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History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts

edited by Simeon L. Deyo.

1890. New York: H. W. Blake & Co

Pages 951-1010


By James H. Hopkins

Early Explorations. —The Pilgrims. —Location and Characteristics. —First Settlement. —Incorporation. —Civil History. —Military History. —Town officers. —Fire Department. —Town hall.—Resources of the Town. —Population. —Banks. —Insurance Companies. —Public Library. —Societies. —Churches. —Schools. —Biographical Sketches.

WITHIN the harbor of Provincetown was signed the compact, "perhaps the only instance in human history of that positive, original social compact which speculative philosophers have imagined as the only legitimate source of government," which gives to Provincetown a just claim to be the birthplace of free and equal government in America. At Provincetown was born Peregrine White, the first English child born in New England, and beneath the waters of the harbor rests Dorothy May Bradford, wife of William Bradford, the leader of the Pilgrims. The history of Provincetown, however, does not begin with the arrival of the Mayflower at Cape Cod, but includes the details of the memorable discoveries of the early navigators and explorers who began to visit its shores nearly a hundred years before the landing of the Pilgrims.

    In 1624, John Verrazano, the great French navigator, visited the shores of the New World, and in the famous Verrazano map of 1529, prepared by James Verrazano, tracing the discoveries of John Verrazano, appears for the first time upon any chart of the New World an outline of the coast of the present Cape Cod, sufficiently distinct for identification. These discoveries gave to the European world its first knowledge of the existence across the sea of that wonderful land which the great navigator named Verrazana Sive Nova Gallia. The claim of John Verrazano as the first discoverer of Cape Cod is established by the Verrazano chart, and fifty years ago or more would, perhaps, have been undisputed. The investigations of Henry Wheaton and the lifelong studies of Carl Christian Rafn of Copenhagen, have gone far, however, toward fixing New England as the legendary Vinland of the sagas, and the map of Vinland, published by Rafn in 1564, locates upon the New England coast, the places visited by

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the early Norse navigators and applies to the extremity of Cape Cod the name Kjalarness, while to the shores of the Cape at Chatham is applied the name Furdustrandir.

    That the Norsemen once visited these shores and sailed along the coast is maintained with great force by Carl Christian Rafn and the & eminent historians who have accepted his theories. But a report accepted by the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1887, expresses the belief that there is no more reason for regarding as true the details related about Leif Ericson's discoveries than there is for accepting as historic truth the narratives contained in the Homeric Poems. The shadowy traces of Norse voyages to the New World, as noticed at page 20, however, have not yet deprived Verrazana of the honor of being the first navigator whose voyages along the Sandy cape are authenticated by historic records.

    The transitions in nomenclature that appear upon the charts of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries afford an idea of the history of Cape Cod during the years that intervened between the voyage of Verrazano and the landing of the Pilgrims. Upon a chart of Ribero published in 1529 Cape Cod appears as C. de Arenas or Sandy cape, a name that recurs upon the map of Rotz in 1542; Mercator, 1569; Judeis, 1580; and Quadus, 1600, indicating, perhaps, that the soil of the Cape has not changed materially with the lapse of time. Another Rotz chart of 1542 gives to the Cape the title Arecifes, while a chart of Jean Allefonsce, who visited Massachusetts in 1557, uses the name Francescan cape to designate the Cabo de los Arenas of the earlier maps. Of the details of these voyages, the record of which the early charts alone preserve, nothing is now known. The early navigators, however, uniformly applied the name Cape to that portion of Cape Cod lying northerly of High Head in Truro, and doubtless seldom sailed along the eastern coast of the United States without passing in sight of the headland, the glittering sands of which so early acquired the name of Sandy cape.

    The first discovery of Cape Cod by an Englishman was made by Bartholomew Gosnold, who, with Bartholomew Gilbert, attempted in 1602 a more exact discovery of the whole coast of Virginia. Setting sail from Dartmouth, England, March 26, 1602, in the Concord, Gosnold pursued the route followed by Verrazano, directly across the Atlantic, instead of sailing southward to the Azores, as the former navigators had usually done, and "possible more by the guidance of providence than by any special art of man, on the 14th of May following, made land in the latitude of 43°." Standing to the south Gosnold, on the 15th, as Archer says, found himself " embayed with a mighty headland," like an island, by reason of the large sound that lay between it and the mainland. To the sound he gave the name Shoal Hope.

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    The shore he described as "a low, sandy shore but without dangers in the latitude of 43°." Near the Cape, "within a league of the land, he came to anchor in fifteen fathoms," and named the land Cape Cod from the quantity of codfish caught by his crew. "The shore was bold and the sand very deep."

    Provincetown contains within its limits the first spot in New England ever trod by Englishmen. For many years after the discoveries of Gosnold the term Cape Cod was applied to that part which extends northerly from the mainland of the Cape at Highhead, Truro. In 1603 Martin Pring, an adventurer from Bristol, set sail in the Speedwell, and coasting southerly "bore into great gulf which Captain Gosnold overshot the year before," as his journal says. Pring found, however, "no people on the north thereof " at Provincetown. In 1605 De Mont's, with Samuel Champlain as pilot, visited Cape Cod bay. In 1614 the celebrated John Smith explored the coast from Maine to Cape Cod. The following description, taken from Smith's "New-England," is most interesting: "Cape Cod is the next presents itself, which is only a headland of high hills of sand overgrown with shrubby pines, hurts and such trash, but an excellent harbor for all weathers. The Cape is made by the main sea on the one side and a great bay on the other, in form of a sickle; on it doth inhabit the people of Pawmet; and in the bottom of the Bay the people of Chawrum. Towards the south of this Cape is found a long and dangerous shoal of sands and rocks. But so far as I encircled it, I found thirty fathoms of water aboard the shore and a strong current, which makes me think there is a channel about this shoal, where is the best and greatest fish to be had, Winter and Summer, in all that Countrie. But the salvages say there is no channel, but that the shoals begin from the Main at Pawmet to the Isle of Nauset, and so extends beyond their knowledge into the sea."

    Upon Captain Smith's chart of New England, published in 1614, Cape Cod appears as Cape James and Cape Cod harbor as Milford haven, while Cape Cod bay is called Stuart's bay. On his departure from England, Smith left behind Captain Hunt to get a cargo of dry fish to take to Spain. In doing this Captain Hunt went to Cape Cod bay, and there seizing twenty-seven of the natives for slaves, carried them away to Spain—an act still remembered in 1620 when the Pilgrims landed and found the natives not kindly disposed to Englishmen. Cape Cod was also visited by Captain Edward Brawnde in 1616 and by Thomas Dermer in 1619. Dermer in 1619 likened the land of Eastham and Brewster to the best tobacco land of Virginia.

    The foregoing narrative of voyages to Cape Cod does not include a description of every expedition made to New England during

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the fifty years preceding 1620, but contains an allusion to every expedition which tradition or the early records prove to have visited the shores of the Cape in the neighborhood of Provincetown. Noteworthy as were these early explorations, they have received less attention from the local historian because of the far more famous and epoch making adventure to Plymouth in 1620, the details of which must ever recall to the sons of Provincetown the historic associations that are inseparably connected with the place of their birth. (See Chapter III. for sketch of the Pilgrims' European adventure.)

    September 16, 1620 [N. S.], the Mayflower set sail from Plymouth and crossed the Atlantic "shrewdly shaken " by many storms, yet fortunately preserved from serious disasters. Upon the voyage an English sailor and the passenger, William Button, died, and a child, Oceanus, was born to Stephen and Elizabeth Hopkins.

    The experiences of the voyagers who were to plant at Plymouth, in New England, the colony the eventful history of which has so often been written, are related with a quaintness and frankness of speech that is delightful in Mourt's Relation, a journal or relation of the proceedings of the plantation settled at Plymouth in New England, which was first printed at London in 1622, the authors of which are believed to have been Robert Cushman, George Morton, John Robinson, William Bradford and Edward Winslow, although the following quotation and the one at foot of page 22 are usually ascribed to the accomplished pen of William Bradford:

    "Wednesday the 6th of Sept. [16th N. S.] the wind coming east northeast a fine small gale we loosed from Plymouth having been kindly entertained by divers friends there dwelling and after many difficulties in boistrous storms at length by Gods Providence upon the ninth of November [19th N. S.] following, by break of the day we espied land which we deemed to be Cape Cod and so afterward it proved. And the appearance of it much comforted us, especially, seeing so goodly a land, and wooded to the brink of the sea, it caused us to rejoice together, and praise God that had given us once again to see land. And thus we made our course South South West, purposing to go to a river ten leagues to the South of the Cape, but at night the wind being contrary we put round again for the Bay of Cape Cod and on the 11 of November [21st N. S.] we came to anchor in the Bay, which is a good harbor and pleasant bay, circled around, except in the entrance, which is four miles over from land to land, compassed about to the very sea with oaks, pines, juniper, sassafras, and other sweet wood. It is a harbor wherein one thousand sail of ships may safely ride. There we relieved ourselves with wood and water, and refreshed our people, while our shallop was fitted to coast the bay to search for an habitation. There was the greatest store of

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fowl that ever we saw. And every day we saw whales playing hard by us, of which in that place if we had instruments and means to take them we might have made a very rich return, which to our great grief we wanted. Our master (Jones) and his mate, and others experienced in fishing, professed we might have made three or four thousand pounds worth of oil. They preferred it before Greenland whale fishing and purpose the next winter to fish for whale here. For cod we essayed but found none. There is good store no doubt in their season. Neither got we any fish all the time we lay there, but some few little ones on the shore. We found great mussles, and very fat and full of sea pearl, but we could not eat them for they made us all sick that did eat, as well sailors as passengers, they caused to cast and scour, but they were soon well again. The Bay is so round and circling that before we could come to anchor we went around all the points of the compass. We could not come near the shore by three quarters of an English mile, because of shallow water which was a great prejudice to us, for our people going on shore were forced to wade a bow shoot or two in going a land which caused many to get colds and coughs, for it was many times freezing cold weather. * * * The same day [21st N. S.] so soon as we could we set ashore fifteen or sixteen men, well armed, with some to fetch wood, for we had none left; as also to see what the land was and what inhabitants they could meet with. They found it to be a small neck of land; on this side the where we lay is the Bay, and the further side the sea; the ground or earth, sand hills, much like the Downes in Holland, but much better; the crust of the earth a spits depth, excellent black earth; all wooded with oaks, pines, sassafras, juniper, birch, holly vines, some ash, walnut; the wood for the most part open and without underwood, fit either to go or ride in. At night our people returned, but found not any person, nor habitation and laded the boat with juniper (red cedar) which smelled very sweet and strong and of which we burned the most part of the time we lay there."

    Monday, the 13th of November [23d N. S.], the shallop was landed for repairs, which occupied the carpenter for sixteen or seventeen days. Meantime "our people went on shore to refresh themselves and our women to wash as they had great need." Sixteen men, "under the conduct of Captain Miles Standish, unto whom was joined for counsel and advise, William Bradford, Stephen Hopkins and Edward Tilley," were set ashore Wednesday, November 15th [25th N. S.], and " when they had ordered themselves in the order of single file and. marched about the space of a mile, by the sea they espied five or six people with a dog coming towards them, who were savages who when they saw them ran into the wood and whistled the dog after them. * * * After they knew them to be Indians, they marched after them into

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the woods, lest other of the Indians should lie in ambush; but when the Indians saw our men following them they ran away with might and main, and our men turned out of the wood after them, for it was the way they intended to go but they could not come near them. They followed them that night about ten miles by the trace of their footings and saw how they had come the same way they went, and at a turning perceived how they ran up a hill to see whether they followed them. At length night came upon them, and they were constrained to take up their lodging, so they set forth three sentinels and the rest, some kindled a fire, and others fetched wood, and there held our rendezvous that night."

    Of the details of the first exploration and of the second voyage of discovery it is unnecessary to speak, or of the expedition in the shallop to Plymouth. The Mayflower remained at anchor in Provincetown harbor until December 15th (25th N. S.) "when we weighed anchor to go to the place we had discovered," at Plymouth. During the stay of the Mayflower at Provincetown a son, Peregrine White, the first English child born in New England, was born to William and Susanna White. On the 17th of December Dorothy May Bradford, wife of William Bradford, who was absent on the exploration expedition, fell overboard from the Mayflower or from a boat alongside and was drowned. The next day James Chilton died and was buried at Provincetown, while Edward Thompson and Jasper More, who died on the 14th and 16th of December, respectively, were doubtless buried at Provincetown near the resting place of Chilton, victims of exposure to an inclement climate and of the necessary sufferings attending a perilous voyage.

    The incidents of the stay of the Mayflower at Provincetown are most interesting, yet they are surpassed in historical importance by the steps taken at Provincetown to form a civil organization, which converted "a little unorganized group of adventurers into a Commonwealth." In the cabin of the Mayflower, as she rounded the Cape, and was about to anchor in the harbor of Provincetown. November 11 [21 N. S.], 1620, assembled the adult males of her company and signed the compact which rendered Provincetown, as Bancroft says, "the birthplace of popular constitutional liberty." (The compact is printed at page 23.)

    A diversity of opinion exists as to the exact locations visited by the Pilgrims during the stay of the Mayflower at Provincetown. It is supposed, however, that the vessel anchored in deep water within a furlong of Long point and that the exploring party which set forth from her, November 25, 1620, landed near Stevens' point at the west end of the village of Provincetown, and marching in the rear of Telegraph hill and Mill hill had advanced nearly to the crest of Town hill

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when they met the Indians. As the party turned inland it is probable that the Indians made for the woods above Duck pond and ran around Great pond to Negro head and so toward Truro. The party of Pilgrims doubtless encamped for the night near Strout's creek, a stream flowing from the north into the mouth of Eastern harbor, long since, however, obliterated by the inroads of sand from the beach. Considerable evidence exists to show that in 1620 a pond existed at the foot of Town hill separated from the sea by a narrow beach, and in this pond the women from the Mayflower found the water for their need of washing. The inroads of the sea and other causes have obliterated nearly all traces of the pond, yet within the memory of aged people now living a narrow creek ran in by the Town hill through Gosnold street, a remnant perhaps of the pond, and the records of the building of an early meeting house state that it was located near the "North Meadow Gut," a local designation of the creek by the hill. The quotations from Mourt's Relation are the basis of all the speculations as to the localities visited by the Pilgrims and will suggest to the interested reader the uncertainty which must always exist as to the exact locations which in the lapse of time may have been more or less changed through the natural effects of the wind and sea upon a sandy shore.

    Doubtless in 1620 the land was well wooded. The name "Wood End," still applied to a portion of Long point, preserves the tradition that the forest once extended to the very brink of the sea. The physical aspect of Provincetown however, can not have changed materially since the Mayflower first anchored in Cape Cod harbor, except as the disappearance of the forest has rendered the surface of the soil even more barren.

    The geological history of the extremity of the Cape shows conclusively that all that section of land to the north of High head in Truro has arisen from the sea. Hundreds of years may have been necessary for the evolution of the projecting promontory of sand hills from the long, low, projecting spit of sand which usually marks the beginning of the sea's additions to the land, yet the geologists are united in the belief that the promontory must have risen from the sea by the slow processes which gradually change the exterior coast lines of all sandy, rockless shores.

    Whatever its origin, Provincetown rises picturesquely from the ocean in latitude 42°, 3' north and longitude 70°, 9' west  from Greenwich, one hundred and twenty miles from Boston by railroad, fifty-five by sea, connected with the mainland of the Cape by a long chain of sand hills extending along the eastern and northern side of Eastern harbor in Truro, its low sandy shores washed on the north by the Atlantic and on the south and west by the waters of Cape Cod bay.

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    A long chain of sand hills extends northerly from Peaked Hill bars or Strout's creek, which for a hundred years has been buried beneath the sand, to Race point, its northwesterly extremity. A second series of hills beginning at Mount Ararat and Mount Gilboa by East harbor follows the bay shore, semicircular in form, to the termination of the range at Stevens point, including in the chain Miller's hill, Town hill, and Telegraph hill, whose summits afford a beautiful view of Cape Cod bay and the headlands of the Cape and Plymouth shores for miles around. Between the two lines of hills lies a tract of land a mile and more in width, "composed of lesser hills, downs and ponds," the hills covered in many places with pines, wild cherry trees, beach plums and bayberry bushes. Along the western shore an indentation of the sea forms the Herring cove, into which near the Race point flows the Race run, a sluggish, tidal stream that creeps from the sand hills near Negro head, a wooded summit in the line of hills extending along the Atlantic coast.

    In the wide area between the hills are several ponds, shallow but occasionally of considerable size, among them Shankpainter, Clapp's, Great, Duck, Pasture, Round and Farm, their borders affording fertile soil for gardens or for the cultivation of the cranberry. Extending southerly from the Herring cove lies Long point, embracing within its sinuous course the broad harbor which affords an anchorage for three thousand vessels, completely landlocked and safe. Along the harbor at the foot of the chain of hills lies the village of Provincetown, reaching for three miles along the shore, a veritable city in the sands, with church spires rising high above the hills. Two streets, Commercial and Bradford, extend from one end of the village to the other, intersected at intervals by narrower cross streets reaching back to the hills that form a shadowy background to the thickly settled town at their base. Commercial or Main street is the business thoroughfare of the town, its narrow plank sidewalk, begun with the town's share of the revenue distributed by the state in Jackson's administration, extending along the northern side of the street from one end of the town to the other. The shore is lined with wharves, two of them, Railroad and Steamboat wharves, extending to the deep water of the harbor, all instruments in the prosecution of the great fishing industry in which so many of the inhabitants of Provincetown are engaged.

    The view of Provincetown from the Truro hills is exceedingly picturesque. Lofty church spires, rising apparently out of the sea and towering above the sun-lit hills, are outlined against the deep blue sky. The waters of the placid harbor rest at their base. On a clear day, with the wind from the north, the land in the background, tinged with the deep blue of the sky, rises like some fleecy cloud

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from the waters of the bay. The moving sand hills in the rear of the settled part of the town are often driven by the winds into strange, weird forms, fantastic and unique, fit subjects for the painter, the artist, or the poet. The Desert, as Thoreau calls the region between the two lines of hills, is often visited by artists from abroad in search of the picturesque and the beautiful.

