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The town chapters are organized with history, industry, schools, churches and villages first, followed by a biographical sketch section. I have split the biographical sketch section from the rest for several towns. The complete Sandwich chapter, No. XIV, is pages 264-322.

History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts

edited by Simeon L. Deyo.

1890. New York: H. W. Blake & Co

pages 264-302 of CHAPTER XIV.

TOWN OF SANDWICH.

Location and Description. —Settlement and Early Growth. —Domestic Affairs. —Accession of Settlers. —List of Inhabitants in 1730. —Continued Advancement. —Firing the Woods. —The Town's Poor. —The Revolutionary Period. —The Present Century. — Villages. —Civil History. —Churches. —Schools. —Societies. —Cemeteries.

Biographical Sketches. [separate file]

    THE history of Sandwich as a white man's settlement now covers a period of 253 years embracing 48 years preceding the formation of Barnstable county. Prior to 1654 the records of the proprietors are meagre and nearly illegible, but the events recorded are those common to the early history of the plantations of Plymouth colony, and are fraught with the domestic incidents and names so reverently preserved by the present generation. Notwithstanding the records prior to 1884 embrace also the history of Bourne, the compilation of the history of the settlement and growth of Sandwich will be confined to the territory now encompassed within its bounds, so far as a careful research into the musty pages of the past may render the facts separable.

    Sandwich is the second town on the north side of the Cape from the main land, fronting for several miles on Cape Cod bay, which forms its northern boundary. The peculiar rhomboidal shape of the town from the line of the bay renders its boundary complicated. Barnstable forms the eastern boundary, extending from near Scorton harbor southwesterly to the northeast corner of Mashpee ; the towns forming the southern boundary are Falmouth and Mashpee, the latter also being the eastern boundary for the southwestern portion of Sandwich; and Bourne forms the western according to the division line of 1884 described in the chapter on that town. The area of Sandwich within the perimeter given is 20,955 acres, the surface of which, excepting the salt marshes along the bay, presents a beautiful diversity of undulations in which hills and downs blend in pleasing variety. The valleys contain ponds and rivulets. The central and southern portions of the town are still covered with large tracts of woods affording game of the smaller

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sort. The soil is a sandy loam on the elevations, and a fertile alluvium around the ponds and in the valleys.

    The ponds are numerous, the larger ones being Peter's, containing 176 acres; Spectacle, of 151 acres; Triangle, 84; Snake, 76; and Lawrence, 70. The smaller ponds worthy of mention are Ellis, of 25 acres; Mill, southwest of Sandwich village, 47; Weeks, 12; and two at East Sandwich, of 12 acres each. Of these ponds only one has a visible outlet; the one southwest of the village supplies Mill river with power for mills. Wakeby pond, connected with the Mashpee, is partially surrounded by the territory of Sandwich.

    The inhabitants have always paid much attention to agricultural and mechanical pursuits, and less than do those of the neighboring towns to maritime employments. Besides the culture of the usual crops large quantities of cranberries are successfully raised in every part. Orchards of all kinds are a source of profit. Fishing is one of the occupations of the residents, but not a large amount of shipping is owned and that small, only sufficient for home pursuits. The harbors, too small for important commerce and large shipping, are adequate for the wants of the town, and this fact has assisted in determining the prevailing occupations of its people.

    The territory of Sandwich, prior to 1637, was embraced in the unsettled portions of the vast tract granted to William Bradford and his associates then called the council of Plymouth, and to this council the people of the town were subject, especially in the affairs of the church. No person was permitted "to live or inhabit within the Government of New Plymouth without the leave and liking of the Governor and his assistants." No laws had been made touching political and civil rights until November 15, 1636. A civil power— not church government—.was then needed to prevent and correct a conflict of interests in the growing colony. Then it was enacted that annually an election should be held, "but confined to such as shall be admitted as freemen," to whom a stringent oath was prescribed; and none were to be admitted but such as were "orthodox in the fundamentals of religion, and possessed of a ratable estate of twenty pounds." The idea was inculcated that colonies could be established with the right of representation, which was an incentive to the enterprising to seek other lands. Historians assert, that religious considerations also led the ten Saugus (Lynn) pioneers to seek this first plantation of the Cape. Whatever their motives, after deliberation they concluded that the Plymouth colony could be no more stringent than the Massachusetts, nor present more obstacles to their aspirations; so they sought and obtained permission from the colony of Plymouth to locate a plantation at Shaume, now Sandwich. The record says: ''April 3, 1637, it is also agreed by the Court that these

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ten men of Saugus, viz., Edmund Freeman, Henry Feake, Thomas Dexter, Edward Dillingham, William Wood, John Carman, Richard Chadwell, William Almy, Thomas Tupper, and George Knott, shall have liberty to view a place to sit down, and have sufficient lands for three-score families, upon the conditions propounded to them by the governor and Mr. Winslow."

    That year these men except Thomas Dexter, who came subsequently, settled with their families in and near that part of the town now occupied by the village of Sandwich. Within four years fifty others from Lynn, Duxbury and Plymouth came, many bringing their families, and the "three-score," as permitted, appear on the proprietors' records in 1641. The fifty later comers were: George Allen, Thomas Armitage, Anthony Besse, Mr. Blakemore, George Bliss, Thomas Boardman, Robert Bodfish, Richard Bourne, William Bray brook, John Briggs, Richard Kerby, John King, Thomas Landers, Mr. Leverich, John Miller, William Newland, Benjamin Nye, George Buitt, Thomas Burge, Thomas Butler, Tho. Chillingsworth, Edmund Clarke, George Cole, John Dingley, Henry Ewer, John Fish, Jonathan Fish, Mr. Potter, James Skiffe, George Slawson, Michael Turner, John Vincent, Richard Wade, Thomas Willis, Nathaniel Fish, John Friend, Peter Gaunt, Andrew Hallett, Thomas Hampton, William Harlow, William Hedge, Joseph Holway, William Hurst, John Joyce, John Wing, Mr. Winsor, Mr. Wollaston, Anthony Wright, Nicholas Wright, and Peter Wright. Changes occurred early in the population—some returning, others seeking lands eastward on the Cape, and others arriving—but of these 60 families under 56 different names, after 250 years the tax roll of the town contains 16.

    The colonial powers made stringent laws for these early settlers who soon learned that laws were not placed upon the statute books for ornament; for the court record of 1638 says "Richard Bourne fined for not ringing 3 pigs; John Carman, 1 sow and 11 pigs; Thos. Tupper, 5 swine; Thos. Armitage, 2 swine "; and at another court the same year "John Burge, Peter Gaunt, Richard Chadwell, Edward Freeman, Richard Kerby, Robert Bodfish and John Dingley were fined "for the similar neglect. It would seem incredible that pigs could have then done damage; but the law required the pigs of the remotest plantations of the colony to wear rings in the nose, and the owner, for this dereliction, must needs go to Plymouth to answer in court. During the same year Henry Ewer and his wife were ordered to depart from Sandwich for some violation of law, and "Mr. Skeffe is required to send them back because he encouraged their coming."

    How this sentence terminated does not appear ; but many of his descendants succeeded him and the name still exists in all respectability. The same court deemed it necessary that the land in Sand-

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wich should be defined and allotted with all convenient speed, and for this purpose directed Mr. Alden and Miles Standish to proceed at once to that plantation. This was done in 1638 and afterward recorded in the proprietors' records ; but from these records no intelligible description of these allotments can be made ; and if described as the records read, the lapse of time has so nearly effaced the landmarks named by the old surveyors—the marked trees, the stakes and stones, even the rocks themselves—that with the record alone not a single property could now be correctly bounded; but there are several estates both here and in Bourne now owned by the descendants of the pioneers, and thus a few of the original tracts can be approximately located.

