 1868, where he has carried on a wagon, paint, and blacksmith shop since that time. He married Hannah R., daughter of Joshua Nickerson. Their children are: Abel I., Mary M. and Warren M.

      Davis Hurd, son of Zenas and Salome (Higgins) Hurd, and grandson of Joseph Hurd, was born in 1815. He was a sea captain from 1836 to 1842, and from that time until his death in 1881 he kept a variety store and livery stable at Orleans. He married Rebecca, daughter of Thomas, and granddaughter of Joshua Gould. Their children are: Emma F., D. A. and Flora E.

      Edward S. Hurd, son of Luther and Olive (Linnell) Hurd, was born in 1827. He followed the sea from 1836 until 1868, when he went to

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Tiverton, R. I., where he was engaged in the oil business for eighteen years. He married Paulina, daughter of Sears Rogers. Their two children are: Paulina S. and Edward E.

Alfred Kenrick      ALFRED KENRICK.—By the earliest records of Boston it is found that four brothers, ancestors of the Kenricks in America, came in 1633 from York, England, to this continent. John, the eldest, settled at Roxbury, Mass., afterward removing to Newton, where have been reared many notable descendants; another settled in New Hampshire, from whom descended divines and literary men well known in northern New England and the Middle states; another went south, from whom the Kenricks, of Georgia, and other southern states descended; and Edward, the youngest, came to Cape Cod about 1640, settling on the spot a little west of where Luther Hurd lived, removing later to the old Kenrick place in South Orleans, then a portion of Harwich. He was a wealthy trader and on this homestead, which was once occupied by the subject of this sketch, and still is in part. by other descendants, he reared three sons: Thomas, Solomon and Jonathan. Of these, Thomas and Solomon settled in Harwich, but the latter subsequently sold to Thomas and moved to Nova Scotia. The Kenricks of Harwich are descendants of Thomas. Of Solomon's two sons—John and Solomon—the elder attained an enviable position in the command of a privateer during the revolutionary war, and was the first American who circumnavigated the globe. He discovered the Columbia river, which he named from his ship, the Columbia, of which he was master.

      Jonathan, the youngest son of Edward, was educated at Cambridge, and became an eminent physician. He married Tabitha Eldridge, of Chatham, and died at the age of thirty-six, leaving three sons: Samuel, Warren A. and Jonathan, whose mother subsequently married Theophilus Hopkins. Samuel, the eldest son of Doctor Jonathan, studied medicine with Doctor Breed and became eminent in the practice in Orleans. He had three sons and three daughters. Jonathan, the eldest of the sons of Doctor Samuel, married Betsey Rogers of Harwich, and of their twelve children eleven lived to an adult age, settling in various sections, with various occupations.

      Alfred Kenrick, the eighth of these, was born at Orleans May 30, 1800. His own record of his school days is the best: "I remember that at the age of six I was sent to a private school kept in a little porch connected with the house of Dea. Judah Rogers where I was taught by a maiden lady—the deacon's daughter. The seats were constructed of unplaned boards resting on blocks of wood. The length of the term depended on the amount of money subscribed, and although the teacher's wages only averaged eighty cents per week, the term seldom exceeded ten or twelve weeks. About two years

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later I attended the public school, having its winter term taught by a male teacher—a term usually of ten weeks. Then followed the embargo act with its effect to cut off all trade; then the war of 1812, which filled up the measure of depression, then I decided to work in Almey, Brown & Slater's cotton factory, in Smithfield, R. I., where I continued until the peace. In the spring of 1815, I went to Providence and shipped on board the schooner Joseph, as one of her crew, commencing my occupation of a seafaring life."

      He sailed in eight vessels as a common sailor, in three as second officer and in six brigs and ships as first officer, attaining the command of the new ship Courser when he was twenty-seven years old, after which he was in command of and owner in ten other vessels: Eugene, Margaret, Bramin, Brookline, Boston, Tenedos, Plymouth, Norman, Stamboul and Osmanli. In the last named vessel he circumnavigated the globe, passing Cape of Good Hope to Melbourne, thence to Callao, around Cape Horn to New Orleans and to Boston, where he arrived June 18, 1854. He had then crossed the Atlantic 108 times, besides his many voyages to the West Indies, Brazil and other parts of South America, and to the Cape Verde, Madeira, Azores and Western islands. As boy and man the captain must have traversed more miles of ocean, within about two score years, than usually falls to the lot of an individual. He then turned agriculturist, which he continued through the remainder of his active life.