    The drifting of the eastern sand hills has gradually changed portions of this territory. Strout's creek, which for many years afforded several acres of salt meadow, has been obliterated for a hundred years by the inroads of the sand. The waters of the bay, too, have changed the shore lines occasionally. In 1885 House Point island, a little island in the western part of the harbor, was completely washed away. Tradition preserves also the record of an island at the eastern end of the harbor, called Hog's island, which was large enough for the pasturage of sheep, of which no trace remains. The natural changes have been accompanied by others due to the hand of man alone. Sods and loam, brought from the woods at the eastern end of the town, have been used to cover the barren beach sand which constituted originally what might be called the soil; sand and gravel taken from vessels discharging superflous ballast at the wharves have also been applied to the natural soil, so that in 1890 the residences in Provincetown are surrounded by gardens artificial in origin, yet flourishing and fertile, rose gardens in a desert, blooming the more brilliantly because of the saltness of the atmosphere, which gives to flowers a brilliant coloring not elsewhere observable.

    Provincetown stands alone, the one town in the old colony whose early history, rich in historical incidents of another kind, embraces few allusions to the Indians, who seem to have had no established habitations or villages within her limits. The Pamets exercised dominion over all the territory to the north of Herring brook in Wellfleet, and doubtless visited Provincetown frequently in pursuit of game. It is very probable, too, that the Meeshawms, a branch of the Pamets, had an encampment or village near Strout's creek, for evidence exists to-day, in the form of shells, arrow heads and other articles, of a former Indian occupation of the locality. At the east of Negro head, too, arrow heads have been found within a few years, and a clear spring still flows from the sand hills in the vicinity of Strout's creek, additional evidence, perhaps, of a probable Indian occupation.

    From the date of the departure of the Mayflower from Provincetown, or rather from November 19, 1621, the day that the Fortune sailed into Provincetown, until 1700, the history of the place is derived from the records of Plymouth colony. The colonists early recognized the title of the Pamet Indians to the lands at the Cape, which were believed to be of great value, and took steps to purchase their

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title. The Cape was looked upon as a very valuable fishing station, and its commodious harbor was considered the best upon the coast. The practice arose very early of leasing the bass fishery at the Cape to such roving fishermen as applied, and the income derived from the leases was appropriated to the support of schools in Barnstable, Plymouth, Duxbury and other towns of the colony. These early fishermen appear to have been a jovial, enterprising set, who paid little heed to the strict Puritanical ways of old Plymouth, and consequently were frequently before the court upon complaints charging them with carousing at the Cape.

    In 1651, William Bradford was added to the other lessees, and the lease was made for a term of three years. In 1668, the lands at Pamet, so far as the Cape head, were voted to be within the constablerick of Eastham. June 5, 1671, the court granted to the men of Hull permission to fish for mackerel at the Cape, upon condition that "they make payment of what is due to the colony from foreigners." In 1671, Thomas Prince, of Eastham, was made water bailiff, to have charge of the fisheries at the Cape, and in 1672 he received the following instructions: "This court being informed that few or none of ours are like to fish at the cape by seine, and that divers strangers desire liberty there to fish, these are, therefore, to empower you, in the behalf of the court, to give liberty to such strangers as shall desire there to fish, carrying orderly, and paying such dues as by court order is provided, and this shall be your warrant therein for this present season." In 1661, the price to be paid by strangers for fish caught and cured at the Cape was fixed at six pence per quintal, but in 1670 "our people" were taxed six pence per quintal, and strangers were taxed one shilling and six pence per barrel for mackerel caught at the Cape. Upon the appointment of a water bailiff in 1672, an enactment was made that fish carried on board vessels and not accounted for to the water bailiff, should be forfeited to the colony.

    In 1673 the revenue derived from the Cape fisheries was first set aside for the support of schools, a vote of the colony in that year directing that the income from the fisheries should be employed in the maintenance of a free school, in some town within this colony. A more specific enactment of the same year directed that "the charge of this free school which is 33£ a year shall be defrayed by the treasurer out of the profits arising by the fishing of the Cape." The income from the Cape fisheries was also at times applied to other purposes. In 1675 the widow of John Knowles, of Eastham, was authorized to receive aid from the Cape fishery fund. The Plymouth colony records show, too, that in 1679 William Perry, a veteran of the Indian wars, received relief from the same source. In 1678 apart of the fund was devoted to the schools of Rehoboth. By an order of the court,

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passed in 1678, notice was given to all the towns that if thay desired to fish at Cape Cod one half the fishermen there may be from the Colony of Massachusetts." In 1684 the bass fishing at the Cape was leased to William Clark of Plymouth for a term of seven years at 30£ per annum." Mr. Clark, however, surrendered his privileges at the end of four years, and October 2, 1689, two or more magistrates of Barnstable county were authorized to regulate the fishery, and the old laws were revived. June 9, 1690, the court voted to enter into an agreement to pay Major William Bradford, who claimed to own the "Cape Head," fifty-five pounds for a release of all his claims of title to lands at the Cape purchased by him of the Indians. Mr. Bradford accepted the offer. The colony, which from the beginning had treated the Cape fishing as the property of the colony, and as early as 1661 had voted that no stranger or foreigner should improve the lands or woods at the Cape without liberty from the government, thus in 1690 reasserted its dominion, and quieting its title by the purchase of Mr. Bradford's claims, for the sake of harmony, as the records quaintly say, became the undisputed owner of all the land and fisheries at Cape Cod.

    Upon the union of Plymouth colony with the colony of Massachusetts Bay, in 1692, the province of Massachusetts Bay succeeded to all the rights of Plymouth colony in the lands at Cape Cod, and later, upon the establishment of the state government, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts became the proprietor of the lands which since 1692 have been known as the "Province Lands." The Commonwealth, however, has never exercised any of the proprietary rights usually attached to the ownership of land, yet by various statutes, the last of which was passed in 1854, has continued to assert its legal title, section 8, of chapter 262, of the acts of 1854, providing that "The Title of the Commonwealth as owner, in fee, to all the Province lands within the town of Provincetown is hereby asserted and declared, and no adverse possession or occupation thereof by any individual, company, or corporation, for any period of time shall be sufficient to defeat or divest the title of the Commonwealth thereto." Not until after 1700 does any evidence exist of private occupation of distinct tracts of land. The circumstances of the early settlement of the town are also involved in considerable obscurity by the absence of any recorded transfers of real estate. From the very beginning of the colony at Plymouth the importance of the fisheries at Cape Cod was appreciated by private individuals as well as by the government of the colony, and the shores of the harbor were visited yearly by fishermen from the other towns of the colony, but the earliest existing town records begin with the year 1724. Other evidence exists showing that a settlement had been begun before 1700, notably the record of births preserved in the clerk's office of the town of Provincetown, which

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shows that Ezekiel Cushing, son of Rev. Jeremiah and Hannah Cushing, was born here April 28, 1698. Rev. Mr. Cushing was a graduate of Harvard College in the class of 1676, and was the first resident preacher at Cape Cod.

    The first public act with reference to the establishing of a municipal government at Cape Cod was passed in 1714. Previous to that year the "Province Lands " seem to have been regarded as a part of Truro for municipal purposes. The population of Cape Cod at that date cannot now be ascertained. A very interesting letter published in Freeman's Cape Cod affords, however, the data for a belief that in 1705 one hundred and thirty men were at Cape Cod, though very likely many of them were temporary residents, pursuing the fisheries during the summer season. This letter, a quaint and unique document addressed to the Hon. Paul Dudley of Boston, is not only valuable historically, but is extremely ludicrous in itself:

Cap Cod, July 13th, 1705.

"Squier Dudly.

Sir:—after all due sarvis and Respecks to your Honnor wishing you all hapynes boath hear and hearafter I mack bould to inform your honnor that i have liveed hear at the Cap this 4 year and I have very often every year sien that her maiesty has been very much wronged of har dues by these contry peple and other whall men as coms hear a whalen every year which taks up drift whals which was never killed by any man which fish i understand belongest to har magiesty and had i power i could have seased severl every year and lickwies very often hear is opportuyty to seas vesels and goods which are upon a smoglen acompt. i believe had i had a comishon so to do i could have seased a catch this last weak which had most of thar men out landish men i judge porteges. she lay hear a week and a sloop i beleve did thar bisnes for them: sir I shall be very Redy to sarves har magisty in either of this or any thing els thet i may be counted worthy if your honor see case to precure a commishon of his Excellency for me with instrocktions I shall by the help of God be very faithful in my ofes—one thing more I mak bould to inform your honnor that hear are a gret meny men which goues fishing at this harbor and som times the french coms hear and then every one vons his way becas they have no one to hud them. i myself have been a souferor since i lived hear, being cared away by a small sloop and hear was 130 men and several brave sloops and no hand, a capt. about 12 miles distance, but we may be all tacken at the Cap and be no nothing of it. i levef it to your honnors consideration and mack bold to subskribe my selef your hombld and unworthy sarvnt

Wm. Clap.

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Sir I am a stranger to your selef but if you plese to inquier of Capt. Sorthwark ann he can inform your honnor whether i am capebel of any such sarvis.

"To the honnored Mr. Pall Dudly, Esquier att Boston."

    The governor, it seems, was impressed with the ability of William Clap and caused to issue a lieutenant's commission and a warrant to prize drift whales at the Cape. The act of 1714 constituted all the province lands at the Cape a district or precinct entitled "The Precinct of Cape Cod." The act is entitled "An act for preserving the harbor at Cape Cod and regulating the inhabitants and sojourners there.

    "Whereas, the harbor at Cape Cod being very useful and commodious for fishing and the safety of shipping, both inward and outward bound, is in danger of being damnified, if not made wholly unserviceable, by destroying the trees standing on the said Cape (if not timely prevented) the trees and bushes being of great service to keep the sand from being driven into the harbor by the wind.

    "Be it enacted, * * * that no person or persons may presume to bark or box any pine tree or trees, standing upon any of the province lands on the said Cape, for the drawing of turpentine, on pain of forfeiting and paying the sum of ten shillings for each tree so barked or boxed.

    "And be it further enacted that, by the authority aforesaid that whereas a number of inhabitants are settled upon the said Cape, and many others resort thither at certain seasons of the year to make fishing voyages there, which has not hitherto been under the government of any town or regulation among themselves, that henceforth all the province lands on the said Cape be a district or precinct; and the inhabitants there are obliged to procure and support a learned orthodox minister of good conversation to dispense the word of God among them and to allow him sixty pounds a year maintenance, and for the better enabling them to raise and pay the said yearly maintenance. * * * Enacted, that all and every person or persons coming to abide or sojourn there on fishing or whaling voyages, during his and their continuance and abode there, shall pay four pence a man per week, weekly, to be paid by the master of the voyage or boat for his whole company to Ebenezar Dean, who is hereby appointed and impowered to be the first collector and receiver of the said rate or duty on behalf and to the use of the minister of the precinct.

    "And the said district or precinct is hereby annexed and put under the constablerick of Truro, until this court take further order; and the selectmen or assessors of Truro are hereby directed and impowered to assess and apportion on the inhabitants of the said

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precinct, from time to time, such sum and so much as the duty as aforesaid laid upon the fishermen shall fall short of making up sixty pounds per annum for the minister, directed as aforesaid, and to make out a warrant, as the law directs, for the gathering of the said assessment."

    The boundaries of the new precinct were not fixed by the act of incorporation. Accordingly May 26, 1714, an act for the determination of the boundary between "Cape Cod" and Truro was passed by the general court. The committee appointed by the general court reported September 24, 1714, that the line had been established as follows: "Beginning at the eagerly end of a cliff near the Cape Harbor called by the Indians Hetsconoyet, and by the English Cormorant Hill, at the jawbone of a whale set in the ground by the side of a red oak stump, and thence running by marked range trees nearly on a north and west line about half point more westerly to a marked pine tree standing by a reedy pond called by the Indians Wocknotchcoyissett; and from thence by marked range-trees to a high hill on the back side near the north sea, with a red cedar post set in the said hill; and thence to run in the same line to the sea; and running back on the contrary line to the harbor." The report of the committee upon the boundary is signed by John Otis and William Bassett on behalf of the general court, and by Thomas Mulford, Joseph Doane, Hezekiah Purington, Samuel Knowles, Thomas Paine and Jedediah Lumbert. The line thus established, determined the boundaries of the "Precinct of Cape Cod," and has retained a peculiar importance to this day as the dividing line between the province lands to the west and the allotted or private lands to the east of the line. The southern portion of the original line passed along the western fence of the present Eastern school house, touching the eastern side of Grassy pond as it ran across the Cape to the Atlantic.

    The union of the precinct of Cape Cod with Truro was not satisfactory to the inhabitants of Truro, who found the anomalous municipal charter of the precinct a source of many difficulties in administration. Accordingly in 1715 a petition from the inhabitants of Truro was presented to the general court by Constant Freeman, the Representative, praying "that Cape Cod be declared either a part of Truro, or not a part of Truro, that the town may know how to act in regard to some persons." Upon the petition an order of notice was issued summoning the inhabitants of the precinct "to show cause why they do not entertain a learned orthodox minister of the Gospel to dispense the word of God to them as required by law " The general court appears to have taken no action upon the Truro petition in 1715. The spiritual welfare of the inhabitants of the precinct, however, was not

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overlooked, for in 1717 the general court granted £150 toward the expense of a meeting house at Cape Cod, "The money to be expended under the direction of Thomas Paine, Ebenezer Doane and John Snow of Truro. The edifice to be thirty-two feet by twenty-eight feet stud, and to have a gallery on three sides. The inhabitants to sustain the balance of expense and keep the premises in repair." The continued increase in the number of the inhabitants of Cape Cod resulted in the presentation in 1727 of a petition to the general court asking for the incorporation of the precinct as a separate town. The name selected—Herringtown, found little favor with the general court.

    The following act passed July 14. 1727, contains the first use of the word Provincetown in connection with the Precinct of Cape Cod.

"Be it enacted, etc., that all the lands on said Cape (being Province lands) be and hereby are constituted a township by the name of Provincetown, and that the inhabitants thereof be invested with the powers privileges and immunities that any of the inhabitants of any of the towns within the Province by law, are, or ought to be invested with, saving ALWAYS THE RIGHT OF THIS PROVINCE TO SAID LAND, which is to be in no wise prejudiced, and provided that no person or persons be hindered and obstructed in building such wharves, stages, work houses, and flakes and other things as shall be necessary for the salting, keeping, and packing their fish or in cutting down and taking such trees and other materials growing on said Province lands as shall be needful for that purpose, or in any sort of fishing whaling, or getting of bait at the said Cape; but that the same beheld as common as heretofore with all the privileges and advantages thereunto in any wise belonging."

    The proprietors of Truro early divided the section of land between the Province lands and Strout's creek into seven lots. the first lot beginning near the site of the present Eastern school house in Provincetown. The limits of Provincetown have been extended from time to time by legislative acts, since the original establishment of the line in 1727, to include within its jurisdiction, all of the original seven lots.

CIVIL HISTORY.—From the date of its incorporation, in 1727, until the end of the revolutionary war, the fortunes of Provincetown were precarious, rising and falling with the fluctuating interests of the fisheries. A few years after 1727 the population began to remove, and in 1748 only two or three families remained. In 1750 three houses were left to indicate the site of the former flourishing town, but not a family remained. A few years later the tide turned, and at the breaking out of the revolutionary war, according to Rich's History of Truro, there were twenty houses, thirty-six families and 205 residents. At the close of the war, which had weighed oppressively upon the

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fortunes of all the Cape towns, Provincetown was again without a population. The history of the town during the intervening years must be gathered from the scanty records that remain, devoted largely to the recording of the births and to the registry of the ecclesiastical affairs of the township. The first record is an entry in the treasurer's book for the precinct of Cape Cod, 1724, to wit: "Precinct of Cape Cod to John Traill, Dr. April 29, 1724. To cash paid Mr. Samuel Spear for his salary—10s."

    The record of births, which began regularly in 1731, contains a record of the birth of Ezekiel Doane, son of Hezekiah and Hannah Doane, April 1, 1696. The entry, however is not made in chronological order, and there is reason to believe that Hezekiah Doane removed to Provincetown from Eastham, The early entries show that among the residents in 1730 were: John Atwood, Thomas Bacon, Hezekiah Bosworth, Elisha Cobb, John Conant, Robert Davis, Thomas Delano, Elisha Doane, Hezekiah Doane, Jeremiah Hatch, Elisha Higgins, John Kinney, Benjamin Ryder, William Sargent, Christopher Strout, William Sargent, Samuel Winter, Solomon Lumbert, Isaac Bacon, Josiah Cole, John Gray, Benjamin Rotch, Isaac Smalley, George Strout, Ezekiel Cushing, Thomas Freeman, John Traill, David Freeman and John Duncan. It appears also that Mr. Samuel Winter was the first school teacher engaged in Provincetown.

    It is interesting to note that in 1744 the town had already begun to appreciate the danger to the harbor that must follow from the unrestricted cutting of wood and from the turning of cattle upon the beaches. The urgency of some measures for the protection of the harbor here became so great that in 1744 James Bowdoin and many other citizens of Boston presented to the general court a petition, setting forth the great importance of the harbor of Cape Cod to the navigation of the province, and praying that the general court would take necessary measures to preserve it. The petition was referred to a committee consisting of Thomas Berry, Colonel Miller and Mr. Skinner, who were directed to repair to Cape Cod before the tenth of May, 1744. The report of the committee contained a graphic description of the impending danger to the harbor at Provincetown, and resulted in the adoption of appropriate legislation regulating the turning of cattle upon the beaches at Provincetown and Truro, acts which have been renewed from time to time.