    The rigid surveillance of the court over the disposal of lands to persons considered unfit, was continued for some years, and in a measure perhaps retarded the growth of the settlement; but in 1643, four years after Sandwich had been clothed with the dignity of a town, the following, between the ages of 16 and 60, were enrolled as liable to bear arms: Francis Allen, George Allen jr., Matthew Allen, Ralph Allen, Samuel Allen, John Bell, Edmund Berry, Anthony Bessy, Miles. Black, John Blakemore, Thomas Boardman, Robert Bodfish, Richard Bourne, George Buitt, Richard Burgess, Thomas Burgess sr., Thomas Burgess jr., Thomas Butler, Richard Chadwell, Edmund Clark, Henry Cole, Edward Dillingham, Henry Dillingham, John Dingley, John Ellis, Henry Feake, John Fish, Jonathan Fish, Nathaniel Fish, Edmund Freeman sr., Edmund Freeman jr., John Freeman, Peter Gaunt, Thomas Gibbs, John Green, Thomas Greenfield, Joseph Holway, Peter Hanbury, John Johnson, Thomas Johnson, John Joyce, Richard Kerby, George Knott, Thomas Landers, Mr. William Leverich, John Newland,. William Newland, Thomas Nichols, Benjamin Nye, John Presbury, Henry Sanderson, Henry Stephen, Thos. Chillingsworth, James Skiff, William Swift, Thomas Tupper, Michael Turner, John Vincent, Nathaniel Willis, Lawrence Willis, Joseph Winsor, Daniel Wing, John Wing, Stephen Wing, William Wood, Anthony Wright, Nicholas Wright, Peter Wright.

    The towns of the colony were required in 1654 to procure books for recording divisions and purchases of land, after which the records of Sandwich were more properly kept. The reader has been given the names of the heads of the original three-score families and the military roll which included the young men ; now after the lapse of a few years, when the records, bounding each freeman's land have been arranged, we find the following named persons had land in addition to those alluded to: Jedediah Allen, William Allen, William Bassett, Nehemiah Bessie, Job Bourne, Michael Blackwell, John Bodfish, Samuel Briggs, Jacob Burge, Joseph Burge, Ambrose Fish, John

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Gibbs, William Gifford, Robert Harper, Edward Hoxie, Lodo. Hoxie, John Jenkins, James Skiff jr., Isaac Turner, and Thomas Tobey sr.

    These, with those previously named, comprised the settlers of Sandwich as found by the records during the first twenty years. Some had sought other homes on the Cape, during the time, but where, no mention is given. The population of Sandwich in the year 1764 was 1,449 ; in 1776 it was 1,912 ; in 1790, 1,991; 1800, 2,024 ; 1810, 2,382; 1820, 2,884; 1830, 3,367; 1840, 3,719; 1850, 4,181; 1860, 4,479; 1870, 3,694; 1875, 3,417; 1880, 3,543; and in 1885, after the incorporation of Bourne, the population was 2,124, of whom 556 were voters.

    The Sandwich settlement was not beyond the social reach of the Plymouth people, for it is recorded that William Paddy, a merchant of Plymouth, on the 28th of November, 1639, took in wedlock one of its fair daughters. No doubt this marriage was legally contracted and completed ; for the court yet had stringent laws regarding the intercourse between young people, and as late as 1648 a citizen of Sandwich was forbidden to show attention to a certain female "until the court can better discern the truth of his pretensions."

    A deed of the plantation was executed in 1651 confirming the former grant, the conditions of which had been fulfilled by the proprietors. These held lands in common, to be used jointly and to convey to New-Comers who might be qualified to become freemen. A man could become a freeman, entitled to hold land and vote, but his orthodoxy constituted his fitness; and even the proprietors must have permission from the court for certain desired privileges, as we find in 1644 that George Allen was " licensed to cut hay at the ponds beyond Sandwich plains." These restrictions were removed a few years later.

    The proprietor's records, year after year, show increase in the cares of a growing town. The town neck—that portion east of the harbor—had been used in common as pasturage, but in 1652 it was thought best, to use its luxuriant grass for young cattle, and March 12, it was "agreed that the Town Neck still be used for pasturage, from 1 May to Oct. 4, but that no cattle except calves shall be put in without the consent of the town." The town neck is still held in shares by the descendants of the proprietors or by purchasers, being 60 shares of two acres each.

    Whaling was quite actively engaged in by the people of the colonies, and the wounded whales, often escaping and dying, would float to the north shore of the town. Grampus and other large fish would also be stranded on the flats by the receding tides, and as early as 1652 it was "ordered that Edmund Freeman, Edward Perry, George Allen, Daniel Wing, John Ellis, and Thomas Tobey, these six men, shall take care of all the fish that Indians shall cut up within the limits

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of the town so as to provide safety for it, and shall dispose of the fish for the town's use ; also that if any man that is an inhabitant shall find a whale and report to any of these six men, he shall have a double share; and that these six men shall take care to provide laborers and whatever is needful, so that whatever whales either white men or Indians gives notice of, they may dispose of the proceeds to the town's use to be divided equally to every inhabitant." This was found to be a source of considerable income to the town, and soon after the court at Plymouth enacted that one barrel of oil from every whale be given to them, which was acceded to ; but this whaling on land gradually declined as the whalers at sea became more proficient.

    Among other duties of the year 1652 the town appointed "Anthony Thacher, Wm. Bassett, Jonathan Hatch, John Finny, James Skeff, Henry Dillingham, John Ellis, John Wing, Jos. Rogers, Edw. Bangs, Wm. Hedge, Thomas Hinckley, and Thomas Dexter," as a committee to attend to the laying out of a road from Sandwich, to Plymouth, which is now a portion of the county road. The road had not been completed two years later, for in 1654 both "Plymouth and Sandwich, were presented for not having the country highway between these places cleared so as to be passable by man and horse." The difficulties of the passage and the distance to Plymouth to have the town's grain ground induced Thomas Dexter to negotiate with the proprietors to build a mill in 1654, and "the town gave full power to Edward Dillingham and Richard Bourne to agree with sd Dexter to go on and build the mill." But this project failed, and "John Ellis, Wm. Swift, Wm. Allen, and James Skeff were engaged to build a mill, the town paying £20." This sum was subscribed by 22 of the freemen and the mill was completed early in 1655 ; the records say for May 18, "The town hath agreed with Matthew Allen to grind and have the toll for his pains."

    Dexter's determination to build a grist mill led him to again agree to erect one, if the town "would allow him 5 pts. per bush, toll; he to build and maintain the mill and dam and all other things thereto belonging; and to provide a miller at his own cost." This agreement was entered into 1655, but the mill was not completed until later, and Dexter's toll dish continued to grow in dimensions until its unlawful size caused the appointment by the selectmen of Goodman Chadwell, Edmund Freeman and Thomas Tobey, "to agree with Thos. Dexter, jr., for the grinding of the town's corn ; and if they fail to agree then 12 acres of the land at the river that comes out of the pond at the head of Benj. Nye's marsh, shall be granted to any other of the townsmen that will set up a mill." Dexter's toll dish not shrinking in size, the land promised by the town was laid off at Little pond furnishing a mill, and a toll dish under the town's control. This last mill was

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doubtless at Spring hill, and was erected in 1669. The obligations of Mr. Dexter to the town, or how far he could control his toll is not explained in the records only as heretofore mentioned. Nor was the future of the old mill a subject of action for the selectmen for many years.