      He was early commissioned a justice of the peace, which office he held many years, but in 1862, when he received his last commission from Governor Andrews, he was informed that the law had been made that before the person could swear in he must pay five dollars into the state treasury, whereupon he tore the commission into fragments, as he "never bought or paid for office." He was selectman several years and chairman of the board; was many years on the school board, but when acting with a large committee to hire teachers he found each member had a niece, aunt, daughter or sister who must teach, then he resigned. In 1856 he was elected senator, which office he satisfactorily filled one term. He never sought office, and so tenacious was he of what he thought right that unless he was allowed to act up to his own convictions a resignation followed. When he was appointed deputy sheriff, under David Bursley, he soon found that serving writs of attachment upon the property of poor people did not just accord with his feelings, and he resigned. He has acted upon committees for building school houses, churches and other public buildings, the last being the Snow library building in 1877.

      The captain was married January 4, 1825, to Almina, daughter of David Taylor, and of their seven children those who lived to manhood and womanhood are noticed in the four following paragraphs.

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      Alfred Kenrick, jr., born in October, 1825, married Sarah B. Gleason. He built up a very large business in Brookline, Mass., where he died in 1885, leaving his business to his two sons: Alfred E. and Moses F. He was much respected in that city, and his loss was deeply deplored. He also left another son, George R , and a daughter, Mary E.

      David T. was born in 1830, and married Amanda Gibbs. They have one son, David A., who has a wife and two children, all living in Brookline.

      Mary T., born in 1841, married George H. Moss, and died in 1871. She left two children: Fred H. and Mary A. Moss.

      Eliza F., born in 1844, married Asa Smith of Orleans, who is a ship captain now residing in Boston.

      Captain Kenrick's first wife died January 11, 1879, and in February of the following year he married Mrs. Adaline B. Walker, who died November 27, 1889, leaving two daughters of her first marriage, who kindly care for Captain Kenrick at his home.

      In giving this brief history of this worthy old gentleman it is plain to see that the full details of his voyages arid even an epitome of his many noble acts would fill a volume. He has stood firm and upright in the religious, civil and private relations of life, and at the age of ninety is as firm and consistent as ever. He has always acted in politics with the democratic party, and was among the first to put pen to paper in 1825 for the call of a meeting to organize the Universalist society of Orleans, which fact indicates his religious views. Where he was then in his views he is today. Hume, in his history of England, speaks of the Kenricks in the sixth century, and like his ancestor, Alfred of England, no circumstances could deflect Captain Alfred of the present time from a straightforward and upright course.

      John Kenrick.—The ancestry of this citizen of South Orleans is along the line to the Saxon Edward Kenrick, mentioned in the biography of Captain Alfred Kenrick. The Jonathan who settled at South Orleans married Hannah Cole and reared, among others, a son John, born May 18, 1781, who married Rebecca Sparrow on the seventh of December, 1804. He was a prominent man, filling various town trusts, representing his town in the legislature, and was instrumental in saving his town from the heavy exactions of the British cruisers of 1812. This John reared three children—Sophia, who married Elisha Cobb: [Rebecca], who married M. F. Anderson, and John, the postmaster and merchant of South Orleans, who resides on the ancestral estate, where he was born August 19, 1819. In early life he taught school, and for forty years has constantly filled offices in his town. He was sent to the legislature in 1852 and 1853 by the unanimous vote of his townsmen. In commissions for the preservation of harbors and forests he has been prominent, filling with honor more

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places of trust than usually are credited to his townsmen. He married Thankful Crosby July 30, 1843, and their deceased children are Sophia, Emma, Eva and Alice T.; the surviving ones being Clara, Rebecca and John Kenrick, jr., the latter assisting his father in his business affairs.