    The encroachments of sand upon the harbor did not cease with the acts of 1744. Again in 1854 an appeal was made to the legislature for the protection of the harbor from the constant inroads of sand which were drifting into the harbor. The state was asked to construct a dike across the mouth of Eastern Harbor channel as an additional defence in the event of the Atlantic breaking through the

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outer beach as it did in March, 1854, and previously in the year that Minots light was destroyed in 1851, and as a barrier against the washing of sand from Eastern harbor. A committee of the legislature reported in 1854 that within seven or eight years the beach to the north of Eastern harbor had narrowed eight or ten rods and that the construction of a dike at Eastern harbor was a work eminently deserving the attention of the general government. In 1867, however, the legislature referred to Messrs. James Gifford, of Provincetown, and Paul Hill, of Lowell, commissioners appointed by the Governor, the matter of protecting the harbor at Provincetown, and later in 1868 adopted their report recommending the erection of a dike by the state across Eastern harbor, and provided for the construction of the dike. The dike was accordingly begun in 1868, and was completed in 1869 under the supervision of Messrs. James B. Francis. R. A. Pierce and James Gifford, commissioners. Mr. Pierce did not live to see the completion of the work and was succeeded by George Marston, of New Bedford. The report of the commissioners of 1867 recommended also the construction at some future time of a dike across the western end of the harbor, from Wood End to Steven's point, and in 1889 the legislature passed a resolve requesting the United States to construct a solid dike across the western end of the harbor as recommended by Mr. Whiting in 1867. This brief resume of the steps that have been taken to preserve Provincetown harbor should allude also to the very valuable survey of Cape Cod harbor made by Major J. D. Graham of the United States Engineers' Corps in 1832-1835, the first reliable survey of the harbor and a standard with which to compare the results of all later surveys. A topographical survey of Cape Cod from Eastham to Provincetown was also executed by Henry L. Whiting of the coast survey in 1848, and again in 1868 Mr. Whiting made a thorough survey of the harbor with special attention to the changes of the harbor at Long point and in East Harbor creek, the published charts of which are almost invaluable for reference.

MILITARY.—As the population removed at the opening of the war the town has no revolutionary history except the fact that it was a rendezvous for British men-of-war. It is quite certain, however, that in 1782 the town was again inhabited, for a vote still remains upon the records of the annual meeting of that year, appointing Seth Nickerson, jr., Elijah N. Cook and Edward Cook a committee "to petition the general court for liberty to obtain a protection from the British government for occupying the business of fishing and bringing the effects into the adjacent states."

    The war of 1812, proceeded by the embargo of 1808, was also a time of disaster and great depression in the fisheries. The embargo necessarily occasioned the destruction of the commercial industries of

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the maritime towns. Provincetown suffered with the others, and in 1809 appointed Barnabas Holway "an agent of the town to go to Sandwich to receive any gift that any person or persons may feel willing to bestow on the distressed of this town." The town had previously in 1808 petitioned the president of the United States, representing "that they have suffered severely from the operation of the laws laying and enforcing an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States not only in common with their fellow citizens throughout the Union but particularly from their local and peculiar situation, their interest being almost totally in fishing vessels. The perishable nature of the fish and the sale of it depending solely on a foreign market, together with the barreness of the soil not admitting of cultivation leave them no resource but the fisheries," and concluding their petition with a request that the embargo be suspended in whole or in part. A similar petition was presented to the general court in 1809 asking for relief "for their peculiarly suffering condition in any way that might be deemed expedient," and representing that from the barreness of the soil and almost insulated position the inhabitants were at the mercy of the collectors for every article of subsistence whatever." The war of 1812 following upon the embargo, completed what the embargo had failed to accomplish. In 1813 Messrs. Jonathan Cook, John Whorf and Joseph Atkins were chosen a committee of safety "to devise means for the enemy's demands in future if the town be oblidged to comply with them."

    The close of the war of 1812 marks the beginning of a period of prosperity which, heightened rather than lessened by the peculiar conditions attending the civil war of 1861-1865, has continued with slight interruptions to the present time. To the suppression of this civil war Provincetown contributed most liberally, as stated in Chapter VII. The first town meeting to take into consideration affairs relating to the war was held May 2, 1861, and voted to pay to every volunteer from Provincetown in the army or navy twenty dollars, together with "ten dollars a month for single men, and men having wives only and fifteen dollars a month to men having families while in the service." The United States erected a battery upon Long Point during the war and for a time maintained there a garrison of volunteers. Fortunately the town was spared the suffering that the invasions of the enemy had caused in previous wars, and but for the loss of life and the loss of several vessels by the Sumter, Alabama and other confederate cruisers, experienced an uninterrupted business prosperity during the years of strife.

    The efforts of the town to protect the interests of the state and nation have not been confined wholly to times of war. In 1805 the

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town petitioned for a lighthouse upon Race point, a request that was not granted until 1816, when the United States established a lighthouse at that important maritime station. June 20, 1826, the state consented to the purchase by the United States of not more than four acres of land at Long point for the erection of a lighthouse, reserving, however, to the state and to the town of Provincetown jurisdiction over the land for all civil and criminal processes. The lighthouse was built there the same year. The United States also acquired in 1864 jurisdiction over all that portion of Long point extending from the extremity to a line drawn true west through the northern point of House Point island, subject, however, to the civil and criminal processes of the judicial tribunals of the Commonwealth. In 1872 the United States erected a lighthouse at Wood End. The lighthouses thus generously furnished by the United States render the harbor at Provincetown easily accessible in all weathers.

    The manifest advantages of Provincetown as a sea-port, and the need of accommodations for the rapidly increasing fishing fleet, early created a need for wharves. Thomas Lothrop constructed the first wharf in town, in the vicinity of Masonic Hall, against the advice of his neighbors, who believed that the sea would soon cut away the sand from the piles and destroy the wharf. His successful experiment was followed by the erection of other wharves. In 1831 the Union wharf was built upon the site of the present wharf of that name, although Jonathan Nickerson, Thomas Nickerson, Stephen Nickerson and Samuel Soper were not incorporated as the Union Wharf Company until 1833. The Central wharf was built in 1839. Between 1838 and 1848 numerous grants for wharves at Provincetown are recorded, among which are grants to Freeman and Joseph Atkins in 1846, to extend their wharf: John Atwood, jr., in 1848; Solomon Bangs, in 1848; James Chandler, in 1848; Simeon Conant, in 1847; Joshua Dyer, in 1848; Samuel Cook, in 1846; Jesse Cook, to extend, in 1848; Parker Cook, to extend, in 1847; K. W. Freeman in 1847; Isaiah Gifford, in 1847; Jonathan Hill and Joseph P. Johnson, in 1847; Stephen Hilliard, to extend, in 1846; Timothy P. Johnson, to extend, in 1846; Thomas Lothrop, to extend, in 1844; John Nickerson, to extend, in 1846; Seth Nickerson, to build, in 1848; Godfrey Rider, in 1845; Daniel Small, in 1848; Elisha Young, in 1848.

    The shipping required, however, still further accommodations. In 1848, accordingly; Freeman Atkins, Eben S. Smith. William A. Atkins and others were incorporated as the Provincetown Marine Railway, with power to construct a railway easterly of Central wharf. In 1852 Charles A. Hannum, Stephen Nickerson, Alfred Nickerson and others were incorporated as the Union Marine Railway, with power to build a railway at Union wharf. In 1864 Epaphras K. Cook, Ephraim

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Cook, Ebenezer Cook and others were incorporated as the Eastern Marine Railway, to construct a railway from the wharf of E. and E. K. Cook. The Eastern Marine Railway was discontinued in the winter of 1874-75.

    As the population increased and the business interests of the town developed, a need arose for more rapid means of communication than were afforded by the old time packet and the lumbering stage coach. In 1842 and 1843 the steamer Express ran between. Boston and Provincetown by way of Plymouth. In 1849, 1850 and 1851 the Naushon, commanded in turn by Captain Upham Grozier, Henry Paine and Nathan Nicholson of Wellfleet, made trips to Provincetown, Wellfleet, and in summer to Dennis. From 1857 to 1861 the Acorn, Captain Gibbs of Hyannis, and afterward Captain Richard Stevens of Provincetown, made regular trips between Boston and Provincetown. The Acorn was followed by the George Shattuck, built in 1862-3, commanded by Captain Gamaliel B. Smith, S. T. Kilbourne, mate, and N. Porter Holmes, clerk. The Shattuck ran on the route until 1874, when the United States ran for one season, and was succeeded by the Acushnet in 1875 for two seasons. In 1883, the Longfellow, Captain John Smith, was built expressly for the route, and still remains in service, affording a fast, safe and convenient means of communication between Provincetown and Boston. In 1863 Bowly's wharf, erected in 1849, was extended to the deep waters of the harbor for the accommodation of the Shattuck and became the steamboat wharf of the town.

    At a meeting of the proprietors of Truro April 26, 1715, a vote was passed to apply to the court of quarter sessions for the County of Barnstable for a highway to be laid out from Eastham to Truro and through Truro down to and through the province lands upon Cape Cod. It is not probable, however, that at this early date any attempt was made to lay out a definite highway across the sand banks to the north of Eastern Harbor meadows from Truro to Provincetown, along which for many years travelers between the two towns were forced to pass, in winter, a bleak, dreary way: in summer hot and dusty. As late as 1798 the town voted "to petition to have a post to come down to the Cape," an indication, perhaps, that the roads were at that time but little used for public travel. In 1835 a county road from George Lewis' residence to Lancy's corner was laid out twenty-two feet in width, at a cost of $1,273.04 for land damages. Before the establishing of the county road the shore had been for many years a frequently used way, and in many places the only means of communication. April 12, 1854, an act of the legislature authorized the commissioners of Barnstable county to construct a bridge over East harbor at Beach point, and a bridge costing nine thousand dollars,

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of which the county contributed two thousand, was constructed. The bridge, however, was destroyed by ice in 1856 and was rebuilt in 1857. Twenty years afterward the bridge was discontinued and a solid roadbed was constructed across the channel.

    In the meantime the railroad displaced the stage, for in 1873 the extension of the Cape Cod railroad from Wellfleet afforded Provincetown the long coveted rapid transit by land. The town contributed largely to the attainment of the railway by subscribing $98,300 toward the stock issued for the extension, and received in return 727 shares of the capital stock of the Old Colony Railroad Company, which were sold from time to time for $72,696.25. The railroad was opened for traffic July 22, 1873, and has proved, as had been anticipated, an important factor in contributing to the prosperity of the town. Very soon after the opening of the railroad President Grant, August 28, 1874, visited Provincetown, receiving an enthusiastic welcome from the people. With the exception of a brief visit from ex-President Cleveland in 1889, Provincetown has not been honored by the presence within her borders of other presidents of the United States.

    In 1873 Bradford street was completed and opened to public travel, a great public improvement, rendered necessary by the continued growth of the town, its execution hastened by the opening of the railroad. The town had taken steps toward the survey early in 1869, and expended, before 1873, for land damages and for the construction of the road bed nearly twenty-nine thousand dollars.

TOWN OFFICERS.—The representatives from Provincetown prior to 1857, with date of first election and number of years service (when more than one), were: 1810, Joseph Atkins, 2 years; 1811, Samuel Cook; 1812, Simeon Conant; 1813, Daniel Pease, 2; 1826, Thomas Ryder; 1827, David Ryder; 1828, Isaac Small, 6; 1833, Elisha Young; 1834, John Atkins, 7, and Enos Nickerson, 3; 1835, William Gallica; 1836, Godfrey Ryder and Joshua Cook; 1837, David Ryder, jr., 2; 1839, David Cook, 2d; 1841, Stephen A. Paine, 2; 1843, Thomas Lothrop; 1844, John Dunlap; 1845, James Gifford, 2; 1846, Stephen Billiard, 2; 1850, Joseph P. Johnson, 5; 1852, Henry Paine; 1853, Elisha Tilson; 1856, Nathaniel E. Atwood.

    The selectmen have been: 1747, John Conant, 6 years, and Thomas Newcomb; 1748, Elisha Mayo, 2, and Caleb Conant, 6; 1749, Jonathan Nickerson, 2; 1751, Solomon Cook, 2; 1753, Thomas Kilburn, 12; 1756, Ebenezer Nickerson, 3; 1757, Samuel Smith, 7; 1758, Joshua Atwood, 2; 1760, Gershom Ryder; 1762, Benjamin Ellis; 1763. Seth Nickerson, 3, and Samuel Cook, 11; 1767, Solomon Cook. 15; 1768, Thomas Ryder, 4; and Samuel Atwood, 5; 1769, Phineas Nickerson, 2; 1770, Nehemiah Nickerson, 7; 1772, Stephen Atwood, 8; 1775, Seth Nickerson, jr., 7; 1782, Stephen Nickerson, 3, and Edward Cook, 2; 1784, Reuben Orcutt, 2;

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1786, Joshua A. Mayo, 7; 1787, Elijah Nickerson, 2; 1789, Samuel Ryder, 4; 1790, Richard Perry, 4; 1791, Charles Atkins; 1797, David Ryder, and Josiah Nickerson, 3; 1799, Ebenezer Nickerson, 3, Thomas Ryder, 8, and Silas Atkins, 2; 1801, Stephen Nickerson, 4: 1804 Joseph Nickerson; 1806, Daniel Pease, 4; 1807, Benjamin E. Atkins, 2; 1808, Joseph Atkins, 2, and Orsemus Thomas, 5; 1809, John Whorf; 1811, Paran C. Cook, 2, and Simeon Conant, 7; 1813, Nathaniel Nickerson, 3; 1816, Elisha Young, 11, Abraham Smalley, and Ephraim Cook, 6; 1818, Isaac Smalley, 12; 1820, John Cook, jr., 3; 1822, Asa S. Bowley, 5: 1828, David Brown, and Thomas Nickerson, 6; 1829, Elisha Holmes, and Charles A. Brown, 3; 1830, Samuel Cook, and Samuel Soper, 4; 1831, Enos Nickerson, 2; 1832, Seth Nickerson, jr., 3; 1833, John Atkins, 4, and Gamaliel Collins, 4; 1834, Elisha Dyer; 1836; Nathan Freeman, 2d, 4; 1837, Ebenezer Atkins; 1838, Lot Paine, 2, Benjamin Ryder, 2, and John Dunlap, 2; 1840, Parker Cook; 1842, Daniel Small, 2; 1844, Stephen Hilliard, 4; 1845, Joseph P. Johnson, 6; 1847, Ebenezer S. Smith, 2; 1848, Lemuel Cook, 3; 1849, Timothy P. Johnson, 2; 1851, John Adams, 2, and Joshua Paine, 5; 1853, Joshua E. Bowley, 2, and Nathaniel Holmes, 2; 1855, Joshua Lewis, and Benjamin Allstrum, 2; 1856, Artemas Paine, 5, and Jesse Small, 5; 1857, Ebenezer Cook, 2; 1859, E. Kibbe Cook, 2; 1861, Joseph P. Johnson, Simeon S. Gifford, 6, Robert Soper, 3, and Abraham Chapman, 3; 1864, Silas S. Young, 11, Lysander N. Paine, and Alexander Manuel, 4; 1867, Joseph P. Johnson; 1868, Luther Nickerson; 1869, John Swift, 6, and Artemas Paine, 8; 1875, Benjamin Dyer, 5, and Daniel C. Cook, 4; 1876, Henry W. Cowing, 4; 1879, Bartholomew O. Gross, 8; 1880, C. H. Dyer, 9, and Marshall L. Adams, 10; 1887, James A. Small, 4; 1889, Thomas Lewis, 3.

    The following have served as town treasurers, the number of years indicated after their respective names: 1728, Ezekiel Cushing, 12 years; 1749, Thomas Kilburn, 18; 1751, John Conant; 1761, Ebenezer Nickerson; 1763, Joshua Atwood, 7; 1782, Samuel Atwood, 6; 1787, Joshua A. Mayo, 6; 1793, Stephen Nickerson. 3; 1796, William Miller, 17; 1811, Seth Nickerson, 2; 1815, Nathaniel Nickerson, 9; 1823, Thomas Ryder; 1824, Rufus Conant, 5; 1829, Asa S. Bowley, 5; 1834, Charles Nickerson; 1835, Elisha Dyer, 31: 1866, Paran C. Young, 7; 1873, Seth Smith, 17.

    The town clerks with date of first election and number of years of service have been: 1747, Samuel Smith, 26 years; 1773, Samuel Atwood, 23; 1796, David Abbott, 3; 1798. Josiah Nickerson, 8; 1806, Orsemus Thomas, 8: 1811, Samuel Cook, 2; 1816, Asa S. Bowley, 18; 1834, Charles Nickerson; since which date the respective treasurers have been also the town's clerk.

    The first steps toward the organization of a fire department were

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taken at the March meeting in 1836, when a vote was passed "to buy one hand fire engine and thirty second-hand buckets, one hundred feet of leading hose, and all other necessary fixtures." The engine then bought was known as the Washington. In 1850 the Franklin was purchased. In 1859 a board of engineers, with E. G. Loring as chief, was established. Mr. Loring was succeeded by Ebenezer S. Smith.

    The present chief engineer, John D. Hilliard, joined the department in 1866, and succeeded Mr. Smith as chief engineer in April, 1871. October 12, 1868, two second-hand engines, built by Hunneman & Bros., in 1850, were added to the fire department and are designated respectively as the Mazeppa, No. 3, and Excelsior, No. 4. In 1869 the Ulysses No. 1, and in 1871 the new Franklin No. 2 were added. The hook and ladder truck was put in service in 1853. The assistant engineers, Lysander N. Paine, George O. Knowles, John G. Whitcomb and George H. Holmes, have aided Chief Hilliard in bringing the department to a high standard. The efficiency of its fire service has doubtless saved the town from any serious conflagration. The town, however, has not been wholly free from fires, several of them causing considerable loss of property. In 1858-59 at the Bowen fire, six buildings on Commercial street between the land of Josiah F. Small and the land belonging to the estate of Jesse Cook, were totally destroyed. In 1875 Adams Hall, a large building at the corner of Winthrop and Commercial streets, was burned, the fire breaking out during the evening of March fourth, at a time when the streets were almost impassable from snow, and threatening the destruction of the neighboring buildings, which were saved only after long continued efforts on the part of the firemen. February 16, 1877, at 8.25 P. M. the town house upon High hill was destroyed by fire, the efforts of the firemen to check the flames being ineffective. January 17, 1886, the Puritan shirt factory, owned by E. A. Buffinton of Leominster, was totally destroyed.