    A copy of a deed under date of 1668, transcribed from records at Plymouth is now in possession of the Nye Brothers, who occupy the Thomas Dexter property. James Skeff, jr., that year sold it to Thomas Dexter, sr., for £15, part to be paid in money, the remainder in cattle and corn. Messrs. Holway, Burgess, Sears, the Sandwich Savings Bank, and later B. F. Brackett (now deceased) were interested in the title down to 1879, when William L. Nye and Levi S. Nye became the occupants as Mr. Brackett's tenants. The old mill did more or less service until 1881, when from its antiquity it was excused from grinding the little corn that occasionally came. The rude hopper and gearings, now dismantled, are a faithful memento of the simplicity of the fathers of the present generations. The old undershot water wheel on the side was long ago replaced by a turbine; and early in the present century a woolen factory was erected on the east of the grist mill. This was used for carding and cloth-dressing until 1830, when it was taken down. Upon this site later, the present building was erected for a marble works, sawing the blocks of marble below and finishing the slabs in the rooms above, which work was in turn discontinued about 1859 or '60. After two or three years L. B. Nye leased this building, where he carried on wheelwrighting and pounding clay for the Cape Cod Glass Works until 1871; Levi S. Nye manufactured jewelers' boxes here until 1876; and in 1879 the present active business of making and printing tags was inaugurated by the Nye Brothers, furnishing employment for several persons in the factory and a much larger number outside.

    The fact, that the love of money is the root of much evil, is older than the old mill; and that some in the generation of which we write should be tempted beyond their powers of resistance, was as natural as the turning of the mill-wheel under a head of water. But the records of that time contain other than mill-toll temptations, and the charitable manner in which the fathers recorded them indicates that they were only ripples on the smooth sea of justice. In 1667 Joseph Burge was fined £1, "for disorderly helping away horses out of the colony"; and later, in 1669, a shirt having been stolen was found in the possession of a person who claimed to have purchased it of an Indian; this person was required "to look up the Indian," and to give him ample time to do so, he was bound over for a term. It is just to say that irregularities of this kind were rare and records of no others are to be found on the town's books of those days.

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    The maturing crops of wheat and corn dotted the knolls of the northern portion of .Sandwich at the time of which we write, and to the inhabitants these were of great value. The sheep husbandry had also become important in the wants of the town; but both industries had their enemies. The blackbirds from the marshes and the wolves from the woods south and west of the settlement gave occasion for the order in 1672,  that all masters of families and all young men that are at their own disposing, shall kill or cause to be killed one dozen of black-birds." The amount paid for wolves' scalps was from 5s. to £1 each according to size. These exactions and bounties were continued for many years until the necessity was removed. The sheep husbandly attained its greatest importance in the early part of the eighteenth century, the town erecting yards in various parts, over which shepherds were placed. After about 1730 it declined as rapidly as it had advanced. The activity and policy of the town exterminated the wolves before 1800, for they were reduced to one several years previous. The records of January 19, 1790, say that the town "offered a bounty of £25 to any one who shall kill the wolf, catamount or tiger infesting this and the neighboring towns and destroying sheep." This bounty was increased in March of the same year to £30, and at the same time it was ordered, that if the committee to whom this matter was referred, thought it expedient to have a general muster of the inhabitants to secure the depredator, then every able-bodied man should be called to engage in the duty.

    These were not the only clouds to shadow the people of Sandwich; for in 1676 Ralph Allen and Stephen Skiff were appointed ''to carry the town's mind to Barnstable, that the towns may know each others minds in reference to the bringing of some of the people of the out-towns, among us." This action of the town indicated the solicitude occasioned by the war of King Philip for those dwelling in more unprotected towns. The doors of the houses were opened for those in danger, and watch was kept by the town lest the Indians of the Cape should be induced to commit depredations as they were urged to do. Sandwich by money and men responded to every call of the colonial government in this war, which has been mentioned in chapter VI.

    While the town was thus active in its domestic affairs, accessions had been made to its territory by the New Comers, and the boundary lines that had been established on the east in 1659 and in 1685, were readjusted, substantially where they now are, by the selectmen of Sandwich and Barnstable in 1702. The bounds between Falmouth and Sandwich were established the same year, and between Sandwich and Mashpee in 1705 by agents appointed for the purpose. In 1887 the legislature established the present straighter line of separation between Sandwich and Mashpee. While its ter-

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ritory had been somewhat increased, the bounds defined, and peaceable title secured, accessions had also been made to its settlers as the years rolled on and the eighteenth century dawned upon the settlement. The first "three-score families" prior to 1641 have been named ; the deaths, removals and new arrivals which had occurred in the plantation are plainly indicated by the training list and the names of the resident freemen in 1654,—the year the recording of their names was first required by law. No accurate list of further changes in the settlers can be given until 1730, when Mr. Fessenden, many years a pastor among the people, made a list of 136 heads of families—exclusive of Quakers—the then residents of the town. After this lapse of nearly a century from the settlement, the changes would naturally be great; the original settlers had passed away and their descendants were occupying the patrimony ; others had arrived : and as many were not freemen their names have not appeared in the lists heretofore given. But by appending the names given by Mr. Freeman, a comparison of all, each with the other, the reader will recognize the names of the settlers of Sandwich during the first century of its settlement and growth. The names in this list of 1730 were: James Atkins, Samuel Barlow, Samuel Barber, Thomas Burgess, Lieutenant William Bassett, Nathan Barlow, Peleg Barlow and Eliza his wife. Nathan Bourne and Mary his wife, Eleazer Bourne, Jonathan Bourne, Dea. Timothy Bourne and Temperance his wife, John Blackwell and Lydia his wife, Silas Bourne, Colonel Methia Bourne, John Barlow, Ezra Bourne, John Bodfish, Jacob Burge, Samuel Blackwell, Micah Blackwell, Joshua Blackwell, sr., jr. and 3d: John Chipman, Edward Dillingham, sr., Simeon Dillingham, Solomon Davis, Richard Essex, Nathaniel Fish. John Ellis and Sarah his wife, Josiah Ellis and Sarah his wife. Lieutenant Matthias Ellis, sr., Malachi Ellis, Moses Swift, jr., Seth Fish, John Freeman, John Foster, Joseph Foster, John Fish, sr., John Fish, jr., Benjamin Freeman, Widow Freeman, William Freeman, Edmund Freeman, Benjamin Gibbs, Widow Gibbs, Cornelius Gibbs, Richard Garrett, Thomas Gibbs, sr. and jr., Samuel Gibbs, sr. and jr., Sylvester Gibbs, Hannibal Handy, Isaac and John Handy, Cornelius and Zaccheus Handy, Richard Handy, Ebenezer Howland. Joseph Hatch, Thomas Hicks, Isaac Jennings, Samuel Jennings, Shubael Jones, Ralph Jones, jr., Joseph Lawrence, Samuel Lawrence, Richard Landers, John and Nathan Landers, Widow Morton. Nathan Nye. William Newcomb and Bath his wife, Joseph, Timothy, Peleg Samuel, Benjamin, Jonathan, Ebenezer, and Nathan Nye, jr., Joseph Nye, sr., Seth Pope, sr. and jr., Widow Pope, and the following Perry's: John, jr., Samuel, Elisha, Benjamin, Benjamin, jr., Widow Perry, Timothy, Elijah, John, Ezra, Ezra, jr., Abner, Samuel, jr., and Ebenezer Perry; Elkanah Smith, John and Samuel Smith, Seth Stewart, Samuel Swift,

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Ephriam Swift and Sarah his wife, Moses Swift, Jabez and Abigail his wife, Samuel Sanders, Captain Stephen Swift, Gamaliel Stewart, Samuel Swift, jr., Josiah Swift, Jireh Swift, Joseph Swift, Jonathan Tobey, Nathan and Cornelius Tobey, Gershom Tobey, Medad Tupper, Eliakim and Eldad Tobey, Dea. Israel Tupper and wife Eliza, John Tobey sr. and jr., Eleazer and William Tobey, Samuel and Seth Tobey, John Vilking, Nathaniel Wing, Widow Wing, Ebenezer Wing.