Seth Kingman      CAPTAIN SETH K. KINGMAN, whose engraved likeness is presented on the opposite page, is a retired shipmaster, and a highly respected citizen of Orleans, in which town he was born March 9, 1822. He commenced his seafaring life at the age of ten years on board of a fishing vessel, like most of the boys of that period, and for ten successive years made a trip to the Grand Bank. Disliking this branch of seafaring business, at the age of twenty years he entered the merchant service "before the mast." It was not long, however, before he became a chief officer, visiting the principal seaports of the world. In 1851, while first officer of the barque Stamboul, of which his brother, Simeon, was master, the first cargo of ice from Boston to Egypt was delivered at Alexandria, it having been purchased by the government. In 1856, after having made two voyages in the barque Kate Hastings, in the employ of H. Hastings & Co., in the India trade, as chief officer, he was given the command, and went to the west coast of South America, and upon returning to Boston the vessel was chartered by the government to carry stores to Hong Kong. From Hong Kong he took a cargo for Shanghai, and from that place, with a cargo of tea, he returned to New York in 1858.

      Again sailing for Shanghai, he remained on the coast of China and in the China sea, visiting all the open ports of China, Japan and the island of Formosa, until the year 1863, when, selling his vessel at Singapore, he returned to Boston, took command of the barque Nonantum, and with a cargo of eighteen hundred tons of coal sailed for San Francisco. The coal was sold there for sixty-five dollars per ton to the steamship line between New York and San Francisco, via Nicaragua, and was delivered at San Juan Del Sur. Sailing for Chinca islands, he took a cargo for Rotterdam. After several voyages to different seaports in Europe and Asia, he returned to New York. When the new ship Cashmere was ready for sea, in 1868, he took command, and again engaged in the India and China trade until 1873, when he retired from seafaring life, and returned to his native town, where he now resides, enjoying the pleasures of a quiet and pleasant home, after so many years of an active life upon the sea. Of his forty years of sea life—thirty of them in the merchant service—visiting all parts of the world, he has never been wrecked, never lost a mast, or sustained serious injury, which, indeed, is remarkable.

      Captain Kingman is a descendant, in the eighth generation, of Henry Kingman, who came to this country from Wales and settled in

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Weymouth in 1632. Simeon Kingman, Esquire, grandfather of Captain Kingman, and the first of the name who settled on the Cape, was the eldest son of Matthew Kingman, and was born in that part of old Bridgewater, now Brockton, May 27, 1756. He married Rebecca, daughter of Major Gideon Freeman, of Eastham, October 15, 1778, and after a few years' residence in his native town, he removed to Plymouth and engaged in mercantile business. From this place, about 1788, he removed to that part of Eastham now Orleans, took up his residence, engaging in farming and business of a public character. Being a man of more than ordinary abilities, energetic and public spirited, he soon became a leading man of the place. He was the leading magistrate from 1794 a great number of years; postmaster for many years before 1811; adjutant of the Second regiment of Massachusetts militia for many years before 1820; representative from Eastham in 1796 and 1797, and also from Orleans, after its separation from Eastham, in 1798, 1799, 1810 and in 1811. He died at Orleans January 28, 1828. His wife, Rebecca, died in 1822. He was the eldest brother of Hon. Abel Kingman and Eliphalet Kingman, Esq., leading men in North Bridgewater, now Brockton, half a century ago. The children of Simeon Kingman and wife, Rebecca, were: Rebecca, born in Bridgewater March 24, 1780, died August 10, 1786; Freeman, born in Bridgewater September 4, 1781, drowned January 14, 1793; Polly, born in Plymouth, August 14, 1783, married Rev. Martin Alden, of Yarmouth, October 29, 1810; Patty, born in Bridgewater. January 1, 1786, married Dr. Oliver Ford September 23, 1809; Matthew, born in Eastham July 22, 1789, married Mercy Kenrick November 30, 1808, died October 20, 1848; Rebecca, born in Eastham October 11, 1791, died October 13, 1791.