    There is but one post office in the town and this was established about the beginning of the present century. Daniel Pease, the first postmaster, was appointed January 1, 1801. He was succeeded March 10, 1810, by Joseph Atkins, who held the office until May 29, 1816, when Orsamus Thomas was appointed. After Mr. Thomas the successive incumbents to 1860 were: Josiah Batchelder, appointed December 20, 1822; Rufus Conant, December 6, 1824; Ezra C. Scott, December 29, 1828; Thomas Lathrop, March 10, 1832; John L. Lathrop, April 16, 1839; Godfrey Rider, September 17, 1847: Philip Cook, July 14, 1849: Godfrey Rider, May 26, 1853; Joshua E. Bowley, 1861; B. F. Hutchinson, 1865; Paron C. Young, May 3, 1869.

    The union of parish and town made unnecessary the erection of public buildings for the use of the town until long: after 1800, the several

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church edifices affording the necessary accommodations for the town meetings and the town officers. In 1806 the records first allude to a building for town purposes. During an epidemic of small pox in 1801 a private dwelling surrounded by a high board fence had been set apart for a hospital. In 1806 the building thus erected was by vote of the town converted into a poorhouse and continued to be used for that purpose until the erection of an almshouse on Alden street in 1833, at an expense of $867. The Alden street house was sold in 1875 for $650, the new almshouse erected in 1870 affording the necessary accommodations for the town's poor. The present alms-house was constructed in 1870 at a cost of $6,526, affording a comfortable and commodious home for the unfortunate dependents upon the town's charity.

    In 1845 the town voted to petition the legislature to authorize the county commissioners to erect a jail at Provincetown. The jail was accordingly built upon Central street near Bradford in 1845, and continued in use as the town "lockup " until 1886.

    In 1851 the town voted to erect a town house upon High hill. The elevated position of the site, affording a view of the sea for many miles, rendered the hall the most conspicuous building of the town. It was built at a cost of $14,300, and was still used for town and school purposes in 1877, when it was destroyed by fire. In 1885 the town caused to be erected the present beautiful hall at the corner of Ryder and Commercial streets at a cost of $52,141. This was dedicated August 25, 1886, the governor of the Commonwealth and other distinguished guests attending the exercises. The address of the Hon. James Gifford, the historian of the occasion, containing a graphic description of the hall and a summary of the olden time customs of the town, was published at the time. Mr. Gifford said:

    Although it is 169 years since Provincetown was incorporated, it has prior to this, built but one hall for the transaction of the town's business. The reason may be found in the circumstance that until within the recollection of persons now living, the town and parish were in their functions and administration nearly identical, so that the meeting house furnished pulpit and forum. The town government, in its earlier days was therefore essentially a theocracy. A majority of its voters and of its officials, were members of the church of the old standing order, the same persons being generally appointed or elected to serve both town and parish. That they governed fairly and well there is little dispute. Indeed the moral discipline and homogeneous character of the early settlers, chiefly descendants of the Pilgrims and of their immediate successors, supplying the place of law, they required little interference, restraint or direction from the local authorities.

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    As evidence that these traits have not become altogether extinct in their posterity here, the fact may be cited that not a murder has ever been committed in this town, nor has there ever been a native inhabitant of the place sentenced to state's prison.

    Beside exemption from the cost of town halls, our predecessors also enjoyed immunity from the construction and support of public roads. Dwellings and buildings here were for the most part built upon the shore, close to the water's edge, and the tide, then unobstructed by wharf or encumbrance from one end of the port to the other, was the common highway upon which, until within fifty-five years, the transportation of the town was done. Not alone did the water serve as a highway for the conveyance of goods and the products of the fisheries. Did the family, or any of its members, desire to visit at a distant part of the village, the boat was called into requisition as carriage, or coach. Brought to the door and having taken aboard its precious freight, it was pushed off the beach in charge of father, brother or friend, who were unexcelled in handling or sailing their craft. Over this placid highway, broader, grander than Appian Way, visits were made and returned, and the social life of the place enhanced. Nor is there record or tradition of the occurrence of any serious accident during the century and more this mode of travel was in use.

    We can well believe, however, that the lady passengers in these small boats did not always escape tasting salt water. Yet were they not appalled by it. They didn't mind a little spray from the weather bow, but were exhilarated rather by the dash of the sea, when, as the sheets were hauled aft and the boat, responding to the impulse of the freshening breeze, went flying on her course. Clad in attire suited to their needs, fear of dampening crimps or soiling indescribable bonnets did not banish enjoyment of the sail. The entire absence of horses from the place at the period cited, was thus made good by boats. No favorite of the race course was more doated on than was the fastest sailer and best sea boat. A little incident illustrates the attachment of the boatman to his boat. When the skipper of a somewhat larger craft who was in the practice of crossing Barnstable bay, a distance of some thirty miles, alone, was remonstrated with for not taking along another man or boy to pick him up in case he should fall overboard, the skipper replied: "I know its a little risky. I've thought of it. I've thought if I should get knocked overboard by the main boom out in the bay, alone, I didn't know what would become of the sloop."

    As I have stated, the town possessed, prior to this, but one hall. That was erected in 1854, upon the top of the hill in the rear of this building. It had two strong recommendations; it occupied the

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most conspicuous site the town could boast. Admirably completing the central outline and background to the village, it served as an excellent beacon to storm-imperilled sailors approaching our coast from sea. But for the transaction of the town's business, except, perhaps, during the pendency of some exciting election or question, and for all social uses, it might as well have been moored upon Stellwagner's bank, in Massachusetts bay. True the high school was kept there, and its dullest pupils were made to understand that ascending the hill of science was not merely a figure of speech. If in fine weather the view from the hill was pleasing,, during the terrific storms not infrequent here, the girl approaching or leaving the school who avoided the perils of the slate flying at her from the roof at the rate of seventy-five knots, or escaped impalement upon the iron pickets of the fence surrounding it, had good reason for uttering a prayer of thanksgiving.

    That this is not a fancy sketch may be inferred from the incident that one young lady pupil still survives, who, on leaving the house upon one occasion, was lifted from the ground by the gale, and after being helplessly hurled about the premises, was finally suspended upon this fence, with a picket through her cheek. Hence, when on the night of February 16, 1879, some accidental or providential hand applied the torch, and the town and high school house vanished in a glowing chariot of flame, with all the town as spectators, there was felt little genuine regret.

    The central part of this site, including most of that covered by the building, had been the homestead of a much respected and one of the oldest families in town, that of the late Godfrey Ryder, sr. It had recently become the patrimony of a distinguished member of that family, who was born upon this spot, and now the honored resident of a distant western city. ( Rev. Doctor Ryder, of Chicago.) The question was anxiously debated in committee, whether or not he would be willing to part with this estate for an adequate consideration, and for the purposes indicated. Half apprehensive of a refusal, you can judge of the committee's gratification when the response to their application came, in substance, that the possessor would not only part with it for a site for a town hall, but in token of the attachment he still cherished towards the place of his birth, its conveyance would be a gift to the town. Subsequently, when the necessity for enlargement of the site became apparent, and steps were taken for the purchase of three other adjoining estates, he claimed the privilege of paying for these also. The entire site thus bestowed, and bordering upon three streets, comprises an area of twenty-two thousand five hundred feet of land, of a value of not less than four thousand dollars.

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    By a younger scion of another old and estimable family, who is also a citizen of another city, Mr. John F. Nickerson, of Somerville, is donated the valued gift of the fine toned bell suspended in the tower of this building.

    Nor is the list of Provincetown's benefactors yet exhausted. We have yet another to thank. Not indeed a native, but with good right, an adopted son of the old town. When, in 1826, Connecticut, entertaining a profound aversion to mischievous boys, sent here an impulsive, green, bright, jolly, saucy lad (Joseph P. Johnson) of thirteen, to hoe his way, and to try his muscle with the resident young tarpaulins and blue-jackets of the day, she knew as little what she had lost, as did Provincetown what she had gained. It didn't take long for the boys and people to find out. Both have long since known that when the interest of the community required personal sacrifice, when public spirit was to be evoked, enterprise promoted, or charity solicited, the exile from Connecticut could always be relied upon to lend a hand or to lead the way. Indeed his inability to say no, especially when the hat went round, has long since become the village proverb. Hence when the erection of this hall became an established fact, our presiding officer could no more help contributing to this enterprise in some way than he could help having been born in Connecticut. And what gift more striking, or timely than the clock! And while none will desire to hasten, by a single span, his final departure hence, we are nevertheless admonished by his venerable locks and shining crown, that he can not always remain with us, nor always preside over our town meetings. Then what more useful and constant pledge of interest in his adopted home could he leave? Each stroke of this clock will suggest to the present and future inhabitants of the town, the engagements, the duties and obligations of the passing hour. Thus will it serve as a perpetual monitor, as well as a perpetual memorial of merits universally acknowledged and as widely esteemed.

    Recognizing the fact, that the title to the Province lands in Provincetown, upon which two-thirds of the village stands, including this building, is still in the Commonwealth, it is especially fitting that His Excellency should appear here to-day and ascertain for himself whether or not the people in this place have violated their ancient tenure of squatter sovereignty in the erection of this and other buildings upon these lands. Conversant as the governor doubtless is with the circumstance, that whatever of value, of improvements and betterments he may discover upon this territory, they are the ultimate product of the sea, reclaimed through much exposure, labor and peril, we have the utmost confidence he will not, upon full view, and after his return to the state house, order notice to be served upon us to move out."

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RESOURCES OF THE TOWN.—The location of the town has naturally determined the character of its business enterprises. From the beginning of the settlement the fisheries were the dependence of the people. As early as 1690 the people of the Cape had become proficient in the shore whale fisheries. In 1791 a committee was chosen to petition the general government for the removal of the duties on salt, which was largely consumed in the cod fisheries that employed from twenty to thirty vessels at that date, taking in 1790 eleven thousand quintals of cod fish on the Grand Banks. In 1803 forty-four sailing vessels belonging in Provincetown were at sea, chiefly fishing at the Straits of Belle Isle. The cargoes brought home amounted to fifty thousand quintals of fish. In 1834 besides four hundred tons of coasting vessels, six thousand tons of vessels were engaged in the cod and mackerel fishery, returning 45,000 quintals of codfish and 17,000 barrels of mackerel, and employing one thousand men. In 1837 ninety-eight vessels were engaged in the fisheries from Provincetown, employing 1,113 men, securing 51,000 quintals of codfish and 18,000 barrels of mackerel. In 1857 one hundred vessels, averaging ninety tons each, fitted out at Provincetown for the cod fishery alone, taking during the season 80,000 quintals of codfish and oil valued at $22,000, a total value, including $28,000 bounty, of $300,000.

    The cod fishery has been the chief fishery of the town, though at times the mackerel fishery has proved profitable. In 1860 nineteen thousand barrels of mackerel were inspected at Provincetown, though doubtless many barrels caught by Provincetown vessels in the same year were inspected at Boston. In 1862 Provincetown returned seventy-four vessels employed in the cod fishery, the catch for the year amounting to sixty-two thousand quintals of cod fish. The shore fisheries, supplemented during the ten years since 1880 by fish weirs, have always proved a source of irregular yet often bountiful income to the fishermen of Provincetown.

    The capital invested in the Provincetown fishing business amounted in 1885 to $964,573. (At pages 132-139 are further statistics in detail on whaling and the fisheries.—Ed.)

    Apart from the fisheries, the making of salt for many years employed a large portion of the inhabitants of the town, many of whom were able to prosecute at the same time the shore fisheries with success. The manufacture of salt began in Provincetown in 1800 and continued for many years a profitable industry. Salt mills and salt works extended along the shore from one end of the town to another, giving to the town a picturesque appearance, which is not wholly lost in the early wood cuts of the town that are still preserved in rare copies of the gazetteers of Massachusetts. In 1835 the business was still at its height, but the reduction of the bounty and the high price

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of lumber soon after caused a diminution in the annual product, so that in 1854 the business had ceased. Several attempts to establish manufactories have been fruitless, so that in 1890 a shirt factory, employing from one to two hundred young women, is the principal and only manufacturing industry of Provincetown not directly dependent upon the fisheries.

    The population of Provincetown has varied from time to time, and yet has since 1800 increased steadily, though slowly. In 1748 there were but two or three families at Provincetown; in 1755, ten or fifteen families; in 1776 there were thirty-six families. In 1755 only three houses remained; in 1775 twenty houses were standing; in 1800 the number of dwellings had reached 144. In 1798, 101 houses in Provincetown were valued at $15,375, of which several were valued over $200, among them being the houses belonging to Joseph Nickerson, Ebenezer Nickerson, Seth Nickerson, Thomas Small and Samuel Rider. In 1791 there were owned in town but two horses, two yoke of oxen, and fifty cows. In 1870 the number of dwelling houses had increased to 794. In 1890 there were 970 dwelling houses.

    The population of Provincetown in 1765 was 205 ; in 1776, 205 ; 1790, 454 ; 1800, 812; 1810, 936 ; 1820, 1,252 ; 1830, 1,710 ; 1840, 2,122 ; 1850, 3,157; 1855, 3,096; 1860, 3,206; 1865, 3,472; 1870, 3,865; 1875, 4,357; 1880,4,346; 1885, 4,480; 1890 (estimated), 5,000.

    The population of Provincetown consists of three distinct classes: the descendants of the early settlers, the emigrants from the Provinces, and the Portuguese from the Western Islands. The fisheries have for many years attracted to Provincetown seamen of all nationalities, so that in 1890 the population of Provincetown resembles in the number of nationalities some foreign city, as the following table of the parent nativity will show: Of a total population of 4,480 in 1885 there were: Native born, 3,332; foreign born, 1,148; both parents native, 1,813; both parents foreign, 2,136; one parent foreign, 431. Of the population of foreign birth, 698 were of Portuguese nativity, 251 of Nova Scotia or Provincial birth, and 199 were born in other foreign countries.

    The first banking institution at Provincetown was a branch of the Freeman's National Bank of Boston, established in 1846 at the Union Wharf Company store, with which David Fairbanks and Richard E. Nickerson were connected. This branch bank continued to do business until the establishment of the Provincetown Bank, which used the Freeman's National Bank of Boston as its first place of deposit in Boston.

    James M. Holmes, Elijah Smith, Elisha Tillson and others were incorporated as the Provincetown Bank, with a capital of $100,000 March 28, 1854. The bank was opened for business in December,

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1854. The first board of directors included Nathan Freeman, 2d, Daniel Small, Isaiah Gifford, Joseph P. Johnson, Henry Cook, Enos Nickerson, Joshua E. Bowley and Eben S. Smith. In February, 1865, the bank became the First National Bank, with a capital of $200,000. The presidents of the bank since 1854 have been: Nathan Freeman, to 1877; Stephen Cook, to September, 1888; and Moses N. Gifford, to the present time. The cashiers have been: Elijah Smith, to 1866; Moses N. Gifford, to September, 1888; Reuben W. Swift, to December, 1889, and Joseph H. Dyer, since. The board of directors for 1890 includes: Henry Cook, who has served continuously since 1854, William A. Atkins, Joshua Paine, Joseph P. Johnson, who has served continuously since 1854, N. P. Holmes, John D. Hilliard, George O. Knowles, Joseph A. West and Moses N. Gifford.

    April 14, 1851, The Seamen's Savings Bank was incorporated— David Fairbanks, Joseph B. Hersey, and Thomas Nickerson being among the incorporators—and began business April 28,1852. The first board of trustees included: Jonathan Nickerson, Stephen Nickerson, Nathan Freeman, 2d, Stephen Hilliard, J. B. Hughes, Isaiah Gifford, Joshua E. Bowley, Ephraim Cook, Eben S. Smith and Joshua Paine. The presidents have been: John Adams, March, 1852, to January, 1856; David Fairbanks, to February, 1874, and Lysander N. Paine, to the present. The secretaries and treasurers have been: David Fairbanks, March, 1852, to January, 1856; Richard E. Nickerson, to January, 1858; Enos Nickerson, to January, 1867; John Young, jr., to June, 1872; Joseph H. Dyer, to January, 1890, and Lewis Nickerson since. The board of directors for 1890 includes: Richard E. Nickerson, Nathan Young, Joseph Manta, James A. Small, A. L. Putnam, Joshua Cook, Atkins Nickerson, Lawrence Young, Thomas Lewis, Nathaniel Hopkins, James Gifford and Abner B. Rich.

    A maritime town, with large commercial interests, Provincetown has furnished sufficient insurance risks to cause the organization of several insurance companies, only one of which continues to do business in Provincetown. The first insurance company of which a record has been preserved—The Provincetown Fire and Marine Insurance Company—was incorporated in 1829, Simeon Conant, Jonathan Nickerson, Silas Atkins, Josiah Snow, Ephraim Cook, Jonathan Cook, jr., Elisha Young, Charles A. Brown, Thomas Nickerson, John Adams and Godfrey Ryder being the incorporators. In 1832 Simeon Conant, Henry Willard, Samuel Soper, Thomas Nickerson. Jonathan Cook, jr., Elisha Young, Ephraim Cook, Charles Parker and Solomon Cook were incorporated as the Fishing Insurance Company. In 1839 Simeon Conant, Jonathan Nickerson and John Adams were incorporated as the Union Insurance Company. In 1845 Daniel Small, Caleb U. Grozier and David Small were incorporated as the Equitable

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Insurance Company. In 1854 Jonathan Nickerson, Samuel Soper and John Adams were incorporated as the Atlantic Mutual Fire and Marine Insurance Company.

    A detailed history of the business activity of the insurance companies would be without interest. It is interesting, however, to note that John Adams and David Fairbanks were respectively president and secretary of the Fire and Marine Insurance Company in 1829; that Thomas Nickerson was first president of the Fishing Insurance Company, which in 1840 carried marine risks of $26,000; and that John Adams and David Fairbanks were president and secretary, respectively, of the Union Insurance Company of 1839, which in 1840 carried maritime risks of $22,000. In 1861 Ephraim Cook and John D. Hilliard became president and secretary of The Provincetown Marine, instituted in that year for the insurance of war risks. The Atlantic Insurance Company, instituted in 1855, was united with the Equitable in 1887. The presidents of the Atlantic were: David Fairbanks, Samuel Soper and Joshua Paine, who in 1881 became president of the new Equitable. The successive secretaries of the Atlantic were: Richard E. Nickerson, Enos Nickerson, John Young, jr., and Lewis Nickerson. The Equitable, reorganized in 1881, is still, in 1890, a prosperous corporation, with a capital of $50,000, insuring in 1889 property to the value of $822,611. Joshua Paine and Lewis Nickerson have been president and secretary since 1887. The directors for 1889 were: Joshua Paine, William A. Atkins, Henry Cook, Nathaniel Hopkins, Atkins Nickerson, William Matheson, Charles A. Cook, L. N. Paine and Adam Macool.