    Returning to the details of the advancement of the town it is found by the records that the inhabitants had not been idle. Leave had been given "to certain persons to box and milk two thousand pine trees, for two years, £2 to be paid to the town for the use." This was in 1707; and in 1717 leave was given "to sundry persons to set up a saw-mill upon the brook at Spring Hill;" also to others the privilege to build a dam across the cove between town neck and the beach to prevent the overflow of the meadows. The remains of this dam are yet visible—a suggestion of future cranberry bogs. Again in 1742 Samuel Wing was voted "the liberty to erect a grist mill on Spring-hill river; " and another law enacted by the town the same year "ordered that a passage be made into the pond in the centre of the town, for herrings.''

    Another custom of the proprietors, would, if followed, be a cause of alarm at the present day ; it was that of firing the woods. At the town meeting held March 21,1754, forty-two men were appointed "to fire the woods before Apr. 16." To the reader it may appear strange that the custom of firing the woods prevailed here as late as 150 years ago. When this territory was settled the forest was composed of larger trees, consequently but little underbrush, and the trees were not injured by the fire which was to facilitate the growth of herbage of various kinds for sheep and cattle. It also destroyed the noxious shrubs and decaying fallen branches which impeded the travel of man and beast. Doctor Hildreth, in his description of the custom, says : "While the red man possessed the country and annually set fire to the fallen leaves, the forests presented a noble and enchanting appearance. The eye roved with delight. Like the divisions of an immense temple the forests were crowded with innumerable pillars, the branches of whose shafts interlocking, formed the archwork of support to that leafy roof which covered and crowned the whole. But since the white man took possession, the annual fires have been checked, and the woodlands are now filled with shrubs and brush that obstruct the vision on every side, and convert these once beautiful forests into a rude and tasteless wilderness."

    Referring again to the town records, the fact is evident that prior to 1726 the town had had no poor people, or the community had for

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gotten that "The poor ye have with you always "; for on the 14th of July of that year, in open town meeting, it was ordered "that a house be sett up of seventeen foot long and thirteen foot wide, at the town's cost and for the town's use for such of the poor of the town to dwell in as shall from time to time be ordered there by the selectmen or overseers of the poor; and that the same be furnished fit to dwell in and the cost thereof to be drawn out of the town treasury per order from the selectmen. And that sd house be sett in the most convenient place between the town's pound and the mill river." On the 18th of May, 1773, a committee, that had previously been appointed, reported that it was best to hire the house of Seth Tobey for the poor, which was done only a short time, when the town purchased the present poor-house farm on the Spring Hill road, of which Elijah Hancock has been the keeper for many years.

    The clouds of war again were spread over the county, and Sandwich had individual duties to perform, which were executed in the most seasonable and loyal manner. In 1767 the town ordered the building of a powder house, which was duly stocked with munitions of war. Other precautions were wisely taken, and every call, by the government, for men and means during the war of the revolution, was responded to with alacrity. Besides the proportion due and required in this great struggle for independence by the people, Sandwich had local obstructions to impede and embarrass. The north shore must be watched and secured from threatened bombardment and invasion by the enemy; Falmouth relied, when similar depredations were threatened, upon this town for aid, which was granted by midnight marches.

    In 1778 the smallpox appeared among the inhabitants of Sandwich, causing more alarm than would a British fleet if anchored within gunshot of the town. The action taken to suppress this contagion was prompt and effective. A pest-house was erected, the roads were fenced, nurses were provided, red flags prevented intrusion to its vicinity, and even stray dogs and cats were sacrificed to prevent a spread of the contagious disease.

    The sunshine of peace in 1783 dispelled the clouds of war. Sandwich had suffered the loss of several brave citizens—some had fallen in defense of the liberties for which they had contended; but the greater number had fled to Long Island, a clime then more congenial to their tory proclivities, but later they were permitted to return by the generous people of Sandwich.

    With the dawn of the present century the town had assumed its wonted activity. Other mills and improvements sprang into existence; the town bounds on all sides were renewed; and such was its buoyancy that the war of 1812 passed without disturbing its industries.

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    Illustrative of their independence was the vote of the town, September 20, 1814, that "in case of any attack by the enemy we will defend the town to the last extremity." The significance of this vote more fully appears with the fact, that the English cruisers had made demands, with threats, upon other towns of the Cape, and had been paid considerable amounts.

    The war of 1812 did not deter the building of a cotton factory in that year, for which enterprise the town gave its consent by vote the previous year, "that Samuel Wing and others have leave to erect a dam and works of a cotton factory on the stream between the upper and lower ponds in Sandwich village, at a place near Wolf-trap Neck, so called." This was used many years as a factory for various purposes and was burned in 1883.

    The present town house, near the old grist mill, was erected in 1834. Prior to this, public meetings were held in the church according to the custom of those days.

    The prosperity of the town in its manufactories established after the first quarter of this century, is unprecedented in the history of the towns of the Cape. The loyalty of the inhabitants was strongly marked during the civil war of 1861-65, by its early action as recorded in Chapter VII. Every quota was filled promptly, and the record of the soldiers, as kept by the town, shows that during the war 386 men were enlisted, ten of whom were colored. These were scattered among various regiments and batteries, and in the naval service, the larger numbers in single regiments being 68 in the Twenty-ninth, 51 in the Fortieth, and 24 in the Forty-fifth. On the 9th of April, 1864, by a vote at town meeting the tax of one mill on the dollar was made to create a sinking fund for the payment of the debts contracted, and under the economical supervision of the selectmen the town was soon free from the debts of the rebellion.

    After the excitement of the rebellion the people again relapsed into peaceful habits. The bogs, were further developed to the culture of cranberries, rendering these marshy lands of more value than uplands; the Old Colony railroad had opened more direct and rapid transportation to the best markets for the products of the land, and industries of every kind were greatly increased. The territory embraced within the town was fifty square miles and the communities along the western border had become important. The residents of North and West Sandwich with those along Buzzard's bay had asked for a division of the town; but without avail. After the opening of the Wood's Holl branch of the railroad the western portion more urgently persisted in the division of the original town of Sandwich, for which cogent reasons were advanced, and the matter was contested finally in the legislature by both factions, resulting in the erection of Bourne

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from Sandwich in 1884, the particulars of which, with the line of separation, are fully given in the Bourne chapter.

    The population, territory and valuation of the original town was lessened one-half by this division; but also were the expenses. The old town had lost the seacoast of Buzzard's bay; but had retained nearly all that of Cape Cod. Sandwich still leads the other towns of the Cape in manufactories, paying yearly $6,000 for schools, $2,500 for the poor, §2,500 for roads, and other proportionate expenses, which indicates to the reader that it retains its rank among the first.

    Villages.—The history of the village of Sandwich and that of the town are so inseparably blended during the first 150 years of their growth, that either would compose the warp or the woof of the fabric presented to the reader at the close of the 18th century. The threescore families who first settled in 1637 the plantation of Sandwich, had formed the nucleus of this principal village which so prominently marked the town in its industries and growth during the period mentioned. Early in its history the village of Sandwich was the door of the Cape and the terminus of lines of travel. This, in its turn, created taverns and other places of business, for which the village was most celebrated in the early days of the Cape. In 1659 John Ellis was licensed to keep an " ordinary " at Sandwich village, and sell " strong waters and wines, only not to let town-dwellers stay drinking unnecessarily at his house." There is no evidence that the strong waters sold by Ellis had any connection with those of the pond above. Newcomb's was a favorite resort situated by the side of the lower pond; but the records do not indicate that he sold the waters thereof. William Bassett was licensed by the court in 1659 "to draw wines," a business which he followed several years attended with its consequent troubles, as in 1666 he complained of James Skiff, jr., who was fined 10s. "for going to sd Bassett's house and taking away liquors without order." This was an industry susceptible of no improvement except in the desires and appetites of the town-dwellers; and so, after a fair trial of rum rule for 154 years, the good people on May 3,1819, voted " that there shall be no retailer of distilled liquors licensed; and that tavern keepers are not to be approbated unless they desist from mixing and selling to town-dwellers."