      Matthew Kingman, son of Simeon Kingman, Esq., and father of Captain Kingman, was a prominent citizen of Orleans. He was selectman, coroner and postmaster, and was holding the latter office at the time of his death, which occurred very suddenly, while from home on the morning of October 20, 1848. He was a member of the Universalist church, and a man of high moral character. He married Mercy, daughter of Captain Jonathan and Betsey Kenrick, and granddaughter of Dr. Samuel Kenrick, November 30, 1808. She died September 17, 1857, aged sixty-five. Their children were: Rebecca F., born October 10, 1809; married Eliakim Higgins of Orleans; Betsey K., born February 2, 1812, married Josiah Y. Paine of Harwich; Freeman, born May 26, 1814, married Elvira Corcoran, and died August 10, 1882; Overy, born March 28, 1816, and died in infancy; Simeon, born December 22, 1817, married Patia Knowles, and died at sea while in command of barque Rebecca Goddard, November 15, 1860; Alfred, born February 24, 1820, died in infancy; Seth K., born March 9, 1822; Isabel

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M., born July 31, 1825, married Fred Percival. died January 14, 1874; Alonzo H., born December 18, 1827, married Sarah T. Mayo, died at sea while in command of the barque Great Surgeon, March 22, 1880; Eliza M., born January 18, 1831, married N. C. Young: Matthew, born October 29, 1834, died February 13, 1858.

      Ezra Knowles, only surviving son of Ezra and Elizabeth S. (Rogers) Knowles, and grandson of David Knowles, was born in 1836, and has been a carpenter since 1855. He owns and occupies his father's homestead. He has been fifteen years a member of the official board of the Orleans Methodist Episcopal church. His first marriage was with Eunice S. Gould. He married for his second wife Thankful,. daughter of James Lincoln. They have two children living—Lizzie M. and Clarence E. They lost one son—Arthur I.

      Theodore L. Knowles, son of Paul and Susan (Thomas) Knowles. and grandson of Isaiah Knowles, was born in Truro in 1833, and moved to Boston with his parents in 1841. In 1849 he entered a shoe firm as salesman, and in 1858, he began shoe manufacturing, which he continued until 1869, when he came to Orleans, where he has been engaged in agricultural pursuits since that time. He married Harriet C., daughter of Joel Snow. She died leaving six children: Nellie T., Albert L., Ruth M., Hattie, Susie G. and Fred.

      Dean S. Linnell, son of Dean G. and Mehitabel F. (Rogers) Linnell, grandson of Elkanah, and great-grandson of Elkanah Linnell, was born in 1846. From 1862 until 1887 he was at sea engaged in the oyster and fishing trade, being captain eighteen years. He has four brothers and sisters living: Albert, Abbie, Ida and Orissa. He married Emogene, daughter of Sidney Eldridge. Dean G. Linnell has a silver medal which was awarded him by the Massachusetts Humane Society, for services which he rendered to the wrecked ship Orissa, on the Orleans shore in 1857. Mr. Linnell's father was twice married. His first wife was Deborah Linnell, who had one child—Francis Linnell.

      Edmund Linnell, son of Edmund and grandson of Edmund Linnell, was born in 1833. He was a master mariner for about twelve years prior to 1870, and since that time he has been a farmer. He married Bethiah B., daughter of Harvey and Betsey (Snow) Sparrow, granddaughter of Josiah Sparrow.

      David Snow, son of David, and grandson of Stephen Snow, was born in 1822. He was a master mariner from 1845 until he retired. from the sea in 1885. He married Betsey S., daughter of Harvey Sparrow. She died, leaving two children: Heman R. and David A. His second marriage was with Sarah L. Smith.

      Isaiah Linnell, born in 1813, is a son of Solomon and Polly (Harding) Linnell, and grandson of Josiah Linnell. He followed the sea

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from 1822 until 1867, and since that time has been engaged at carpenter work. He married Pattie, daughter of John and Joanna (Higgins) Gould. They have four children: Adelaide, Eunice, Maria and Isaiah, jr. They lost six children.

      Benjamin Mayo, son of Samuel and Delilah (Rogers) Mayo, grandson of Theophilus, and great-grandson of Theophilus Mayo, was born in 1837. He was fourteen years engaged in the fishing business, and since 1866 has been a farmer. He married Lucy B., daughter of Franklin Smith. She died leaving two children—Mary J. and Walter H. His second marriage was with Mrs. Paulina S. Sparrow, a daughter of Dean S. Sparrow. She had one daughter by her former marriage—Mary O. Sparrow.

      Freeman Mayo, born in 1812, is the youngest child of Theophilus and Ruth (Freeman) Mayo. He was town clerk and treasurer from 1864 until 1889, constable and collector for sixteen years prior to 1889, and has held several minor town offices. He married Hannah, daughter of Richard Higgins. They have one adopted daughter, Mary I.