    The first step toward the institution of a free public library in Provincetown was a vote passed at the last meeting of Mayflower Division of the Sons of Temperance of Provincetown in 1863, directing the treasurer of that organization to deposit in the Seaman's Savings Bank the funds in the treasury, amounting to nearly three hundred dollars, to be expended in the purchase of books for any free public library that might thereafter be established in Provincetown. That fund remained on deposit until 1874, when it amounted to $522.22, and was then paid over to the trustees of the Provincetown Public Library. The first official action of the town, in its corporate capacity, toward establishing a public library was taken at the annual meeting in February, 1872. Twenty-five dollars were then appropriated "for the establishment of a free Public Library." The town clerk was directed to expend the money " in the purchase and binding of a copy of the Boston Daily Advertiser for one year to be kept in the town clerk's office for the use of the public." The sum of $250.03, the proceeds of the dog tax refunded to the town by the county in 1869, 1870, 1871 and 1872, was also appropriated "for the purchase of

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books for a town library, the money to be loaned to the town treasury until the town should otherwise order and draw interest at the rate of seven per cent per annum."

    December 1, 1873, Hon. Nathan Freeman conveyed to trustees by a deed, a copy of which is filed in the town clerk's office, the land and building erected thereon, known as the Freeman Building, upon the condition that the lower floor, excepting the entrance hall, should be occupied solely for the purposes of a public library. The trustees were also directed to pay over to the proper officers of the library, annually, such portion of the income from the rental of the upper story of the Freeman Building as should seem just and reasonable. At the annual meeting of the town in February. 1874, seven trustees of the public library were chosen, and the funds that had accumulated in the treasury were transferred to the trustees of the public library then chosen. The town also voted to appropriate two thousand dollars for the purchase of books and for such furniture as might be necessary, provided that one thousand dollars, including donations and appropriations already made, should be obtained from other sources. Through the efforts of James Gifford sufficient money was subscribed by sons of Provincetown, at home and abroad, to render available the town's liberal appropriation. In the spring of 1874 the trustees of the public library received $3,466.12, and books for the library were at once selected by Augustus Mitchell, who also supervised the preparation of the first printed catalogue issued in 1874. The library was opened for the delivery of books to the public Saturday, June 13, 1874.

    At the annual meeting in 1889 the town voted to accept the acts of the legislature of 1888, directing the choice of trustees for terms of three years and to fix the number of trustees at nine. The provisions of the act of 1888 permit the trustees of the library to hold property of any kind in trust for the purposes of the library and vest the trustees with exclusive custody of the library funds from whatever source derived. In 1889 Benjamin Small conveyed to the trustee five thousand dollars, the annual income of which should be expended in the purchase of books for the library. In December, 1889, a card catalogue was prepared under the supervision of James H. Hopkins, who also prepared the printed catalogue issued in January, 1890. At the same time the library was furnished with ash book cases of an improved pattern under the direction of Moses N. Gifford, A. P. Hannum and E. N. Paine. The library contained December 31, 1874, 2,202 bound volumes, including public documents. January 1, 1890, the number of bound volumes, exclusive of public documents, in the library was 4,039.

    The trustees in 1889 were: For term ending February, 1892—

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Andrew T. Williams, George H. Holmes, William R. Mitchell; for term ending February, 1891—Moses N. Gifford, James H. Hopkins, Artemas P. Hannum; for term ending February, 1890—Edwin N. Paine, Reuben W. Swift, Samuel S. Swift. The librarians have been: Miss Salome A. Gifford, 1874-81; William R. Mitchell, 1881-88; Miss Mattie W. Bangs, the present incumbent, who has served since 1888.

    The Seamen's Relief Society was organized April 13, 1882, for the temporary relief of seamen shipwrecked at Provincetown. Nathan Young, the first president of the society, continues to serve. The officers for 1890 are: Nathan Young, pres.; Harvey S. Cook, Thomas Lewis, vice-pres. ; A. P. Hannum, sec.; M. N. Gifford, treas.; A. T. Williams, M. L. Adams, Mrs. Paron C. Young, Mrs. Xenophon Rich, David A. Small, Mrs. Priscilla Young, Mrs. Thomas N. Paine, Mrs. Geo. Hallett, S. Knowles, J. A, West, Joseph Whitcomb, directors.

    The Provincetown Mutual Benefit Society was organized in 1889. The membership is limited to sixty, and a benefit of fifteen dollars per week is paid to members who are sick. The officers are: F. E. Williams, sec.; A. L. Putnam, treas.

    Marine Lodge, I. O. O. F., was instituted November 21, 1845. The Past Grands have been: Leander Crosby, installed November 21, 1845 ; Josiah Sturgis, Emmons Patridge, Eben S. Smith and J. P. Johnson, installed in 1846 ; Sabin M. Smith and Thomas Lothrop, 1847 ; Joshua Small, jr., and Josiah S. Fuller, 1848 ; Godfrey Ryder, Joseph P. Knowles and Lewis L. Sellew, 1849 ; David Smith, 3d, and Peter E. Doliver, 1850; Lemuel Cook and Benj. Allstrum, 1851; Joshua E. Bowley and Elijah Smith, 1852; Enoch Nickerson and Stephen Ryder, 1853; Isaac B. Alexander and Warren Smith, 1854; Edward G. Loring and Stephen A. Paine, 1855; Osborn Myrick and Curtis Doane, 1856; Joseph P. Johnson and F. B. Tuck, 1857; Lewis Morris and Jonathan Kilburn, 1858; John Atwood and S. T. Kilburn, 1859; Ebenezer W. Holway and William W. Smith, 1860; Phineas Freeman and Isaiah A. Small, 1861 ; James Fuller and P. N. Freeman, 1862; Gamiel B. Smith arid James Gifford, 1863; S. T. Soper and Charles A. Hannum, 1864; Ebenezer Lothrop and Isaiah A. Small, 1865; Joseph P. Johnson and William Bush, 1866; David Smith and R. C. Hartford, 1867; Joseph Cross and Charles A. Hannum, 1868; E. H. Rich and Edward J. Kilburn, 1869; H. G. Newton, 1870; George H. Lewis and Samuel H. Ghen, 1871; William H. Collins and Isaac S. Warner, 1872; Solomon D. Nickerson and James A. Small, 1873; Solomon D. Nickerson and George Allen, 1874; Seth Nickerson and Lemuel Cook, 2d, 1875; Lemuel Cook, 2d, and Heman S. Cook, 1876; Andrew T. Williams, 1877; A. Frank Hopkins, 1878; Newton P. West, 1879; James A. Small, 1880; George W. Tuttle, 1881; Joseph Whitcomb, and Stephen H. Smith, 1882; Willis W. Gleason, 1883; Reuben F.

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Brown and Frederick A. H. Gifford, 1884; Thomas W. Sparks and Francis S. Miller, 1885; Nathaniel T. Freeman and Jeremiah A. Rich, 1886; George F. Miller and Nathaniel H. Small, 1887; Simeon S. Smith and Willard T. Burkett, 1888; Jerome S. Smith and Frederick E. Williams, 1889; Otis M. Knowles, installed January 8, 1890.

    Provincetown Lodge, Knights of Honor, was established February 10, 1880. The successive past dictators have been: Joshua F. Tobey, E. P. McElroy, George H. Nickerson, Caleb K. Sullivan, Joseph A. West, and Joseph Whitcomb, since 1885.

    The Ladies' Relief Corps meets twice a month in G. A. R. Hall. The president is Mrs. H. Louise Lyford; the secretary is Mrs. Mary C. Smith; and Mrs. Emily A. Smith is the treasurer.

    Charity Degree Lodge, Daughters of Rebecca, meets in Odd Fellows' Hall, Friday evenings. The present officers are: Mrs. Annie Y. Cook, N. G.; Mrs. Sarah Cornell, V. G.; Mrs. Eliza S. Small, sec.; Mrs. L. C. Whitcomb, treas.: Mrs. Sophronia D. Sumner, P. S.

    J. C. Freeman Post, G. A. R. was instituted September 23, 1884, with nineteen charter members. The Commanders have been: Geo. H. Nickerson, George Allen and Joshua Cook. The officers for 1890 are: Joshua Cook, C.; J. H. Dearborn, S. V. C.; F. A. Smith, J. V. C.;

    George W. Holbrook, adjt.; C. W. Burkett. O. D.; Thomas Lowe, O. G.; Byley Lyford, chap.; Samuel Knowles, surg.; Seth Smith, Q. M.; P. C. Young, Q. M. S.; David Cook, S. M.

    Firemen's Mutual Life Insurance Association was organized in 1873. Sixty-four members have died during its existence and their representatives have received benefits amounting to $9,802. The present officers are: Pres., L. N. Paine; vice-pres., George H. Hol--; sec., and treas., J. D. Hilliard: trustees, Charles A. Cook, Andrew Williams, John G. Whitcomb.

    King Hiram Lodge, A. F. & A. M., was instituted March 25, 1796, at which time Paul Revere, Grand Master of the State, signed the charter. The worshipful masters since the organization of the Lodge have been: John Young, 1796-8; Jonathan Cook, 1799, 1801, 1805-6 ; Allen Hinckley, 1802-3; Henry Paine, 1804; Orsamus Thomas, 1807-9, 1817-20; Ephraim Blanchard, 1810-11; Daniel Pease, 1812-13; Simeon Conant, 1814-16; Joseph Sawtelle. 1821-27: Henry Willard, 1828; Jonathan Cook, jr., 1829-30; Barzillai Higgins, 1831-33, 1847; Waterman Crocker, 1834-46 ; Godfrey Rider, 1848-49: Joseph P. Johnson, 1850-53, 1858-63; Peter E. Dolliver, 1854; Lewis L. Sellew, 1855; Reuben F. Cook, 1856-57 ; Elijah Smith, 1864-65 ; John W. Atwood, 1866-69; Joseph S. Atwood, 1870-71; E. Parker Cook, 1872-73; John M. Crocker, 1874-75; Artemus P. Hannum, 1876-77; Moses N. Gifford, 1878-79 ; Frederick A. H. Gifford, 1880 ; Joseph H. Dyer, 1881 ; Harvey O. Sparrow, 1882; Thomas Lowe, 1883; Hezekiah P. Hughes,

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1884; Lewis H. Baker, 1885; James A. Small, 1886-87: Andrew T. Williams, 1888, and Jerome S. Smith since 1889.

    Joseph Warren Royal Arch Chapter was organized June 8, 1869, and chartered June 15, 1870. The successive high priests, installed in November of each year, have been: Jeremiah Stone, June, 1869, to November, 1870; Joseph P. Johnson, November, 1870; Lauren Young, 1873; John W. Atwood, 1874; John M. Crocker, 1876; Lauren Young, 1877; Horace A. Freeman, 1878: Harvey O. Sparrow, 1879; Artemas P. Hannum, 1880; Frederick A. H. Gifford, 1881; Joseph H. Dyer, 1882; Frederick A. H. Gifford, 1883; Harvey O. Sparrow, 1884: James E. Rich, 1887; Frederick A. H. Gifford, 1888. The regular convocations are held the first Friday evening in each month, and the annual convocation the first Friday evening in November.

    A Local Branch, No. 1006, of the Order of the Iron Hall, was established here in 1889.

    Royal Arcanum, Mayflower Council, was established December, 1886. Marshall L. Adams was chosen first regent, and has continued to occupy that office.

    Royal Society of Good Fellows, Miles Standish Assembly, was instituted in 1888. S. H. Baker, the first R., was succeeded by Myrick C. Atwood.

    The Children's Loyal Legion, Company J, Barnstable Division; the Women's Christian Temperance Union, Mrs. Alice A. H. Young, president; and the King's Daughters, have contributed largely toward sustaining a high moral sentiment in the community upon the temperance and other kindred questions, rendering a welcome assistance to the various church organizations. Though recently established, their officers have already rendered services of the highest worth.

CHURCHES. ( By James Gifford, Esq., of Provincetown.)—The meeting house provided for in 1717, as mentioned at page 965 was built in 1717-18, and was the first place of worship erected at Provincetown. There is no record establishing its exact location. Tradition, however, points to the site in the south-east corner of the pasture or meadow of the heirs of the late Joseph Atkins, sr., about one hundred yards northwesterly from Bradford street, and a few feet southwesterly from the partition fence between the western portion of this meadow and that part of it now the property of William Matheson. William A. Atkins, a native of the town, and son of Joseph Atkins, the former owner of the premises, remembers distinctly that in his youth his father pointed out this spot to him as the one on which the old meetinghouse stood. Joseph Atkins was born in 1766, and must have attended meeting with his parents in the first and second meeting houses, the latter built in 1773 upon the same site. Joseph Atkins was twenty-six years old when the

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third church was built and helped cut the timber for it in Provincetown woods.

    It was the presence of the meeting house here, on the south border of the meadow, or the large, level valley, once connected with Shankpainter pond, that gave to this tract the name of Meeting House Plain, which is still applied to it. The proximity of the old burying ground on the northeast side of the plain, corresponding with the prevailing practice of early days of locating the burial place, near the church, goes to confirm the tradition.

    The second meeting house, probably a rebuilding and enlargement of the first, was erected entirely by the inhabitants of the town in 1773. fifty-six years after the building of the first church. January 25, 1774, the first sale of its pews was made by authority of a vote of the town and parish "to sell the pews in the meeting house and to sell them allowing purchasers to pay the money by the first day of December, 1774." Twelve pews were sold at this first sale at prices varying from £30 for those on the ground floor to £3, 10s., for those in the woman's gallery."

    The third meeting house was long known as the "Old White Oak." At a meeting of the town November 15, 1792, it was voted to build a meeting house, and "to set it near north meadow gut." This proposed location was on the margin of a creek running through the beach at the foot of Gosnold street. Following nearly the line of this street to its junction with Bradford street, it flowed easterly and northerly, washing the base of High Pole hill and adjacent territory south—extending as far as the rise of ground north of the Center school house and beyond the railroad station. Persons living have heard aged residents relate incidents of their crossing this creek in boats whose use was indispensable while the tide was in. It was the practice to float scows and boats laden with salt grass from the meadows through this "gut" and to make it into hay on its borders, called "the north meadow."

    It was also voted that the meeting houses should "be sold in forty shares, that any of the inhabitants of the town should have the liberty to subscribe for building said house and that the pews in the new meeting house should go to the highest bidder at a public vandue." Public notice announced that subscribers would be called upon to pay down twenty-five dollars per share. January 30, 1793, it was agreed by vote "that the subscribers who built the meeting house should set it near Rev. Samuel Parker's residence." Mr. Parker's residence was on the lot now covered by St. Peter's Catholic church, and the meeting house was erected east of Mr. Parker's dwelling, and on the premises now occupied by the Catholic parsonage. A full share of stock in the new meeting house cost £7, 10s., and a half share £3, 15s.

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    Thirty-four full shares and twenty half shares were readily sold, amounting to £300, and a subscription by the town, increased the total to £400. The highest price was $186, paid by Elijah Nickerson, for No. 20 pew.

    The frame of this church was hewn from white oak trees cut in Provincetown woods, and hence the name, "White Oak Meeting House." A portion of this frame, still sound and bright, was used in the construction of the present Congregational church in 1843.

    In 1807 the interior of the White Oak church was remodeled at considerable expense to the town and four new pews added to those in the body of the house. These were sold to the highest bidders at the following prices: No. 37 for $190 to Samuel Cook; No. 38 for $350 to Jonathan Cook; No. 39 for $342 to Solomon Cook; and No. 40 for $176 to Stephen Nickerson; the highest not since equaled at any sale of pews in Provincetown. It was the most costly structure, public or private, that had been reared in town, its architecture and adornment indicating a desire to impress and please the beholder.

    As the meeting house was still the only place of assembly provided, not only for public worship and for religious instruction, but was also the only forum for the discussion and disposition of all social, municipal, civil and political affairs, its maintenance was esteemed a matter of first importance in the welfare of the whole community. About this historic church, therefore, were centered the dearest hopes, the social and religious sentiments and associations in its life. It was here infants were baptized, the last rites over the dead pronounced, and here, too, the intention of marriage, conspicuously announced, was consummated by celebration of the marriage ceremony,

    The Old White Oak church is still remembered by the elder natives of the town with sentiments of veneration, connecting by association their own lives with those of former generations who once joined them in worship beneath its roof. It is remembered, too, that the seats of the large square pews, hung upon hinges, were turned up during prayer and turned down at its close; that it was the delight of the boys in the galleries, despite the menace of tything men armed with long poles, to throw the seats down with a bang that startled the congregation; an annoyance finally ended by enforcing the vote of the town to nail down the seats.

    Rev. Jeremiah Cushing, mentioned at page 962 as the first resident preacher here, was succeeded by Rev. Samuel Spear. Rev. Spear was born July 6, 1696, a graduate of Harvard College in 1715, and began his pastorate about 1719, and continued until 1741, when large numbers of his parishioners removing to other localities he also went away. Among those who supplied the pulpit for limited

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terms during the next thirty-two years were Rev. Solomon Lumbert, Mr. Mills, Martin Alden and Mr. Green.