    The early stage and mail line from Plymouth to the Cape terminated at the celebrated tavern called "Fessenden's," which was then the middle section of the present Central Hotel on Main street. This building was originally the residence of Rev. Benjamin Fessenden, and William Fessenden, his son, opened an ordinary after the decease of his father. We can date its advent in 1790 as the principal tavern of the village, from which all the stages started—to Plymouth daily and east on the Cape tri-weekly. Mr. Fessenden retired in 1830 and

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was succeeded by Sabin Smith, who at once erected the eastern and larger portion of the present Central Hotel. Elisha Pope and Sewell Fessenden were the landlords successively until 1844, then Michael Scott and David Thompson until 1863. Zenas Chadwick then became the owner, kept it for a time and was succeeded for two years by Frank Aborn, then by A. C. Southworth until November, 1888, when Zenas Chadwick resumed its control and continued until his death in 1889.

    Nearly in the rear of this hotel, or perhaps more directly in rear of the church near by, is the site of the old pound which the people were compelled to build in 1715 by the order of the court of sessions, to which complaint had been made of their neglect.

    Nathaniel Freeman, whose appointment was dated April 25, 1793. William Fessenden succeeded him October 6, 1795, and continued the office in his hotel until May 9, 1825, when his son William H. Fessenden moved it to the drug store building east of the hotel, where he filled the duty of postmaster until Avery P. Ellis was commissioned, October 26, 1839. Zenas R. Hinckley was the next postmaster from September 16, 1841, until July 28, 1853, when Charles B. Hall was appointed and kept the office until 1861 in the same building. Frederick S. Pope served from 1861 to October 1, 1887, when James Shevlin was appointed.

    There is no mention of stores in the early records except of the class that " draw wines," but no doubt codfish and molasses, tea and tobacco were kept at such establishments. Mr. Fessenden had a store, such as it was, with his post office, and was succeeded by W. H. Fessenden in the present drug store building east of the Central Hotel. Zenas Hinckley and Mr. Stetson were partners in a dry goods and grocery business in the same building, wherein also Charles B. Hall did business until his death in 1881. Stores of various kinds were numerous after 1825.

    George P. Drew of Sandwich was born in 1828, and, although not a native of the Cape, has been one of its solid business men nearly forty years. He was born at Plymouth, Mass., and after a short period in business at New Bedford he opened, in 1851, a clothing business at Sandwich, which he continues and is now one of the oldest living business men of that town. During his term of business life he has been identified with the growth and prosperity of his adopted town, and his thorough and energetic nature has marked his enterprises with success. In 1881 he erected on Jarvis street the fine residence in which he lives, and which is the subject of the accompanying illustration. Mr. Drew may point with pride to his ancestry, the primogenitor in New England being John Drew from whom in succession descended Lemuel, Seth, Lemuel and William, his father, who married Priscilla, daughter of Judah Washburn. George P. Drew,

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youngest son of William, in 1852, married Martha A. Southworth and their children are Sara C. and Ida W.

    John Q. Miller opened a clothing store in 1857 at the foot of Jarvis street in Swift's block, which was burned in the fire of 1870. He purchased and moved the Universalist church to the burnt district the same year and continued the business until 1885, when he commenced the present livery business. R. C. Clark's store, started in 1857, was one of the six burned; the fire originated in the building that occupied the site of the present store of Frank H. Burgess and extended to Willow street. Mr. Clark opened another store which he continued several years. In 1875 his sons, C. M. and Fletcher Clark, opened a general store where Mr. Fletcher Clark is now, who purchased the interest of his brother C. M., January, 1888. In 1877 Frank H. Burgess built the present store and deals in furniture, wail papers, and fancy goods.

    T. C. Sherman commenced business about 1856 on Jarvis street, afterward erecting the store now occupied by Sanford I. Morse, to which he removed. He sold the grocery business to Charles H. Burgess in 1861 and the dry goods to A. F. Sherman. Mr. Burgess continued the business in the same store, his three sons, Frank, Charles, and Thornton being partners alternately, until 1880, when the present grocer, Sanford I. Morse purchased the business. James W. Crocker opened a store in 1854, in Boyden block, when the building was new, and he is still engaged in the grocery and confectionery business. An old merchant here was William Loring, who was several years in a room under the town hall, and in 1845 we find him nearly opposite the Central House with his store. For twenty-one years John Murray was a merchant here on Jarvis street dealing in dry goods and clothing, removing from Providence, R. I., where he commenced business in 1854. Gustavus Howland for forty-two years has been engaged in the lumber business, having purchased the Deming Jarvis lumber yard of H. H. Thayer in 1847.

    The first hardware merchant in the church building, east side of Jarvis street, was Josiah Foster, who had a store at his house previously. In 1870 Foster sold this hardware business to E. F. Hall, who in 1873 was succeeded by James S. Bicknell. O. H. Howland, the present owner, purchased the stock in May, 1876, and his business desk is placed upon the pulpit of the Puritan chapel. Not that he was a member of said church, or that his good business name is necessarily based thereon; but his desk actually rests upon the pulpit occupied by Rev. Giles Pease forty-two years ago. In 1866, Gibbs & Hunt erected the building now occupied by Benjamin G. Bartley for a boot, shoe and dry goods business which was subsequently sold to Joshua Jones, who ran it about eight years. J. F. Knowles, in 1880,

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purchased the boots and shoes, and F. S. Allen & Co. the dry goods, both parties occupying the store. After four years Mr. Knowles sold his stock to F. E. Pierce, who removed it to the Novelty block and and then to the building next north of Howland's hardware store, where he was burned out in 1888. In October, 1884, Allen & Co. sold their stock to Benjamin F. Bartley, who added to the depth of the store in 1887, and carries a large line of dry goods only.

    Sandwich has long been noted for its many and useful manufactories, of which that of the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company was for" many years the most prominent. Deming Jarvis established it in the village in 1825. The adjacent pine lands, of which vast tracts were purchased for the wood, was the inducement for its location. A stock company, mostly of Boston capitalists, was formed in 1826 under the above name, running one furnace and gradually increasing to four of large capacity. During the years 1861-64, the business employed 500 hands in its various departments, manufacturing yearly to the amount of $300,000. The establishment closed its doors January 1, 1888, having then on its pay rolls the names of 275 men. Ten of its employees the same year erected a building, and eight of them are now manufacturing under the name of the Sandwich Co-operative Glass Company.

Another important manufactory is that of Spurr's Patent Veneers, Marqueteries, and Wood Carvings. In 1882 Charles W. Spurr, of Boston, started veneer cutting in the building formerly belonging to the Cape Cod Glass Works. In 1887 others became interested, creating the firm of Charles W. Spurr & Co. A large number of men are now engaged in cutting veneers for cigar boxes, car work, furniture, and for ornamental uses, and carvings for furniture and ceilings. In connection with it a company was formed in the autumn of 1888 called the Cape Cod Glass Company, of which Charles W. Spurr is the president. The cutting and decorating of glass employs many men.

    Near the works mentioned, is the factory of the Bay State Tack Company. The manufacture of tacks was begun by Stephen R. Wing and Stephen R. Rogers, southwest of the village in the old cotton mill, which was built by Mr. Wing's father, Samuel. They did business as the Sandwich Tack Company and after Zenas R. Hinckley, their successor, had been followed by some Sandwich people as owners, Jones & Heald bought the property about 1863 and operated it under its original name, until its destruction by fire in 1883. In the meantime E. B. Howland organized the Bay State Tack Company and in 1880 they built the factory still standing near the Catholic church, and operated there for several years. In 1882 Jones & Heald bought of the Central Manufacturing Company of Boston, who had purchased of the two Burgess brothers, a two-thirds interest in this

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factory and leasing the other third of Mr. Rowland, have operated the works until the present time. These works are valuable, being composed of a good building, 125 by 35 feet, 20-horse power engine, twenty-four tack-cutting machines and other tools and machinery.