      Joseph K. Mayo8, born in 1828, is a son of Joseph K.7 and Betsey (Sears) Mayo, grandson of Uriah6 (Thomas5, Samuel4, John3, John2 Rev. John Mayo1). Mr. Mayo is a farmer, owning and occupying the homestead of his father and grandfather. He married Susan M., daughter of James L. and Sukey (Crosby) Sparrow, and a sister of Benjamin C. Sparrow.

      Samuel Mayo, oldest son of Samuel and Delilah (Rogers) Mayo, and grandson of Theophilus Mayo, was born in 1830. He followed the sea from 1845 until 1872, and since that time has been a farmer. He has been member of the board of selectmen since 1887. He married Mrs. Phebe S. Walker, daughter of Thomas L. Mayo, granddaughter of Heman Mayo, and great-granddaughter of Jonathan Mayo. They have two children: George A. and Louisa R. Mrs. Mayo had two sons by her former marriage: Arthur E. and Elbridge M. Walker.

      Alexander T. Newcomb, born in 1842, is a son of Thomas S. and Julia (Snow) Newcomb. He has been a merchant at Orleans since 1860. He has been a member of the board of selectmen since 1878, and is a director in the Barnstable County Mutual Insurance Company. He married Esther G., daughter of Freeman Sherman.

      Asa S. Nickerson, son of Josiah and Eunice (Smith) Nickerson, and grandson of Joshua Nickerson, was born in 1828. He followed the sea in the coasting and fishing business from 1838 until 1882, as master eleven years. He married Laura A. Gould, who died leaving one daughter, Lettie H. (Mrs. S. L. Eldridge). He married for his second wife Mrs. Jane S. Gould, daughter of Harvey Sparrow. She had one son by her former marriage—Josiah O. Gould.

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      James W. Percival is a son of James, and grandson of James Percival. He married Chloe, daughter of Joseph C. and Harriet (Snow) Mayo. They had four children: Mary C., Joseph W., Henry M. and Hattie S.

      Marcus M. Pierce, son of Joseph and Sarah (Bassett) Pierce, was born in Chatham, in 1840. He was master mariner from 1861 to 1870. He was keeper of the Nauset United States Life Saving station for six years, and since 1880 has been keeper of the Orleans station. He is a member of the Masonic order. He married Mercy O., daughter of Willis Snow. They have one daughter—Sadie W., and lost one—Ina M.

    Eleazer Rogers, son of Eleazer and Elizabeth Rogers, and grandson of Hezekiah Rogers, was born in 1815. He followed the sea from 1829 until 1878, thirty years of the time as commander of a fisherman. He is at present engaged in farming and shipping clams and quahaugs to New York and Boston. He married Rebecca, daughter of John Walker, of Harwich. She died leaving three children—Sarah W., Rebecca F. and George W. They lost one daughter, Tamesin J.

      Joseph W. Rogers, born January 20, 1823, is the eldest son of Alvah, grandson of Richard and great-grandson of Gideon Rogers. His mother was Lucy, daughter of Prince Rogers. Mr. Rogers followed the sea from the age of eleven until 1865, and was for twelve years engaged in the provision business. He was representative in the legislature in 1888, was several years selectman, also a member of the school committee, and is now deputy sheriff. He married Temperance, daughter of Joseph L. Rogers. They have had nine children; three of whom are living—Howard W., Joseph L. and Earnest W.

      Carmi H. Shattuck, son of Abel and Abigail (Nickerson) Shattuck, grandson of Luke M. and great-grandson of Abel Shattuck, was born in 1852. He has kept a livery stable in Orleans since 1870. He married Emily S., daughter of Nathaniel and Barbara Rogers. Mr. Shattuck's father was a blacksmith by trade, and kept a hotel in Orleans from 1862 until his death in 1886. He built the Shattuck House.

      Eldridge F. Small, only surviving child of John and Charlotte Small, grandson of John, great-grandson of William, and great-great-grandson of Benjamin Small, was born in 1842. He began going to sea at the age of twelve years, was in the United States navy from February, 1864, to September, 1865, and for the last twelve seasons he has been running a yacht. He is a member of the Frank D. Hammond Post, G. A. R. He married Abigail, daughter of James Smith.