    Their successor, Rev. Samuel Parker, was born in Barnstable in 1741, graduated from Harvard 1768, and came to Provincetown in 1773. The town and parish meeting on December 7, 1773, "agreed by vote to give unto Mr. Samuel Parker for his regular salary £66, 13s. 4d., lawful money to settle in this town and preach the Gospel to the inhabitants, also to give unto him the frame of his house and to build one-half of it purposed to be thirty feet in length, twenty-seven feet wide, eight feet in the walls, likewise his fire wood and to give him meadow for two cows." In addition to the salary thus stipulated the general court contributed forty-five pounds annually for twelve years from May 1, 1772. Mr. Parker was installed January 20, 1774. Entering upon his charge at the age of thirty-two years his attainments, his assiduity and cheerfulness in discharge of his religious and secular duties, and the exercise of a tolerant and kindly spirit, acquired for him the confidence and attachment of the town. His death, April 11, 1811, was therefore felt as both a personal and public loss.

    The advent of Methodism into the parish in the latter part of Mr. Parker's ministry was undoubtedly to him a source of grief and agitation, embittering his last days. After the first furious storm of opposition and persecution, raised by a portion of his own parish, against the new and aggressive sect, had subsided, he saw his flock divided and large numbers deserting to the new fold. So great was the defection that the Methodists in 1810, carried a vote in town meeting placing Alexander McLain, a Methodist minister, "in control of Mr. Parker's pulpit " unless he was able to officiate. This action was later requited by the persistent refusal of a Methodist selectman and "keeper of the meeting house key" to open its doors to a regularly warned town meeting, which, after being called to order upon the platform in front of the church, was adjourned to Thomas Rider's store, where the town's business was transacted. The possession of the meeting house was restored to the town only through resort to threats of legal process. The strife, long continued, shows that the spirit of retaliation and intolerance was not confined to the adherents of either side to the religious controversy.

    Rev. Nathaniel Stone, born in Dennis, graduated at Harvard in 1795, began his ministry to the old society March 17, 1813. His installation took place October 16, 1817.

    Mr. Stone's reputation, and discourses that survive, indicate mental ability and respectable professional acquirements. But dogmatic and narrow in his views, he was from natural bent a strict believer in the doctrines of Calvin, and conscientiously accepted their logical

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sequence. His obstinacy and irascibility of temper, nevertheless, proved as disastrous to the society as they were destructive of his own peace and welfare. A preacher of a different mould would, indeed, at this crisis, have encountered serious difficulty in allaying discontent and in arresting the exodus from the old church. National independence had awakened throughout the country enlarged views of church polity and creed. It was held that taxation without consent of the taxed was not longer to be tolerated in church or state. Hence hatred of compulsory assessment exacted for the support of this society, and the allurements of a freer faith were elements Mr. Stone was singularly ill qualified to overcome. The excitement produced by frequent desertions of his parishioners to the Methodists induced him to frequently preach about it, when he was wont to turn over the leaves of his sermon with his nose. When defections and refusal to longer attend his Sunday service had suggested to his friendly supporters the wisdom of terminating his pastorship, he refused point blank to listen to any proposal for resignation, or for accommodation of the terms of his settlement. Failing at last, in 1830, to obtain hearers, the old White Oak meeting house closed its doors, and its society, with which the history of the town was from its birth identified, became extinct. Mr. Stone remained in town until 1837, when he removed to Maine, where he died.

    In 1841 another Congregational society was organized, and in 1842 measures were begun for building the church in which this society now worships. Rev. Calvin White officiated during this period. Rev. Mr. Eastman followed, and was settled in 1843. The church having been completed, he preached in it the first sermon September 13th of that year. Rev. Osborn Myrick, while in charge of a society in North Truro, was, by unanimous vote, invited to become pastor of the Congregational church in Provincetown November 24, 1845. Accepting the invitation, then a young man, a good scholar, an excellent teacher and of gentle bearing, he earnestly devoted himself to the work of his new pastorate. Identifying himself with all the legitimate interests of the community, whose improvement in secular as well as religious affairs he was ever ready to advance, he won its entire confidence and esteem, which he retained unabated, when, February 27, 1866, after a pastorate of twenty-one years, he tendered his resignation, and removed to Middletown Springs, Vermont, where he still resides.

    His successors have been: Reverends C. J. Switzer in 1867; Mr. Lonsbury in 1868; S. D. Clark in 1868; L. N. Pierce, 1871; Mr. Blanchard, 1874; Mr. Westgate, 1875; Granville Yager, 1876; E. P. McElroy, 1879; George W. Osgood, 1886; Isaac R. Prior, since 1887.

    The fourth church, erected in this place in 1795, was for the Methodist

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Episcopal society. It encountered furious opposition and persecution. The town had that year voted that a Methodist meeting house should not be built in Provincetown. Timber and lumber designed for a meeting house had been unladen from a vessel upon the beach. The night following the landing an enraged mob, after cutting the timber in pieces and transporting it upon their shoulders to the rear of High Pole hill, set fire to it and crowned the blazing pile with the effigy of the Methodist minister, Jesse Lee. A short time after, however, John Kenney, Samuel Atwood and twenty-eight other respectable and prominent citizens, adopted without opposition, in open town meeting, the following: "This is to certify that John Kenney and (others named to the number of 28) attend the public worship of God with the Methodists and contribute for their support."

    Enraged by the assault upon their rights and convictions, and by the wanton destruction of their property, the Methodists lost no time in procuring another frame and more lumber, and the house was built without further demonstrations of violence. It was a one-story building about forty by thirty feet, constructed and finished in the primitive Methodist style, without plaster or paint on the interior.

    The fifth church was built by the Methodist society in 1817 and enlarged the same year. It occupied the site on which stands the homestead of Dr. Henry Shortle, at the corner of Bradford and Ryder streets. This was a large building, having the first spire and first church bell in this place. It was superseded in 1847 by the erection of another house of worship, in front of High hill, on lots now covered, in part, by the skating rink and the building of Joshua T. Small, fronting Ryder street. This church contained 136 pews on the floor, with seating for 1,200 persons. It was occupied until 1860, when the present Center Methodist church was erected at a cost of $23,000.

    Distinguished among the early settled preachers in the long succession of clergymen who have ministered to this society was Alexander McLain. He was here in 1807 and later. There are living a few of those who were of his congregation, and who yet distinctly remember his person and his preaching. They represent him as of a noble figure and presence and as endowed with a dramatic power and a pathos that were irresistible. Of the preachers of later date there are many who became noted in their denomination and whose memory is revered by the members of this society.

    The list of preachers and date of coming is as follows: George Cannon, 1795; Robert Yallalee, 1796; Jacob Ricklow, 1797; Smith Weeks, 1798; William Beaucamp, 1799; John Merrick, 1800; Solomon Langdon, 1801; Edward Whittle, 1802; Allen H. Cobb, 1803; Alfred Metcalf, 1804; Philip Munger, 1805; Elijah Williard, 1806; Alexander

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McLain, 1810; Epaphras Kibby, 1812-24; Shipley W. Wilson. 1824: Leonard Bennett, 1826; Epaphras Kibby, 1828: Ebenezer Blake, 1830; Ephraim Wiley, 1832; John E. Risley, 1834; Frederick Upham, 1835-6; Ira M. Bidwell, 1835; E. W. Stickney, 1839; Aaron D. Sargent. 1840; Samuel W. Cogswell, 1841; Paul Townsend, 1842; John Lovejoy. 1844; William T. Harlow, 1846; E. B. Bradford, 1848; Pardon T. Kenney, 1850; William Livsey, 1852; Robert McGonegal, 1854; M. P. Alderman, 1856; Asa N. Bodfish, 1858; Ed. H. Hatfield, 1860; J. T. Benton, 1862; George W. Bridge, 1863; A. P. Aiken, 1865: C. S. Mcreading, 1867; Charles Young, 1869; J. H. James, 1872; Edgar F. Clark, 1874; Angelo Canoll, 1877; H. H. Martin, 1880; A. William Seavey, 1882: W. W. Colburn, 1884; Porter M. Vinton, 1887.

    The First Unitarian society was organized in 1829, in "Enos Nickerson's School House." This society, the year it was organized, changed its name to " First Christian Union Society," which it retained upon its records until 1847, when by vote it was called, what in fact it had been since 1835, the First Universalist society. The first settled pastor, 1830, was Asahel Davis, Unitarian, who removed from Portsmouth, N. H.

    A church for this society was built by Joseph Fuller and Thomas Lothrop, contractors, for $3,105, land and other items increasing "the cost to $4,825, and was dedicated November 3,1830, upon the premises where the dwelling of Abner B. Rich now stands. The second Universalist church, now standing, was erected in 1847.

    The following is the list of settled pastors and the years of their coming: Asahel Davis, 1830; George C. Leach, 1834; Mr. Clemsby, 1834; John B. Dods, 1836; Hiram Beckwith, 1842; Mr. Stevens, 1843: Theodore R. Taylor, 1844; Emmons Partridge, 1845; Mr. Cronens, 1852; Mr. Gardner, 1853; Mr. Sanborn, 1854; Mr. Bartlett, 1855; Mr. Hooper, 1858; A. W. Bruce, 1860; B. H. Davis, 1869; Mr. Perry, 1871: S. M. Beal, 1874; D. S. Libby. 1877: George F. Babbit, 1880; Alfred J. Aubry, 1884; R. T. Sawyer, 1885; H. E. Gilchrist, 1887.

    Of these clergymen several, especially John B. Dods, exhibited good preaching ability, were impressive speakers and devoted to their calling. Replying to an invitation received at the end of his first year's engagement, Rev. Dods informs the society he will remain another year for $600, the sum received for the first year's service, and then states to the parish committee: "You mention to me that '$800 would not separate us.' But that is a sum I have not the conscience to ask, nor would I accept it if it were freely offered, as I have no use for so much money annually. I was fearful that even $600 was more than the society could conveniently pay, and had therefore made up my mind to leave here the end of June." Mr. Dods family at that time consisted of a wife and five children.

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The second Methodist church, known as the Wesleyan chapel, was the house originally erected by the Christian Union Society, already noticed. It was purchased in 1848, by Freeman Atkins, Samuel Soper and Rufus L. Thatcher, a committee representing Methodists living in the west part of the town, who desired a place of worship nearer their residences. The church was remodeled and refurnished soon after its purchase, when ninety-five members withdrawing from the Centre church, joined the new society and worshiped in this church. Centenary church was erected and completed in 1866, under the pastorate of Rev. George W. Bridge.

    The list of pastors of Centenary church, with year of their coming, is as follows: Samuel Fox, 1848; Azariah B. Wheeler, 1849; John Livesay. jr., 1851; Josiah Higgins, 1853; N. P. Philbrook, 1855; B. K. Bosworth, 1857; J. T. Wright, 1859; Mr. Cooper, 1861; J. F. Sheffield, 1863; George W. Bridge, 1865; George M. Hamlen, 1867; Shadrach Leader, 1868; Andrew J. Kenyon, 1870; John Livesay, 1872; William McK. Bray, 1872; George A. Morse, 1874; George H. Bates, 1877; George W. Hunt, 1880; John H. Allen, 1882; Warren Applebee, 1884; George C. King, 1885; Thomas J. Everett, 1887; Samuel McBurney, from April, 1889. This list embraces men of acknowledged ability and worth, and who were devoted to the care of their charge.

    The Catholic society was organized by Rev. Joseph M. Finotti in 1851. The first service was held in the dwelling of Thomas Welch, on Franklin street, previously known as the Freeman House. A Sunday school was early begun by Jeremiah Quean with three pupils, and now numbers over five hundred. In 1853 Mr. Finotti bought the building on Bradford street, formerly called the Wesleyan Academy, and subsequently occupied by the town high school, for a place of worship and pastoral residence. Public services were held in this building until the purchase, in 1872, of Adams Hall, by Father O'Conner, for the sum of $4,500. The society worshiped here for nearly two years when, March 4, 1875, it was destroyed by fire during a terrific northeast snow storm, in which the Italian bark Giovanni was stranded on the outer bar off Peaked hills, and all the crew save one perished. The present house of worship—St. Peters church—located on the north side of Prince street, was consecrated October 12, 1874. A fine parsonage was added to the church estate in 1886.

    This society when established was principally composed of natives of Ireland and their children. A very large majority of those now comprising its membership are of Portugese birth and descent. There is a larger regular attendance at this church than is present at any other place of worship in town. The following priests have officiated as pastors: Father Joseph M. Finotti, 1851; Father Haly, Father Cornelius O'Conner, 1860; Father McGough, 1873; Father McGuire, 1874;

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Father Toait, 1882; Father Elliott, 1886: Father B. F. McCahill is the present incumbent.

SCHOOLS.—Allusion has already been made to the application of the revenue from the Cape fisheries to the support of schools. The first reference in the early records to schools at Provincetown is the entry in 1728 upon the town records; "Mr. Samuel Winter's account for keeping school one half year, £22, 10." His compensation for the remaining half year appears to have been £22, 13. The first record, however, is almost the only reference to schools that appears upon the town books for a hundred years. A town school was certainly kept from the very beginning of the settlement. In 1801, during an epidemic of smallpox, the schools were closed by vote of the town. In 1807 it is certain that the town school occupied a portion of a building jointly with a Masonic lodge. In 1835 six hundred dollars were appropriated for common schools; in 1887 the amount was increased to seven hundred dollars, and in 1840, to one thousand dollars. In 1844 the town erected, at a cost of ten thousand dollars, the three school houses which are still known as the Western, Eastern and Center school buildings. In 1853 thirty-one hundred dollars were appropriated for schools, six hundred dollars of which was for the support of a high school. The upper story of the town hall was used by the high school for many years until 1877. In 1879 and 1880 the present grammar and high school building was erected, at an expense of over ten thousand dollars.

In 1840 the number of school children between five and sixteen was 562; in 1890 the school children attending the public schools numbered 950, enrolled in seventeen schools, under the supervision of twenty teachers. The amount of the annual appropriation for the public schools during the twenty years ending in 3890, though varying in amount from year to year, has averaged nearly ten thousand dollars yearly. The desire for good schools is universal, and every effort has been made by the citizens to supply the school officers with the necessary facilities. Since the abolition of the district system in 1870, the schools have been supervised by a committee, generally three in number, who have usually chosen a superintendent, who has the immediate care and responsibility of all the schools. (Mr. Hopkins manuscript ends here.—Ed.)


    The history of the town is incomplete without a brief notice of the men whose prudence, economy and foresight have contributed to its material wealth. To the energy and public spirit of her business men Provincetown owes much of the continued prosperity that has attended the town during many years. It is to be regretted that an

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even more extended sketch than that which follows cannot be devoted to an enumeration of the prominent business men of Provincetown, with the interesting facts relating to their early lives which might be gathered.

    John D. Adams, son of William and Ellen (Darrow) Adams, was born in 1860. He has been in the drug business since 1876. In 1885 he succeeded Dr. J. M. Crocker. He remodeled his store in 1889. He married Jennie, daughter of James M. Holmes. They have three children: Charles W., Jennie W. and James H. Marshal L. Adams, son of John and Abbie (Sampson) Adams, was born in 1842. He was a merchant for thirteen years prior to 1878. He was county treasurer one term—1886 to 1888. He was chairman of the building committee of the new town hall. He married Mary A. Moor, and has one son, John.

    Mrs. Mary N. Adams is a daughter of Samuel and Tamesin (Brown) Cook, and granddaughter of Samuel, who was a son of Solomon and grandson of Solomon Cook. Her first marriage was with John Adams, who died in 1860, aged forty-five years. Her present husband is Solomon N., son of George M. Adams.

    William A. Atkins, son of Joseph and Ruth (Nickerson) Atkins, was born in 1818. His first marriage was with Abigail N. Freeman, deceased, and his second wife was Jane F. Grozier, also deceased. Mr. Atkins was for many years a member of the Central Wharf Company. The Central wharf and store were built in 1839 by Joseph Atkins, who with David Fairbanks conducted a general store for several years. His son, William A. Atkins, and Eben S. Smith, were then admitted to the firm. In 1851, upon the death of Joseph Atkins, William A. Atkins and Eben S. Smith who, after a brief absence (during which his place was filled by Thomas G. Atkins), had returned, continued together until 1858, when John Atwood purchased the business. In 1863 William A. Atkins again purchased an interest in the firm and with Eben S. Smith continued until 1864, when Nathan Young bought out William A. Atkins. Atkins Nickerson soon afterward acquired an interest. In 1867 Abner B. Rich succeeded Eben S. Smith; in 1875 James A. Small joined the firm, which has since carried on an extensive general store under the direction of Messrs. Young, Rich and Small, the present partners. For many years the Central and the Union wharf companies were the chief mercantile firms of the town, each owning many vessels employed in the various branches of the fisheries. With each wharf were connected blacksmith's shops, marine railways, ship carpenter's shops, and other facilities for the fitting and repairing of vessels. In recent years, however, the two wharf companies have lost much of their former prominence in the

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mercantile affairs of the town, though the two wharves are still the headquarters for very many of the fishing vessels sailing from Provincetown.

NATHANIEL E. ATWOOD. (By James Gifford, Esq. ) Atwood—This highly esteemed and distinguished citizen of Provincetown was born September 13, 1807, and died at his residence, November 7, 1886. He was the son of John Atwood, a fisherman, who, like most of his contemporaries, was poor, and deprived of many of what are now esteemed the necessities, as well as of the conveniences of the household. As he could not afford a clock to tell the hour of the night when it was time to go fishing, it was his practice to repair to the shore and mark the position of the ebb or flood tide upon the beach, and thus determine the starting time. Not including provision for his schooling, the bare necessaries of life were all that could be furnished the son. Few more interesting or pathetic struggles for the rudiments of knowledge have been told of New England men than those he used to relate of his own experience. In 1816, to be nearer the fishing grounds, his father and family removed to Long point, taking the son with them—the first resident fisherman. Here, at the age of nine, Nathaniel E. began his calling, the father often taking the boy from his bed, at three or four in the morning, for a place in his fishing boat for the day, returning to do other requisite work at night.