    An institution for mutual saving and assistance in building, called the Sandwich Co-operative Bank, was organized August 11, 1885, and chartered October 1, same year, with an authorized capital of $1,000,-000. It began business December 15. 1885, occupying Hunt's Hall for a place of meeting. Stock was issued at the first meeting of which 88 members took 133 shares. The sixth series was issued June IS, 1889. J. E. Pratt, M.D., has filled the office of president since the organization; E. B. Howland, vice-president; and W.. H. Heald, secretary and treasurer. The office of treasurer was distinct and filled by Frank H. Burgess until 1888. The Sandwich Savings Bank was an institution, in operation prior to 1874, which was closed by order of the commissioner, and paid 80 cents on the dollar to its stockholders.

    The Cape Cod Glass Company mentioned, was the outgrowth of a business started in 1859 by Deming Jarvis after his severance from the Boston and Sandwich Company. He then erected the building now occupied by Charles W. Spurr & Co. for the manufacture of glass by his son and son-in-law, and from this the first-named company was established; it is said to have closed its doors the day Deming Jarvis died. Another unsuccessful enterprise connected with the various glass manufactories was the building of a steamer to ply between Sandwich harbor and Boston. Mr. Jarvis, while agent of the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company, instituted this steamship line after the advent of the railroad. It was very soon discontinued.

    The express business has become important from the growing industries, and its present daily loads of freights manipulated by Willard E. Boyden, the agent, could not have been so readily transferred by the old-time Plymouth and Sandwich stage line of his father's, of which this business is the continuation. The father's line was superseded by the railroad and Williard E., who assisted him, has filled the position of agent since the arrival of the first train. The livery and boarding stables of Mr. Boyden are the outgrowth of the stage line.

    Other business places worthy of mention in 1889 were the stores of F. F. Jones, boots and shoes; J. C. Stever, jewelry; Proctor Brothers, druggists; George N. Chipman, druggist; and H. G. O. Ellis, boots and shoes.

    East Sandwich post-village was settled very soon after the principal village of the town, and many of the early proprietors were attracted here by its beauty and fertility to take up their abodes. Its proximity to Sandwich village has given its people very desirable religious and educational privileges, as well as business relations. It is

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situated along the county road in rural loveliness, its denizens enjoying the embodiment of town and village life in every phase of each. The station of the Old Colony road is midway between East Sandwich and Spring Hill, where both communities have the traveling and mail facilities of other villages on the line. In 1889 a larger and more convenient station was built.

    Grange, No. 139, of East Sandwich, was chartered March 4, 1887, with a membership of 21. Samuel H. Nye was chosen master; John F. Carlton, lecturer; Mrs. Jerome Holway, secretary: and Joseph Ewer, overseer. In 1889 this Grange numbered 52, and an association was formed by its members, called The East Sandwich Mill and Hall Association, the object being to erect a grist mill and Grange hall. A mill was purchased at Centerville, transported and erected upon the site where Dea. Samuel H. Nye's mill stood so long; and a commodious hall for public use, as well as their own, has been erected apart from the grist mill. The stockholders are members of the Grange but others than members were permitted to take shares. Joseph Ewer was elected president of the association and Samuel H. Nye, superintendent.

    There is no hotel here; but many years ago, when staging and traveling along the county road was the order of the day the old Hall tavern kept by Joseph Hall, was one of the important institutions. On the south side of the road where Samuel H. Nye lives was the site, and G. B. Howland has the old sign that swung before the door. Mr. Hall also kept a store and the post office. He was appointed postmaster April 10, 1818, when the office was established, and served until the appointment of Joseph Hoxie, August 25,1840. The office was discontinued February 28, 1854, and since its re-establishment Joseph Ewer, succeeded by his wife, kept the office for many years at his house where it now is.

    Spring Hill is just westerly from East Sandwich on the county road and is the same community practically, but enjoying its own post office. This office was established when Paul Wing had his celebrated boarding school here. Nathan Wing was the acknowledged postmaster in the first days of the office, succeeded by Miss Elizabeth Holway, who resigned it some twenty-five years ago to the care of Mrs. C. J. Holway. Miss Lottie Taber was appointed in 1880 and the office is at her residence. Prior to the coming of the railroad one office served East Sandwich and Spring Hill. Spring Hill is properly named from the many springs that issue from its sides and summit, and a stream, sufficient for mill purposes and for which it was formerly used, is formed from these crvstal fountains, and meanders through the fer-tile valleys to the harbor. The Friends' church and cemetery, the most important places of interest here, are mentioned elsewhere.

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    This part of the town was early settled. The remains of the dam of the old Benjamin Nye saw mill only are extant in the brook; but tradition says that Deming Jarvis sawed staves in the old mill as late as 1841. Here was the later business of W. C. & I. K. Chipman, sash and blind works. Spring Hill is fast becoming a summer resort, and one train of cars stopped there daily each way, during the summer of 1889 to accommodate the inhabitants. Cedarville, in the eastern portion of the town, is noticeable from the remembrance of early school days. In 1878, men who had been pupils in the old school house there, formed the Cedarville School Association, bought the house and lot, and from city and farm, wherever scattered, hold a mid-summer meeting within the walls of the old school house. It has been modeled into a suitable hall and was the meeting place of the East Sandwich Grange until its own hall was completed. David N. Holway, of Boston, has been the secretary since the organization, and Jerome R. Holway is now president.

    South Sandwich is a post-hamlet in the southeastern part of the town, having daily mail from West Barnstable, with W. H. Meiggs to dispense it in accordance with the rules of the department. The first postmaster here was Lemuel Ewer, appointed June 3, 1825. He was succeeded April 24, 1837, by Solomon C. Howland.

    Forestdale is the name given to Greenville when the people asked for a post office about three years ago. It is in the south part of the town west of Wakeby pond, and enjoys a daily mail by being on the route of the Mashpee stage to Sandwich. The postmaster is William Osborne who was appointed with the formation of the office. He also has a store of which he was proprietor prior to having the office.

Civil History.—The civil history of Sandwich, like every plantation of Plymouth colony in its first few years of life, was intimately blended with the church, and the latter wielded power sufficient for the guidance of the well-disposed residents. The officers and leaders in every station of life were required to act and decide as "God shall direct."

    In 1639—two years after its settlement—the plantation received its incorporation as a town of Plymouth colony, entitling it to select its own local officers and to be represented at the court in Plymouth. The same year we find George Allen was appointed and sworn as constable, but no definition of his duties was mentioned. His power was unlimited, however, for pigs without rings in their noses and people who dissented from the established church must be looked after.

    Deputies were first elected in 1639 and Sandwich elected two to attend the first house of representatives of Plymouth colony. In

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May, 1651, Goodman Tupper, Goodman Burge, sr., Nathaniel Willis and William Gifford were given power "to call a town-meeting by giving three days' warning, whenever they see occasion for the same." The voters being few and every vote being needed, this restriction was made—" voted that what neighbors stay away above an hour after the time appointed shall lose their votes in what was done before they come." This vote empowering men to call a town meeting was the first action upon what was years after the election of selectmen. A further order for the manner of calling town meetings was voted January 17, 1652.

    The town was gradually increasing its civil capacity, but not as rapidly as the Plymouth government desired; for we find that in 1655 Sandwich was presented " for not being provided with stocks and a whipping post." Of course these requirements, so necessary for the enforcement of religious and civil laws, were at once erected, and the town had advanced another step in self-government. The people of Sandwich soon after commenced a decided opposition to such colonial laws as prescribed the penalty of fines and whippings; and William Bassett, the constable, was compelled to report that he was " opposed in the execution of his office, and could not collect the rates or fines," whereupon a marshal was appointed for one year. The indifference of the Sandwich people to laws of the church and court became so general, that in court, October 2, 1658, after a long preamble as to " God's displeasure as manifested by his afflicting hand on the country " (referring to a recent earthquake), as also "by the too much prevailing of a spirit of disunion both in church and civil affairs," an order was issued for a fast to be observed throughout the colony. But this did not lessen the love of self-government among the Sandwich people, and Governor Prence and other magistrates " appointed by the court to make inquiry " into certain assumptions of power by the Sandwich people, to act wherein they have no right so to do by reason of their non-legal admittance as inhabitants " according to order of October 3, 1639.