      John M. Smith, son of Lewis and grandson of Lewis Smith, was born in 1846. His mother was Mehitabel, daughter of Myric Smith. He has carried on a restaurant and bakery business in Orleans since 1868. He is a member of the Orleans Methodist Episcopal church,

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and a prohibitionist. He married Paulina S., one of fifteen children of Bangs and Olive (Crosby) Taylor. They have had five children, all of whom died.

      Joshua H. Smith, son of Alvin and Eliza (Gould) Smith, and grandson of Josiah Smith, was born in 1829. He followed the sea from 1840 to 1870, as master twenty years. He married Dorcas, daughter of Nathaniel Freeman. They have one daughter, Ada B. Mr. Smith is a member of the school committee.

      Thomas Smith, son of Sylvanus and Persis (Rogers) Smith, was born in 1839. He was for eighteen years a merchant at Orleans, retiring in 1887. He married Clara A., daughter of Joseph and Hannah (Knowles) Cummings. They have one son—Thomas A.

      Aaron Snow, son of Sylvanus and Olive (Linnell) Snow, and grandson of Aaron Snow, was born in 1825, and followed the sea several years in early life. He carried on a grain, coal and grocery store at the Orleans depot for ten years, and since that time he has run a schooner from here to New York and kept a grain and coal store on the town cove. He built a large residence near his grain store in 1880. He married Mary J. Tutty, and has had six children: Aaron A., William H., George F., Icie J., A. Lizzie and Alice R.

Calvin Snow      CALVIN SNOW.—The subject of this sketch is descended from Nicholas Snow, who came over in the Ann in 1623. Nicholas married Constance, a daughter of Stephen Hopkins, who came over with her father in the Mayflower. Nicholas was one of a company who settled in Eastham in 1644, where he died November 15, 1671. He was a useful and prominent man of the new settlement; was three years deputy to the colony court, seven years selectman and sixteen years town clerk of Eastham. His son, Stephen, married Susanna Doane, and their son, Micajah, born in 1669, married Mary Young. Their son, Jesse, born 1709, married Louis Freeman, and they had a son, Edmund, born in 1752, who married Mary Clark of Brewster. Edmund's son, Jesse, born June 15, 1791, married Patty, daughter of Eliakim and Sarah Higgins. They were married in 1816, and both Jesse and his wife died in 1872. Jesse Snow was for several years captain of the packet running between Orleans and Boston. He had three sons:

      Calvin, Jesse and Reuben H. Jesse was born in 1826 and died in 1888; Reuben H., born in 1827, died in 1862.

      Calvin Snow was born November 12, 1818. He enjoyed the ordinary educational advantages of Cape Cod boys. At the age of fourteen he went to sea in the milder months of the year; this he continued until he was seventeen years old, when he learned the tinplate and hardware trade, and at an early age he established himself in the stove, tin and hardware business on his own account, in which he was reasonably successful. He subsequently became considerably interested

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in shipping and took some part in town affairs, serving for several years as one of the board of selectmen and assessors. The opportunities for business enterprise and success at home being necessarily restricted, Mr. Snow joined the host of pushing New Englanders who have gone to Chicago and developed its wonderful business resources. Settling in that city in December, 1860, he connected himself with the firm of Freeman, Burt & Co., pork packers. The firm name was subsequently changed to Branard, Burt & Co. This firm dissolved, and a new firm was organized under the name of Burt, Hutchinson & Snow. This last firm built one of the first, if not the very first, packing house at the Chicago stock yard. A new firm, with which Mr. Snow was connected, was subsequently formed, under the name of the Chicago Packing and Provision Company.

      After some twelve years of absorbing devotion to business, and being successful to the full extent of his reasonable anticipations, his wife's health becoming impaired, in 1872 he relinquished active connection with business in Chicago and returned to his native town, for which he never faltered in his attachment, and where he has since interested himself in all the movements which tend to promote the social and business interests of the community. His religious sentiments are liberal and progressive, and, without seeking office for himself, he has ever evinced a strong interest in the promotion of the cause of republicanism. Mr. Snow, in 1839, married Matilda, daughter of Elkanah and Sarah Cole of Eastham, who died September 22, 1887. Their children were: Charles H.. born in 1839; Susan W., born in 1841; Alpheus W., born in 1843; Rufus E., born 1844; Edgar, born 1846, died 1849; Edgar, born 1851, and George C., born 1853, died 1854.