    Though possessing a natural bias for learning, no leisure, books or schooling could be afforded him. Occasionally, in short intervals of rest, upon returning to the shore the father, who could not read, but could cipher, drawing sums upon the smooth sand of the beach with a stick, gave the son the only lessons in arithmetic he ever received from a teacher. Despite, however, the absence of opportunity, he, by force of native ability and desire for improvement, acquired, not great scholarship, it is true, but an amount of learning and a knowledge of natural history that assured him a creditable position. As a practical ichthyologist, he not only long enjoyed a national reputation in his own country, but his name, in connection with this branch, has for many years been known by scientific men in Europe. At the age of thirteen, graduating from the fish boat, his father shipped him as cook on a fishing vessel for the coast of Labrador. Continuing those voyages, three years later he was trusted to ship himself in a vessel bound to the Grand Banks. Desirous of a change of occupation, he went several voyages as seaman, and subsequently as master in the coasting and foreign fishing trade. A superior navigator, a kind master, a careful, honest agent, he filled these positions with efficiency and secured the confidence and esteem of his men and

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employers. Returning to fishing, he continued in this calling till the age of sixty, twice encountering shipwreck during this period. Endowed with rare powers of observation, with a retentive memory and a temper favorable to study and investigation, he began in early manhood to acquire knowledge of the characteristics of the sea fishes.

    In 1843, when Dr. D. Humphries Storer was preparing his Fishes of Massachusetts, making inquiry for a fisherman who knew most about fishes on the coast, all concurred in referring him to Mr. Atwood. That this reference was fully justified, appears from the following extracts from the work cited: "During the last six or eight years no individual has rendered me such essential assistance as Captain N. E. Atwood, of Provincetown. * * * For much acceptable information respecting our marketable species I am indebted to him, the best practical ichthyologist in our state." In a subsequent report to the Boston Society of Natural History, he said: "Let his name, who has done so much to enable me to present this final report, be indelibly associated with the science to which he is an honor."

    In 1852 Louis Agassiz, impressed with the value of Mr. Atwood's contributions to ichthyology, visited him in his home upon Long point, and there began an acquaintance that shortly ripened into an intimacy and life-long friendship. Their constant correspondence respecting fishes was continued through the professor's life. It was at his suggestion that Mr. Atwood was employed in the winter of 1868-9 to deliver a popular course of twelve lectures upon food fishes before the Lowell Institute of Boston.

    In 1847 he was chosen a member of the Boston Society of Natural History. In 1856 he was appointed member of a committee to investigate the feasibility of the artificial propagation of inland fishes, and the same year was elected a member of the Essex Institute of Salem. He was subsequently chosen a member of the Institute of Technology in Boston, and of the American Academy of Arts and Science.

    In 1857, 1858, he was a representative to the legislature, and in 1869-1871 a member of the state senate, serving as chairman of the committee on fisheries. His opinions on matters pertaining to sea fisheries and requiring legislation were received as authority. He was therefore summoned before legislative committees in several states to give his views on pending measures. Candid and thoroughly informed, his judgment was generally accorded decisive weight. He was twice sent to Washington by his fellow-townsmen once to urge upon the war department the necessity of fortifying Provincetown harbor, and later to present the interests of the fisheries to the congressional committee on ways and means. For fifteen

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years prior to 1882 he was a faithful, diligent officer of the revenue in Provincetown. He was also one of the trustees of the Seamen's Savings Bank in Provincetown, and was three years member of the school committee. He was for many years associated with the United States fish commission, and rendered important services that were fully appreciated by that board. Of a serene, cheerful temper, unassuming in manner, charitable to faults, public spirited and benevolent, his whole career was characterized by unselfishness, gentleness and integrity that was unswerving. The death of no man in Provincetown, in this generation at least, produced more general or sincere regret. His character and memory are a legacy to the people of this town.

    His first marriage was with Maria Smith of Sag Harbor, L. I. He settled in Provincetown, where Mrs. Atwood died in 1849. Their family of three sons and two daughters were: John E., who died at the age of twelve years; Nathaniel, now a resident of Medford, Mass.; Lydia F. (Mrs. William A. Doyle of Truro); Mary M., who married John Kiley, jr., of Truro and died leaving three children; and Daniel W. Captain Atwood married a second time Mrs. Blake of Boston, the mother of Prof. J. Henry Blake. By this marriage he had three children who reached maturity: Myrick C., of Provincetown, now collector of customs at that port; Maria L., widow of Arthur K. Crowell, and Priscilla S., now Mrs. Fish of Brockton.

    Nathaniel, the oldest survivor, was born in 1839, and married Olive J., daughter of Nathaniel Hopkins of Truro. He was captain of a whaler eleven years, and for ten years in merchant service. Since 1882 he has been superintendent for Lyon, Dupuy & Co. of Boston, exporters to Hayti. Prior to 1882 he lived in Provincetown. He has one daughter and one son, Edward H. Atwood, the only male representative of the name in this generation.

    Solomon Bangs, only living child of Solomon and Betsey (Rich) Bangs, and grandson of Perez Bangs, was born in 1821. He followed the business of sailmaking until 1882, and since that time has been weir fishing. He married Rosilla, daughter of Samuel and Thankful (Bangs) Rich. They have one son, Perez.

    John Bell, son of Henry F. Bell, was born in Liverpool, England, in 1838. He followed the sea from 1851 until 1884, the last sixteen years as captain of a whaling vessel. He has lived in Provincetown since 1858. He married Zilpha, daughter of John and Zeruiah (Atkins) Knowles. They have one daughter, Angie.

    Stephen Bennett, born in 1824, is a son of Robert Bennett. He came to Provincetown in 1842, where he was a rigger for several years. Since 1871 he has been engaged in the ice business. He

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handles about five thousand tons per year. He married Sarah M., daughter of Levi and Jerusha (Kilburn) Smith and granddaughter of Daniel Smith. They have two children—Samuel A. and Jerusha K. (Mrs. M. W. Bradshaw). One daughter, Melissa F., died.

    John M. Carnes, born in Boston in 1816, is a son of David and Betsey (Rich) Carnes. He came to Provincetown in 1824 and followed the sea until 1849, when he went to California, returning in 1852, since which time he has been a farmer. He married Eunice C., daughter of Josiah and Sally (Smith) Doane, and granddaughter of Joshua Doane.

    Josiah Chase, son of Josiah and Lucy (Wheldon) Chase, and grandson of Josiah Chase, was born at Harwich in 1849. He has followed the sea since he was nine years old, as master since 1867, fishing and coasting. October 8, 1889, with a crew of seven men, he started for Cape Town, Africa, with the hope of finding new fishing grounds. Captain Chase is still at Cape Town. He has found mackerel there and his voyage will be fairly successful. He married Amelia, daughter of William Doyle. Their three children are: Bessie A., Anna G. and Josiah. I.

    Henry T. Chipman, son of Thomas and Permelia (Horton) Chipman, was born in 1850. He began going to sea at the age of ten years, and has been ten years master of vessels in menhaden fishing.

    Isaac Collins, born in 1823 in Truro, was a son of Michael and Tamesin (Snow) Collins and grandson of Benjamin Collins. He married Mrs. Matilda H. Nickerson, daughter of Levi,4 and Mehitabel (Lombard) Stephens, granddaughter of Levi,3 (Richard,2 Richard Stephens1). They have one son, Isaac S. Mr. Collins, as shipwright and spar maker, began business in Truro in 1857. In 1864 he removed to Provincetown, establishing himself at Central wharf. Upon his death in 1889, Ezra D. Ewen succeeded to the business.

    David Conwell, son of David and Eleanor (Perry) Conwell, and grandson of Robert Conwell, was born in 1818. He was a house carpenter by trade, but has been in mercantile and wholesale fish business since 1848. He represented this district in the legislature in 1888 and 1889. He married Elmina, daughter of Amasa Taylor. She died, leaving four children: Eleanor B., Walter L., Robert E. and Amasa F.

    Robert E. Conwell, son of David and Elmina Conwell, was born in 1853, and has been in business with his father since 1874. He married Ruth S., daughter of William Hedge.

    Alfred Cook, born in 1816, is a son of Samuel and Tamesin (Brown) Cook, grandson of Samuel, great-grandson of Solomon, and great-great-grandson of Solomon Cook. He followed the sea from 1824

[p. 999]

until 1869, as master after 1838. For twenty-five years he was in whaling business. Since 1869 he has been engaged in the whaling and fishing business. He married Rebecca M. Bowley. She died and his second marriage was with Caroline Howard. His present wife was Mrs. Emily E. Chapel, daughter of William Law.

    Charles A. Cook, born in 1822, is one of the children of Jonathan and Sabra (Brown) Cook, and grandson of Jonathan Cook. His first marriage was with Sarah Dunham, who died leaving one son, Jonathan Y. His second wife was Olive Atkins. They have five children: Charles A., jr., George P., Sarah (Mrs. H. P. Higgins), Angie (Mrs. J. W. Fuller) and Louise (Mrs. W. Williams). Mr. Cook began business in 1855, purchasing the wharf built by Jonathan H. Young, which he, still owns. In early life Captain Cook commanded several packets that ran between Boston and Provincetown. He was also largely interested in fishing vessels. In 1855 he established a grocery and outfitting store at 240 Commercial street, which he still continues with the assistance of his son, Jonathan, acting also as the agent of the schooners General Scott, Vandalia and John Simmons.

    Emerson D. Cook, son of Lemuel and Mary J. (Weeks) Cook, grandson of David and great-grandson of Jonathan Cook, was born in 1850. He followed the sea from 1863 until 1884. He is now a blockmaker. He married Kathleen O. Lynch. The have one son living, Benjamin. L., and one son that died.

    Henry Cook, born in 1813, is one of twelve children of Samuel and Tamesin (Brown) Cook. He followed the sea from 1823 until 1850, as master sixteen years. Since 1850 he has been a merchant. He has been a director of the Provincetown National Bank since its establishment. He married Abigail, daughter of Elijah Dyer. They have one daughter, Adelaide O., the wife of A. Lewis Putnam.

    James D. Cook was born in 1845 in North Scituate, Mass. His father and grandfather were both natives of North Scituate, Mass. He is engaged in prepairing and packing cod fish. He married Mary S., daughter of Joseph Thomas. Their children are: Chester A., Ebed E., Henry P., May W., Walter T. and James W. They lost three: Nellie M., John B. and Charles.

    John J. Cook, youngest son of John and Martha (Bush) Cook, and grandson of John Cook, was born in 1817. He followed the sea from 1826 until 1883, as master of whaling vessels after 1845. He is now engaged in the fish business with his son. He married Elizabeth S., daughter of William and Eliza S. (Kent) Taylor. Their children are: Emmie (Mrs. C. H. Holbrook), Lizzie K., Richard W. and Fred. They lost two: Martha E. and John J.

    Frederick T. Daggett, son of Lathrop and grandson of Ichabod

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Daggett, was born in 1828 in Nova Scotia. He followed the sea for thirty five years, twenty-five of which he was in command of vessels. Since 1885 he has been engaged in the fish business. He married Helen, daughter of John and Sally (Lancy) Snow. Their children are: Fred W., Allton L., Sarah S. and Cora N. One son, John L., died.

    James Daggett, born in 1832, in Liverpool, Nova Scotia, is a son of Lathrop, and grandson of Ichabod Daggett, who was a native of Scituate, Mass., and removed to Nova Scotia. Mr. Daggett came to Provincetown in early life, where for forty years he has been engaged in fishing. He married Mary S., daughter of Atwood Snow. Their children are: Joseph A. and Frank F.

    James Engles, born in 1827, was a son of James Engles. He was a tinsmith by trade, and kept a hardware store here until his death in 1887. Since that time his son, Herbert, has continued the business. His wife, Susan, died leaving four children: Francenia, Adella, Carrie and Herbert.

    Silas D. Fish, born in Franklin, Conn., in 1823, is a son of Cook and Mary (Cook) Fish. He began at the age of twenty-two as brake-man on the railroad, and six years later he began to run a locomotive, and continued until 1886, since which time he has been in the Old Colony railroad shop. He has lived in Provincetown since 1873. He married Mary J., daughter of Job Courier. They have three daughters: Emma F., Viola D. and Estella F. They lost two daughters.

    James Gifford, born here in June, 1821, is the youngest of the four children—who reached maturity—of Benjamin Gifford, a Quaker, who, about 1807, came to Provincetown from Rochester, Mass. James Gifford was whaling one voyage while a lad, but has during his whole life been closely identified with the business and public interests of this town. He has been two terms county commissioner and five years in the state legislature, and twenty-four years deputy collector of customs at Provincetown. He rebuilt "The Gifford House" in 1869.

    Moses N. Gifford, son of James Gifford, was born June 11, 1848. He was married December 12,1870, to Harriet P. Lovering of Georgetown, Mass. Their daughter is Fannie C. He is treasurer of Seaman's Relief Society and Provincetown Building Association.

    Joseph S. Hatch, son of Joseph and Polly (Small) Hatch, was born in Truro in 1841. He is a sea captain in the fishing and coasting business. He married Josephine S., daughter of William and Sarah (Myrick) Holden, and granddaughter of William Holden. They have two daughters: Sarah M. and Annie W. Mrs. Hatch has kept a dry goods store since 1877.

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    John D. Hilliard, born in 1836, is a son of Jairus and Emily (Cook) Hilliard, and grandson of Thomas Hilliard. He married Rebecca H. daughter of Jonathan Hill. She died leaving three children: Nellie B., Alice S. and John D., jr. His second marriage was with Lizzie H., daughter of Phineas Paine. They have one daughter, Helen J. John W. Hilliard succeeded in 1880 to the wholesale fish business, begun in 1836 by Stephen Hilliard, who in that year opened a store for the sale of general merchandise. In 1846 Hilliard's wharf was erected. Stephen Hilliard afterward sold to Hilliard, Johnson & Co., who were succeeded by T. & J. H. Hilliard & Co. In 1859 Thomas Hilliard retired. The firm of Freeman & Hilliard succeeded and continued until 1880, when Nathan D. Freeman retired and John D. Hilliard continued the business.

    Hiram C. Holmes, born in 1861, is a son of Hiram and Nancy (Avery) Holmes. Hiram Holmes came to Provincetown at the age of nineteen and followed the sea in fishing and whaling. He was twenty-five years captain of a whaleman. He kept a hardware store from 1865 until his death in 1888. Hiram C. continued the business until January, 1890, when he sold out to William C. Bangs and entered the firm of Wilcox, Crittenden & Co., manufacturers of marine and awning hardware at Middletown, Conn. Mr. Holmes is traveling for the firm. He was married January 16, 1890, to Mary E. Dyer of Provincetown. His two sisters, Susie P. and Hattie F. L., reside with their mother at Provincetown.

    James P. Holmes, son of James M. and Salome C. (Soper) Holmes, and grandson of Nathaniel Holmes, was born in 1852. He was for about eight years on the steamer George Shattuck, then four years in Boston, and since 1880 he has kept a fruit and confectionery store at Provincetown. He married Sadie C., daughter of Thomas Lewis. They have one daughter living, Flora M.—and one died in infancy.

    Nathaniel Hopkins, son of Isaac and Hannah (Rich) Hopkins, and grandson of Isaac Hopkins, was born in Truro in 1815. He followed the sea from 1823 until 1847. eleven years of the time as master. Since 1847 he has been a ship carpenter. He owns a controlling interest in the Union Marine Railway Company. He married Aphiah Snow, who died leaving four children, three of whom are now living:

    Olive J., Aphiah L. and Addie. His second marriage was with Mrs. Delia P. Paine, daughter of Benjamin Hinckley. She died and he afterward married Mrs. Margaretta E. Smith.

    Philip R. Howes, born in Barnstable in 1852, is a son of Philip and Temperance B. (Ames) Howes, and grandson of Richard Howes. He has lived in Provincetown since 1873. He was express messenger on the railroad until 1888, and since that time he has been express agent

[p. 1002]

here. He has also kept a variety store since 1882. He married Emma F. Fish.

    Hezekiah P. Hughes, born in 1839 at North Truro, is a son of John and Hannah (Paine) Hughes, and grandson of John Hughes. He was in the war of the rebellion from August, 1862, until June, 1865, in the Third Massachusetts Cavalry. He was promoted to second lieutenant in September, 1864. He was keeper of Highland light for 3½ years. He was nine years bookkeeper for the Central Wharf Company, and since 1883 he has been a dry goods merchant in the Masonic Building. He married Orianna F., daughter of Edward Armstrong. Their only daughter is Anna M.

    Sylvanus N. Hughes, born in 1820 in Truro, is the eldest son of James and Jane (Avery) Hughes, and grandson of John Hughes. He followed the sea from 1830 until 1886, after 1842 as master. He has lived in Provincetown since 1866. He married Mary S. Collins, who died, leaving one son, Cullen A. His second marriage was with Mrs. Hannah Sparrow.

    Joseph P. Johnson, born in 1813 at Essex, Conn., was a son of John W. and Jerusha (Cary) Johnson. He came to Provincetown at the age of thirteen, and learned the trade of a sailmaker, at which he wrought for some time. He has been engaged in several other branches of business here. He served as moderator of town meetings twenty-eight years, selectman several years, seven years as representative in the legislature, and two terms state senator. He was agent for the Massachusetts Humane Society for about twenty-five years, several years agent for the Boston Board of Underwriters, and is now a director in the Provincetown National Bank. His first wife, Polly Cook, died leaving no children. His second wife, Susan Fitch, died leaving two children: Mary C. and Susan E. His third wife, Mary Whorf, left three children: Josephine P., George F. and William W.

    Samuel Knowles, a carpenter, born in Truro in 1831, is a son of John and Zeruiah (Atkins) Knowles, grandson of Samuel, great-grandson of John and great-great-grandson of Willard Knowles, born in 1712. He was in the war from July, 1862, until May, 1863, in Company A, Thirty-third Massachusetts Volunteers. He purchased in 1865 of James Chandler the mail and stage route between Orleans and Provincetown. In 1873 he established a livery stable and grain store Until 1888 he also acted as agent of the Cape Cod and New York and Boston Express Companies. He married Hannah E., daughter of Edward Larkin. Their children are: Emma B. and Carrie E., and one daughter, Virginia (Mrs. Joshua Atkins), who died leaving three children.

    Daniel F. Lewis, born in 1834, is the youngest son of George and

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Mary (Snow) Lewis, grandson of Eleazer Lewis and great-grandson of George Lewis. He is a ship carpenter by trade, but for the last six years he has been engaged in driving artesian wells. He married Mehitabel F. Avery for his first wife. His second wife was Mrs. Mercy M. Hopkins, and his present wife was Mrs. Mary N. Hallett, daughter of Reuben Brown.