    The oath of fidelity to the Plymouth court was required of the settlements in each of the towns, and such of the new-comers as. considered this order of the court a blow against their civil rights, refused to take the oath, and were heavily fined or disfranchised. The language of the court was, "therefore ordered that those men aforesaid and every of them, shall henceforth have no power to act in any town-meeting till better evidence appear of their legal admittance ; nor to claim title or interest to any town privileges as town's men, according to the court's orders aforesaid ; this order also to take hold of any others besides who shall appear to have no legal admittance as aforesaid." Submission to the church was the door to citizenship.

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    In the early days of the town the foremost citizens made the service of the colony in official stations a matter of patriotism, and even since the days of modern politics, capable and worthy men have been advanced to positions of trust in the state government.

    The first meeting of deputies in general court, was June 4, 1639. The following persons were chosen, in the order given, to represent the town of Sandwich, each serving the number of years affixed to the name: 1639, Richard Bourne, 14; 1639, John Vincent, 7; 1640, George Allen, 4; 1642, Wm. Newland, 8; 1642, John Allen, 1; 1642, Thomas Burge, 11; 1643, Edw. Dillingham, 1; 1643, Henry Feake, 2; 1644, James Skiff, 13; 1646, Edm. Freeman, sr., 1; 1646, Thos. Tupper, 19; 1662, Wm. Bassett, sr., 3; 1663, Thos. Dexter, 1; 1668, Thos. Wing, sr., 1; 1669, Edm. Freeman, jr., 7; 1673, Thos. Tupper, jr., 8; 1673, Wm. Swift, 4: 1675, Stephen Skiff, 10; 1684, Shearj. Bourne, 2; 1691, Elisha Bourne, 1.

    Representatives being required by Governor Phips in 1692, the first 'Great and General Court' under the new charter, assembled June eighth. Sandwich was represented as follows ; the date of first election and total years of service, if more than one, are given : 1692, Thos. Tupper; 1692, Shearj. Bourne 3; 1693, Samuel Prince, 5; 1696, Stephen Skiff, 10; 1697, William Bassett, 7; 1698, Thomas Smith, 2; 1711, Eldad Tupper, 3; 1713, Mel. Bourne, 4; 17]4, Saml. Jennings, 3; 1715, John Chipman, 2; 1722, Israel Tupper; 1725, Ezra Bourne, 10; 1739, Timo. Ruggles, 6; 1742, Saml. Tupper, 7; 1753, Roland Cotton, 8; 1761, Stephen Nye, 18; 1775, Nathl. Freeman, 4; 1775, Joseph Nye, 3d, 16; 1779, Lot Nye; 1785, Abm. Williams, 2; 1787, Thos. Smith, 3; 1787, Thos. Nye; 1797, Wm. Bodfish, 7; 1804, John Freeman, 7; 1806, Benj. Percival, 6; 1810, Elisha Pope, 6; 1812, Benj. Burgess, 10; 1812, Peter Nye; 1812, Thos. H. Tobey; 1817, Russell Freeman, 6; 1824, Obed B. Nye; 1825, Wendell Davis; 1830, Shad. Freeman, 3; 1830, Thos. Swift; 1834, Abm. Nye, 3; 1835, Jesse Boyden, 2; 1835, Daniel Weston; 1836, Lemuel B. Nye; 1836, Abram Fish; 1837, Charles Nye 3; 1837, Josiah Bacon, 3; 1837, Benj. Bourne, 4; 1840, Jno. B. Dillingham, 2; 1840, Geo. W. Ellis, 3; 1843, Asahel Cobb, 5; 1845, David Benson. 2: 1845, William Handy, jr.; 1846, Charles Swift, 2; 1847, F. B. Dillingham, 1849, Henry Bourne, 2; 1850, Zebedee Green: 1850, Henry V. Spurr, 1854, Reuben Collins, jr.: 1855, Joseph H. Lapham; 1856, Chas. H. Nye, 2. Representatives since 1856 are given at page 47.

    In 1662, it was enacted by the general court, that "in every town of this jurisdiction there shall be three or five selectmen chosen by the townsmen, out of the freemen—such as shall be approved by the Court, for the better managing of the affairs of the respective townships." The first record made of selectmen in Sandwich, was in 1667; and the following have served: 1667, Thos. Tupper, 5; 1667. James.

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Skiff, 9; 1667, Thos. Burgess, 2; 1668, Edm. Freeman, 11; 1669, Thos. Wing, 4; 1672, Thos. Burgess; 1673, Wm. Swift, sr., 15: 1675, Steph. Skiff, 7: 1675. Thos. Tupper, jr., 14; 1679, Jno. Blackwell, 3; 1684, Shearj. Bourne, 4; 1688, Elisha Bourne, 9; 1688, Wm. Bassett, 11; 1693, Saml. Prince, 5; 1694, John Gibbs, 2; 1695, Shubael Smith, 3; 1697, Thomas Smith; 1698, Jonathan Nye; 1699, Danl. Allen, 4; 1699, John Smith, 13; 1704, Edw. Dillingham. 10; 1707, Israel Tupper. 13: 1709, Matthias Ellis; 1710, Edm. Freeman, sr., 7; 1712, Eliakim Tupper, 12: 1712, Saml. Jennings; 1715, Jno. Chipman, 6; 1718, Wm. Bassett, jr., 8: 1720. Jireh Swift, 2; 1723, Stephen Skiff, 19; 1726, Elisha Bourne, 9: 1736, Jno. Freeman, 24; 1740, Saml. Tupper, 19; 1744, Ebenr. Nye, 5; 1752, Joshua Hall; 1752, Thomas Smith, 9; 1759, Solomon Foster, 8; 1760, Ebenr. Allen, 3; 1761, Jona. Bassett, 10: 1763, Thos. Bourne, 7; 1763, John Allen, 13; 1766, Mich. Blackwell, 4; 1770, John Smith, 7; 1773, Joseph Nye, 3d, 18; 1773, Seth Freeman, 13: 1776, Sylvs. Nye, 6; 1779, Lot Nye; 1783, Thos. Burgess, 3: 1784, George Allen, 9; 1786, Sylvanus Gibbs, 2; 1787, Thos. Swift: 1787. Thos. Smith, 2; 1787, Steph. Chipman, 2: 1788, Ebenr. Allen; 1789, Thos. Foster, 2; 1791, Abm. Williams, 4: 1795, Nathan Nye, jr , 22: 1795, Leml. Freeman; 1797. Benj. Percival, 19: 1798, George Allen, 9; 1807, Jas. Freeman; 1809, Elisha Perry, 13: 1816, Mel. Bourne, 15; 1817, William Handy; 1817, Thos. W. Robinson, 3; 1818, Levi Nye: 1822, Bethuel Bourne, 7; 1824, Steph. Holway, 2; 1826, Henry Lawrence, 3; 1827, Ezra Tobey, 3; 1829, Jesse Boyden, 17; 1829, Benj. Bourne, 8: 1834, Abram Nye, 3; 1835,  Russell Freeman; 1836, Chas. Nye, 2; 1836, J. B. Dillingham, 5; 1836, Joseph Hoxie: 1841, Elisha Pope; 1841, Simeon Dillingham, 5; 1841, Clark Hoxie, 4; 1847, Ch. B. H. Fessenden, 7; 1851, Geo. Giddings, 2; 1851, Edw. W. Ewer, 6; 1853, F. B. Dillingham, 3: 1854, Reuben Collins, jr., 2: 1855, Joshua Handy; 1855, Seth B. Wing, 9; 1858, Mason White, 9; 1758, Isaiah Fish, 16; 1864, H. G. O. Ellis, 18; 1864, Zebedee Green; 1865, Paul Wing; 1866, Nathaniel Burgess; 1867, Reuben Collins, 10; 1876, Chas. Dillingham, 15; 1877, Isaiah Fish; 1878, David D. Nye, 6: 1882, George Hartwell, 2; 1884, James Shevlin, 3: 1887, F. S. Pope, 2: 1887, Samuel H. Nye, 2; 1889, Benj. F. Chamberlain: 1888, Frank H. Burgess.