      Charles H. Snow was married in 1860 to Patience E., daughter of Phillip N. and Mary Y. Small of Harwichport. Susan W. Snow was married in 1870 to Rollin O., son of Charles W. and Harriet E. Linsley of Ripton, Vt. Mary M., their only child, was born in 1879. Alpheus W. Snow was married in 1886 to Annie E., daughter of John and Mary Linnell of Orleans. Rufus E. Snow married in 1868 Sarah S., daughter of Sullivan and Sarah S. Hopkins of Orleans. Their children are: Edith G., born in 1871, died 1883; Mattie M., born 1873, died 1874; George S., born 1876; Calletta, born 1880, died 1881. Edgar Snow was married in 1875 to Mary W., daughter of William and Mary Higgins of Eastham.

      Elkanah L. Snow, son of Sylvanus and Olive (Linnell) Snow, and grandson of Aaron Snow, was born in 1835. He began going to sea at the age of fifteen, continuing until 1875, with the exception of six years when he was on the Erie canal and four years in the lobster business. Since 1875 he has been a merchant at East Orleans. He

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has been five times grand juror, four years a member of the New York board of underwriters, and is now a member of the Boston board of underwriters. He is keeper of Nauset Humane House, No. 40. He married Julia M., daughter of Thomas S. and Julia (Snow) Newcomb. They have one son—Frank W.—and lost one—Henry H.

      Freeman Snow, youngest son of Captain Edmund and Mary (Eldridge) Snow, and grandson of Edmund Snow, was born in 1828. He followed the sea from 1845 until 1870. He was fourteen years surfman on the Orleans United States life saving station. He is now engaged in farming, and keeping summer boarders. He married Sarah F., daughter of Bangs and Olive (Crosby) Taylor. They have three daughters: Ella E., Sarah E. and Olive A.

      Freeman H. Snow, born in 1823, is the youngest child of Benjamin and Hittie (Freeman) Snow, grandson of Elnathan, and great-grandson of Elnathan Snow. Mr. Snow is a farmer, owning and occupying the homestead of his grandfather, Abner Freeman. He is a member of the Congregational church. He married Annie E., daughter of James L. and Sukey (Crosby) Sparrow. They have one son living —Freeman E.—and one died—Benjamin S.

      Mark C. Snow, only surviving child of Jonathan Snow, (born June 24, 1779), and grandson of Stephen Snow, was born December 26, 1808. His mother, Zerviah Crosby, was born in April, 1780. He was twenty years in the coasting and fishing business prior to 1844, and since that time has been a farmer. He married Mrs. Lizzie Hussy, daughter of Zenas Doane, granddaughter of Zenas Doane, and great-granddaughter of Noah Doane, of Eastham. Her mother was Polly, daughter of Ebenezer Nickerson of East Harwich.

      Willis Snow, born in 1816, was a son of Thomas and Zerviah (Sparrow) Snow, and grandson of Aaron Snow. He followed the sea until 1855, and from that time until his death was auctioneer, wreck commissioner and farmer. He was a member of the Universalist church. He died March 1, 1890. He married Rebecca, daughter of Thomas and Priscilla (Snow) Gould, and had five children: Willis L., James M., Abbott L., Mercy O. (Mrs. Marcus M. Pierce) and Sophia, who married Solomon Taylor, son of James and Phebe Taylor, grandson of John, and great-grandson of John Taylor. They have three children: Marcus B., Florence A. and Harry S. Mr. Taylor followed the sea the most of the time, thirty-eight years prior to 1886. He is now on the Orleans life saving station.

      Dean Sparrow, born in 1821, is a son of Godfrey and Mercy (Higgins) Sparrow, and grandson of Lieutenant Colonel Jabez Sparrow. Since 1853, he has been a traveling salesman in different lines of trade. He married Rosilla, daughter of Joel Snow. Their children are: Julia F., George W., Dean E. (deceased), Rosie S., Joshua S., Hubert E. (deceased), Rebecca E., Eugene C. and Mabel S.