    Isaac B. Lewis, born in 1831, is one of eleven children of Nathaniel, grandson of Eleazer, and great-grandson of George, who was a. descendant of George Lewis. Isaac B. married Olive A. Baker, who died leaving one son, Isaac W., who married Laura M. Freeman and has four children: Olsen E., Olive A., Nathaniel E. and an infant. Mr. Lewis married for his second wife Elizabeth A. Boothby. He has an adopted son, Ira A. Lewis. Mr. Lewis is engaged in weir fishing.

    Thomas Lewis, son of Nathaniel and Azubah (Snow) Lewis, was born in 1834. He began going to sea in 1844, attained to master in 1854, and continued coasting and fishing until 1888. He married Flora A., daughter of John Coan. Their children are: John A.,. Thomas J. and Sadie C.

    Adam Macool, born in Ireland in 1823, is a son of Robert and grandson of Adam H. Macool, both natives of Scotland. He came to this country in 1827, and in 1851 he came from Providence, R. I., to Provincetown, where he has since been a gauger and cooper. He is now agent for three whaling vessels. He began the manufacture of oil casks in 1858 near Atwood's wharf, where he has since carried-on a flourishing business. He married Sarah Ross. They have had four children, all of whom died in infancy.

    Joseph Manta, born in Portugal in 1843, is a son of Francis S. and grandson of Joseph S. Manta. He left home in 1854 and followed the sea from that time until 1876, when he started a grocery store nearly west of the present wharf which he purchased six years later. He has since become extensively engaged in the wholesale fish business, acting as agent for several large schooners engaged in the fresh fish business. He married Phelomina Perry. They have had five children: Joseph, John and Philip, living; and Francis and Phelomina, deceased.

    Duncan A. Matheson, born in Richmond county, Cape Breton, N. S., February 8, 1848, is a son of Donald and Flora Matheson. Donald Matheson was the son of Murdock and Anne Matheson, of Loch Alsh, Rosshire. Scotland. Flora Matheson was the daughter of John and Katherine Matheson, also of Loch Alsh, Rosshire, Scotland. Duncan A. came to Provincetown in September, 1872, and opened a shoe-store. In 1881 he added a clothing department, and in October, 1884,

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opened a branch store at Wellfleet. In August, 1884, he married Irene P., daughter of William and Rebecca Bush, of Provincetown. They have one daughter, Rebecca Florence Matheson.

    William Matheson, born in 1828, in Nova Scotia, is a son of Alexander Matheson. He came to Provincetown in 1848, and followed the sea from that time until 1879, fishing and coasting. He was master from 1853. He purchased in 1882 "Steamboat Wharf" where he conducts the wholesale fishing business, owning largely in fishing vessels, and affording employment to many men. His daughters, Mary S. and Jesse T. Matheson, occupy the building at the head of the wharf as a millinery store. He married Mary, daughter of John Matheson. Their children are: Lottie B. (Mrs. Angus McKay), Georgia D. (Mrs. Orrin Paine), Mary S., Jessie T., John A. and Lizzie W. They lost one infant son.

    Edwin C. Mayo, born in 1835, was a son of Stephen and Jerusha (Sawtell) Mayo, grandson of Joshua and great-grandson of Thomas Mayo. He began going to sea in 1848, and from 1856 until 1887 he was master of vessels. From 1887 until his death in November, 1889, he was engaged in the wholesale fish business. He married Alexandrina Kemp, by whom he had three daughters: Ella M., Carrie E. and Almira C.

    Roderick McIntosh, born in 1845, at Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, is the seventh son of Roderick McIntosh. He has lived in Provincetown since 1862, and since 1866 he has been master of vessels. He married Sarah, daughter of John Matheson. She died in 1885, leaving two sons: John A. and Daniel M.

    Angus McKay, born in 1843, at Cape Breton, is a son of Alexander McKay. He came to Provincetown in 1875. He has followed the sea in the fishing business since sixteen years of age, and has been master since twenty-one years old. He married Lottie B. Matheson. They have three children: William A., Cora S. and Osborn E.

    Norman McKenzie, son of Donald McKenzie, was born at Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, in 1845, and came to Provincetown in 1867. Since 1871 he has been master of coasting and fishing vessels. He married Sarah, daughter of Hector McKinon. Their children are: Sadie M., Lorance N. and Maggie A. (deceased.)

    Stephen Mott, son of Stephen Mott, was born in 1807 in Nantasket, Mass. He is a shipwright and caulker by trade. He came to Provincetown in 1843. He married Eveline Litchfield, who died in 1883, leaving two sons—Silas C. and Atwood.

    Charles Nickerson, born 1807, died 1887, was a son of Enos and grandson of Seth Nickerson. He was a tailor by trade. In 1830 he began to engage in the "fishing business," a term which is frequently

[p. 1005]

used to designate the various occupations connected with the prosecution of the bank fisheries. He continued in active business until his death. He married Eleanor, daughter of Jesse and Thankful H (Smith) Cook, and granddaughter of Samuel Cook. Their children were: Lucy M. and Ellen C., who died, and Emmie C., who now lives at the homestead with her mother.

    Eldridge Nickerson, born in 1797, was a son of Seth, and grandson of Seth Nickerson. He was engaged in fishing, and kept a small store on Long Point until 1843, when he came to the village where his daughters now live, and kept a store until his death in 1865. Since that time E. and M. Nickerson have continued to keep the store. He married Eunice Snow. Their children were: Eunice S. and Marinda J., and one son, who died in infancy.

    Luther Nickerson, born in 1829, is a son of Stephen and Rebecca R. (Dyer) Nickerson, grandson of Stephen, and great-grandson of Seth Nickerson. He married Elizabeth Stickney, of New Hampshire. She died, leaving two children, Rebecca D. (Mrs. Jacob Rood) and Luther B.

    Stephen T. Nickerson, oldest son of Stephen and Rebecca R. Nickerson, was born in 1824. He married Ruth S., daughter of Nathaniel and Ruth (Dyer) Covill. Luther and Stephen T. Nickerson succeeded to the business established by their father, Stephen Nickerson, and since 1854 have been engaged in the fisheries, owning extensive flake yards and valuable shore privileges.

    Artemas Paine, born in 1815 and died in 1883, was a son of Lot and Olive (Nickerson) Paine. He kept a grocery and ship chandlery store for several years. He was selectman several years, and also president of a marine insurance company. He married Lucy J., daughter of Ebenezer and Temperance (Lewis) Lothrop, and granddaughter of Brigadier-General Ebenezer Lothrop.

    James C. N. Paine, son of Lot and Olive (Nickerson) Paine, was born in 1818. He followed the sea from 1829 until 1867, several years as master of vessels. He married Lucy, daughter of David Ryder. She died, leaving one daughter, Lucy A. His second marriage was with Phoebe A., daughter of James T. and Louisa (Sparks) Cook. They have one daughter living, Louisa C., and one that died, Clara H.

    Lysander N. Paine, the president of the Savings Bank, and a prosperous business man, is the junior partner of the firm of J. & L. N. Paine, established in 1865, which owns largely in fishing vessels and conducts a general outfitting store. The business was begun first by R. E. Nickerson, Joshua Paine and James Emery in 1853, at which time another wharf was erected. In 1861 the firm became Paine &

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Emery. Mr. Emery retired in 1865, and is now a resident of Arlington.

    Thomas K. Paine, son of Jesse and Betsey (Hopkins) Paine, was born in 1846. He has been in the fishing business since 1860, and since 1882 in weir fishing. He has lived in Provincetown since 1868. He married Lizzie, daughter of Christopher Hussey of Maine. Their children are: George L., May E., and one that died in infancy.

    George W. Pettes, son of George W. and Ruth (Nickerson) Pettes and grandson of Timothy Nickerson, was born in 1831. He has been a sail maker since 1846. He married Elsiaida B. Turner.

    A. Louis Putnam united with Enos N. Atkins in 1862 in the purchase of the jewelry and fancy goods store established by A. S. Dudley in 1855. In 1864 Atkins retired. In 1870 Augustus Mitchell became a partner, and the firm of A. L. Putnam & Co. continued until 1888. Upon Mr. Mitchell's death the business again passed to A. L Putnam.

    James A. Reed, born in 1848, is a son of Allen and Eliza A. (Edson) Reed. He came to Provincetown in 1863 with his father, who kept the Pilgrim House five years, and then purchased Ocean Hall and converted it into a hotel known as the Central House. Since his death in 1881, James A. has been the manager. He was assistant deputy inspector and collector of customs from January, 1887, to December, 1887, and from February, 1888, until December 1, 1889, he was deputy collector and inspector of customs. He married Ada E., daughter of Frank A. Paine. Their children are: Ethel A., Lula A. and Earl E.

    John Rosenthal, born in 1833 in France, is a son of Jaques Rosenthal. He came to this country at the age of twenty, and at Baltimore, October 26, 1854, he enlisted in the Fifth United States Infantry as a private. He was promoted corporal March 4, 1858; sergeant November 1, 1858; sergeant major December 11, 1863; ordinance sergeant April 30, 1864. He resigned and was discharged September 25, 1885. He was in several important expeditions, and was in the battle of Appache Canon against the Texans March 28, 1862. He married Mary E., daughter of Prince Freeman. They have two children: Mabel F. (Mrs. A. G. Lester) and Irving L.

    Benjamin Small, born in 1802, is the son of Taylor and Mary (Lombard) Small. He followed the sea in the fishing business until 1860. He gave five thousand dollars to the Provincetown public library in 1889.

    James A. Small5, born in 1840 in Truro, is a son of Joshua4 and Ruth Kenney (Isaac3, Francis2, Samuel Small1). He was in the war of the rebellion from July, 1862, until 1865, in the Third Massachusetts

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Cavalry, and was discharged with the rank of sergeant major. Since 1869 he has been a member of Central Wharf Company. He married Rebecca G., daughter of John and Hannah (Paine) Hughes. Their only daughter is Lydia H.

    Joshua T. Small6, is the eldest son of Thomas K5 and Maria Jerusha (Baldwin) Small, (Joshua4, Isaac3, Francis2, Samuel Small1). He succeeded N. H. Drie, baker, in 1878. In 1882 he purchased the bakery of Jacob Gross and has continued since that date a successful business at the corner of Commercial and Gosnold streets. He married D. Ellen, daughter of James Livermore.

    David Smith, son of Seth and Ruth Smith, and grandson of Seth Smith, was born in 1814. He followed the sea until 1867, and from that time until his death in 1888, he was in a grocery and provision store in Provincetown. He married Lucy Lewis, who died, leaving five children: Lucinda S., Lucy C., David L., Azubah S. and Richard C. His second marriage was with Mrs. Jurusha A. Lewis, daughter of Nehemiah and Hope (Cobb) Rich. They have two children living:

    Charles B. and Fred. W., and they lost two. Mrs. Smith had one son by her former marriage, Joseph H. Lewis.

    Francis P. Smith was born in 1835 in the Azore islands. He came to Provincetown in 1851, and followed the sea from that time until 1871, as a steward, since that time he has kept the Atlantic House, which was formerly known as the Union House. He married Fidelia P., daughter of Nathan Dunham. Their children are: Nellie B., Belle G., Selena F., Garfield P., Frank P. and Priscilla M.

    H. Merrill Smith, born in 1826, in Chatham, is a son of Heman and Rebecca (Jackson) Smith, grandson of Nathaniel and great-grandson of Ralph Smith. Mr. Smith followed the sea seventeen years. With Thomas W. Dyer he started business in paints, oils and hardware in 1869. Under the name of T. W. Dyer & Co. the business was continued until 1886, when Mr. Smith purchased the business. He married Catharine S., daughter of David Eldridge. Their children are: Heman Francis, Franklin N., and two daughters that died—one in infancy, and one, Eva M., December 9,1883, aged twenty-one years.

    John Smith, born at Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, in 1829, is a son of Donald Smith. He came to Provincetown at the age of twelve and has followed the sea since that time. He has been master since 1848. He was coasting, fishing, and on foreign voyages until 1883; since that time he has run the steamer Longfellow between Provincetown and Boston. He married Mary E. Lavender and has one son, Donald B.

    William M. Smith, born in 1857, is a son of William W. and Mary C. (Johnson) Smith. He married Nancy W., daughter of Joshua

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Paine, and has one son, William P. Mr. Smith is a photographer. He was a partner with George H. Nickerson from 1880 to 1883, when he opened rooms at the store of Amasa Smith. In 1889 he purchased the premises formerly owned by George Chamberlain.

    Jonathan F. Snow, born in 1846, is a son of Jonathan and Susan (Young) Snow, and grandson of Jonathan Snow. He followed the sea from 1863 until 1875, was then in mercantile business until 1883, since which time he has been clerk of the steamer Longfellow. He married Emeline, daughter of Waters Taylor. Their only son is Fred. R.

    Obadiah Snow, born in 1825, is a son of Josiah and Ruth (Dyer) Snow. He was a boat builder in early life and followed the trade twenty-one years. He married Sarah M. Dyer, who died, leaving one son, Elijah O., who is married and has one son. Mr. Snow began business as a music dealer many years ago, upon the site of the present town hall. In 1875 he refitted his present store, and continued a dealer in music, fancy goods, carpets and other goods, assisted by his son.

    Reuben S. Snow, born in 1831, is a son of John and Sally (Lancy) Snow, and grandson of Josiah Snow. He has. been a house carpenter since 1847. He married Hannah D., daughter of Nathaniel and Sally Paine, and granddaughter of Elisha Paine.

    Richard G. Tarrent was born in 1830 in Cork, Ireland. He came to Provincetown with his father, James Tarrent, at the age of sixteen. He was six years in the whaling business, and after spending four years in California, he was boat fishing until 1870, and since that time he has run a seine loft. He married Ann McGregor, who died, leaving no children, and he was afterward married to Ruth A. Seavy, who died, leaving two children: Lizzie A. (Mrs. E. E. Cramer) and Charlotte A. (Mrs. Charles Hopkins). His third marriage was with Susan A. Coffin. Their only daughter is Lillie.

    Amasa Taylor, son of Amasa and Polly (Gould) Taylor, grandson of David and Susan Taylor, and great-grandson of John and Susanna Taylor, was born in 1824. He has been a blacksmith at Provincetown since 1858. He married Rebecca Crosby, who died, leaving two children: Abiel C. and Mary A. (Mrs. E. Wheeler). His second marriage was with Hannah Bush, widow of James Bush. They have three children: Rebecca A., Minnie C. and Lucinda C.

    Thomas S. Taylor, born in Yarmouth in 1840, is a son of Charles and Hannah (Ellis) Taylor, grandson of Elijah, and great-grandson of Elijah Taylor. He came to Provincetown in 1853, and followed the sea from that time until 1886, the last thirty years in whaling vessels. He was master of vessels after 1862. He married Josephine E., daughter

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of Elisha West, and granddaughter of Ebenezer West, who was a native of Plymouth, and removed to Nova Scotia. They have four children: Charles N., E. Thomas, William W. and Hersey D.

    Joseph A. West, son of Elisha and Barbara Ann (Lavender) West, was born in Nova Scotia in 1846, and came to Provincetown in 1848. He married Josephine Hatton. Their children are: Josie H. and Louis J. Joseph A. West and Josiah F. Brown, in 1868, succeeded to the business of C. P. Dyer. During the same year Mr. West became sole proprietor, and continues to keep a large stock of furniture, fancy goods and builder's and hardware goods.

    John G. Whitcomb, born in Yarmouth, Maine, in 1834, is a son of Levi Whitcomb. He married Mary J. Fountain and has, one son, Charles T. C. Mr. Whitcomb began, in December, 1865, to build vessels upon the shore nearly opposite his present residence. The whaling schooner Alcyone, of 137 tons, the first vessel built by Mr. Whitcomb, was launched in 1866. In 1867 theCora Morrison, of 129 tons, was launched from his yard. In 1867 the schooner Freddie W. Alton, of 129 tons, was launched. November, 1868, the brig D. A. Small, of 166 tons, was completed. The schooner Lottie Bell, of 131 tons, in 1869, and the schooner Willie Swift, of 137 tons, in 1875, were also built by Mr. Whitcomb at his yard. In 1867, while hastening work upon the Alton, Mr. Whitcomb cut and carted to his yard from Truro woods good white oak timber, which he used in the frame of the Alton. Mr. Whitcomb still repairs a great many vessels, but has since 1875 built no new vessels.

    Joseph Whitcomb, born in 1841 in Yarmouth, Maine, is a son of Levi Whitcomb. He came to Provincetown in 1865. He was deputy sheriff from 1876 until 1889, when he was elected high sheriff. Mr. Whitcomb assisted for many years Robert Knowles, undertaker, and in 1880, upon the death of Mr. Knowles, established himself in business as his successor. He married Susan E. Knowles, who died leaving two children: Flossie M. and Susie E. His second marriage was with Levinia C. Mullen. They have one son, Joseph W.

    Andrew T. Williams, born in 1832, is a son of Jacob C. and Mary (Rich) Williams, and grandson of Andrew N. Williams. Mr. Williams conducts the general store formerly owned by the Union Wharf Company, which was established in 1831 by Thomas Nickerson, Jonathan Nickerson, Samuel Soper and Stephen Nickerson. Several changes in the partners followed, but the firm continued until its dissolution in 1879 to do a large fishing business, which Mr. Williams has continued. He married Eveline, daughter of Samuel and Eveline Soper. They have three children: Fred. E., Mary E. and Nina S.

    Nathan Young, son of Nehemiah and Phebe (Higgins) Young, and

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grandson of Eleazer Young, was born in 1823. He followed the sea from 1833 until 1863, as master after 1849. Since 1864 he has been a member of the Central Wharf Company. He married Abbie, daughter of John Freeman. Their only daughter is Millie W.

    Paron C. Young, born in 1838, is a son of Elisha and Betsey (Sparks) Young, and grandson of Elisha Young. He entered the war in January, 1864, in Third Massachusetts Cavalry, Company I. He received a wound at Cedar creek in October, 1864, which closed his active service. He married Susan E., daughter of Joseph P. Johnson. They have two children: William H. and Nettie M.