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Joseph Taylor      CAPTAIN JOSEPH TAYLOR, son of Zoheth and Sally (Doane) Taylor, was born in Orleans, October 26, 1821. His grandfather, Benjamin, who married Eunice Arey, was the first town clerk of Orleans after the separation from Eastham, in 1797. (This Benjamin Taylor was born October 26, 1752, and was the fifth child in a family of six. He was town clerk in Eastham four years before Orleans was erected. He was the son of John, born April 17, 1717, who was married to Phoebe Higgins, April, 1742, by Rev. Joseph Crocker. She died January 30, 1755. The primogenitor of this family name was also named John, who was in Old Eastham very early, as the records contain the statement that he was married to Abigail Hopkins, September 3, 1713, and that Mr. Treat, the pioneer preacher of Eastham, performed the ceremony.—Records of Eastham.) His great-grandfather was John, of (then) Eastham. Joseph was educated in the common schools of the town, in Orleans Academy, an institution of high repute in its time, and in Phillips Academy, Andover. Like many other Cape boys, the subject of this sketch had his first introduction to sea life on board a fishing craft, in a summer voyage, at the age of thirteen years. At the age of seventeen he commenced service in the merchant marine, and at twenty-three, and embracing the period from 1844 to 1866, he commanded ships in the domestic, South American, Mediterranean, and India trade. The period covered by Captain Taylor's service at sea embraced, perhaps, the brightest era of the American merchant marine, and called for business capacity of a high order. Before the advent of magnetic telegraphs and ocean cables, the master of a merchant ship was greatly dependent upon his own resources, and was obliged to act in many cases as business agent, supercargo and navigator. Not only skillful seamanship, but superior executive ability were requisite, and it was to the no small credit of any one to succeed in a calling which required such a combination of qualities.

      Since Captain Taylor's retirement from the sea, until quite recently, he has been pecuniarily interested in navigation; and while manifesting an active interest in local concerns, has not sought to engage in a wider field of public effort, for which his intelligence and experience so well fit him to become useful.

      Captain Taylor married Mary D., daughter of Elisha Cole, of Orleans. Their children are: Josephine, Mark C. and Joseph B., who is also in business in Waltham.

      JONATHAN YOUNG, who was born in Orleans June 27, 1808, is the son of Jonathan and Eunice (Hurd) Young, and grandson of Nehemiah. He enjoyed such opportunities of education as were within the reach of the youth of his time, and at the age of sixteen years went to Provincetown, as an apprentice to the shoemaking trade. Before the stipulated term of three years service had expired he bought his time from the proceeds of overwork performed, and came to Orleans to establish himself in business. He opened a store for the manufacture

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Jonathan Youngand sale of boots and shoes, on the corner which he and his son have since occupied, gradually enlarging his business as his means increased. At the age of twenty-three he married Mary F., daughter of Jonathan and granddaughter of Jonathan Rogers, of Orleans, and to her diligent and prudent co-operation Mr. Young freely ascribes a full share of his success in after life. After about fifteen years in the shoe trade exclusively, Mr. Young enlarged his business to that of a general variety store, in which he has met with the success usually attendant upon intelligent and persevering effort, and in which he continued until 1869, when he transferred his business to his son. Since that time he has lived a comparatively retired life.

      Mr. Young's avocations have not permitted of his often accepting public positions, except such as are of a purely business nature. He was, however a captain of the militia company of his town, and received a commission signed by Governor Levi Lincoln, dated July 27, 1831. The experience of the town during the war of 1812-1815 kept the martial spirit alive and active there after it had subsided elsewhere. Mr. Young was clerk and treasurer of the Cape Cod Central Railroad Company, which extended it track from Yarmouth to Orleans in 1865, and was one of eight persons who subscribed to the fund for the equipment and rolling stock of the road. He is a liberal supporter of the Congregational society, and at eighty-two years enjoys the degree of physical vigor which usually attend a good constitution preserved by a life of temperance and frugality.

      The children of Mr. and Mrs. Young are: Henrietta, wife of David M. Hodgdon, of Boston, and David L., of Orleans. They have lost two sons—Amos and Alfred. David L. was born in 1848, and since 1868 has been a merchant in Orleans, and since 1889 has been town clerk. His wife, Ida M., is a daughter of John Brightman. Of their four children, two survive: Robert B. and Edna D.