    There are no means of ascertaining with certainty who were the treasurers of the town during the first fifty years after its settlement. It is not improbable that in most instances the clerks served in this capacity also. We give the names and order so far only as we can do it with accuracy: 1694, Samuel Prince; 1699, Thomas Smith; 1701, John Smith, jr.; 1719, Saml. Jennings; 1752, Solomon Foster; 1755, Silas Bourne; 1757, Jonathan Bassett: 1760, Thomas Bassett; 1761, Silas Tupper; 1777, Thomas Bassett; 1782, Benj. Fessenden; 1782, Lemuel Pope; 1783, Nathan Nye, jr.; 1787, Abraham Williams; 1795, 19

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Melatiah Bourne: 1803, James Bourne, jr.: 1813. Heman Tobey: 1814, Nathan Nye, jr.; 1825, Ezra Tobey; 1838, William J. Freeman; 1840, David C. Freeman; 1864, David C. Percival; 1869, H. G. O. Ellis; 1887, Frank H. Burgess.

    It is impossible to determine concerning several of the first town clerks, or the length of time they were in office: William Weed and Thomas Tupper were in office before 1668. The next was in 1669, Stephen Wing; 1670, Edm. Freeman, jr.; 1675, Thomas Tupper, jr.; 1685, William Bassett; 1720, William Bassett, jr.; 1721, Nathaniel Bassett; 1721, Samuel Jennings; 1751, Solomon Foster; 1753, Thomas Smith; 1758, Benj. Fessenden; 1784, Melatiah Bourne, sr.; 1791, Abraham Williams; 1795, Melatiah Bourne: 1803, James Bourne, jr.; 1814, Nathan Nye, jr.

    In 1814 Mr. Nye was elected to both the office of treasurer and clerk, and since that time the duties of both offices have been combined.

Churches—In the days of the Puritan fathers the church was the government, and the formation of this important institution was contemporaneous with the planting of a settlement. The erection of a meeting- house for religious and public meetings was one of the first duties after the family had been sheltered. The records of the proprietors of Sandwich do not, as we can find, mention the erection of a building for religious meetings, nor is any reference made to one until 1644—six years after the plantation was settled—when at a meeting "it was deemed necessary to repair the old meetinghouse." It is more probable that the age of the building was not so much the cause of the need of repairs as its hasty construction.

    When Mr. Leverich assumed the pastorate is not definitely known, but that he was connected with the Sandwich plantation in 1640 is shown by the colonial records in certain enquiries concerning the territory. As early as 1639 the church at Sandwich was presented "for receiving persons unfit for church society." This enactment followed: "The town is forbidden to dispose of anymore land;" and Captain Standish and Mr. Prince were appointed to at once repair to Sandwich clothed with all power in the premises. The next record made is: " A town meeting, 6 mo. 7, 1644, warned by order of the selectmen to take course for repairing the meeting house, etc." Several persons engaged to pay Thomas Tupper in corn "for as many bolts as would shingle the old meeting-house."

    In 1650, it was "agreed upon by the town that there should be a levie of £5 for Mr. Leverich to pay for removing and parting of his house with boards which was long since promised to be done for him by the town." This would indicate that a parsonage had been already erected and was occupied by a pastor; and no doubt this work so im-

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portant to his comfort was at once performed, for Robert Bodfish, Mr. Vincent, Thomas Tupper, and William Newland were empowered to do it. Mr. Leverich was here in 1653, for the records of the town give him permission " to pasture his horse on the town-neck." In 1654 he is mentioned among the purchasers and settlers who went from Sandwich to Long Island.

    A subscription for a new meeting house is found in the records for 1655. The sums vary, the highest being two pounds and the least one shilling. For three years subsequently the names of prominent freemen are entered as donors to the new meeting house. The completion of the church was retarded by the diversity of opinion regarding religious duty, which greatly disturbed and disaffected the community. Peter Gaunt was presented in 1656 for not attending public worship, to which he answered that "he knew no public, visible worship." Tradition says that Mr. Fessenden, who succeeded Mr. Leverich, said "a most unhappy dissension occurred in the church about the time Mr. Leverich left."

    In 1657 an attempt was made to sustain the ordinances of religion by subscription, and these pledges for the support of a minister were small. Fourteen names appear on the record, in sums varying from two pounds to six shillings. No stated minister could be procured. This want of affinity in the town is traceable to the sympathy of a large portion of the people for the Quakers. The general court appointed a special marshal, one George Barlow, for one year, to arrest persons teaching the principles of Quakerism. Two English Friends came here on the 20th of June, 1657, to hold meetings, and they were arrested as "extravagant persons and vagabonds." William Newland, in whose house the meetings were held, was fined for his intercessions in their behalf. In justice to Sandwich, be it understood that these proceedings were the action of the court at Plymouth, and Bowden says: '' The selectmen of the town whose duty it was to see them whipped, entertained no desire to sanction measures so severe towards those who differed from them in religion, and declined to act in the case."

    James Skiff, the deputy to general court in 1659, was rejected because he was friendly to his neighbors holding other than orthodox ideas. Nehemiah Besse was fined by the court in 1663 " for drinking tobacco on the Lord's day." These seeming severities of the Plymouth court are mentioned for no other purpose than to show why the people of Sandwich were not a unit in supporting the established church. This religious intolerance was in a great degree checked by the interposition of the royal commissioners sent by the queen in 1665.

    In 1676 the name of John Smith was added to the list of freemen, and he commenced his pastorate with the people. The people had

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been supplied by Messrs. Bourne and Tupper. The affairs of the church assumed a better phase soon after the arrival of Mr. Smith, and in 1680 a rate of £50 was ordered for the support of the minister. The pastoral duties of Mr. Smith closed in 1688 at his own request. The active males were only five at this time. Mr. Pierpont of Roxbury was invited to the pastorate, but before he was settled he accepted a more satisfactory call. In 1690 lands were set apart for the support of the minister, and in 1691 Mr. Roland Cotton was invited to continue his labors, which had been temporary. He was ordained November 28, 1694. Lands had been voted to him "to be held by him, his heirs and assigns forever if he remain among us until God take him away by death or otherwise." If he went away by any other means then these lands reverted to the town.

    Liberty of conscience was assured by the charter of 1692, and church membership was no longer deemed the only requisite for civil preferment. Additions were made to the church, and its membership was increased to ten males and twelve females. The land given Mr. Cotton "to improve so long as he continues here in the ministry," was "the small neck lying between the two runs of water." The affairs of the church brightened under Mr. Cotton's pastorate, and in 1700 it was voted that "the selectmen see that the meeting house is ground-pinned and the windows mended." In 1702-3 appropriation was made for a new church, but in the discretion of the committee the old one was repaired; its window seats were raised, a tower was erected in which a bell was placed, and the town voted " that the person who takes care of the meeting house shall ring the bell."

    The celebrated Roland Cotton was called to a higher sphere March 29, 1722, after a long pastorate. In response to the invitation by the committee, Mr. Benjamin Fessenden was ordained September 12, 1722, and the dwelling of Mrs. Cotton was purchased for his use.

    In 1732 the people at Scusset (Sagamore) desired a separate organization, and a society was organized after three years of controversy. Jireh Swift, Eliakim Tupper and others erected a meeting house, and Francis Wooster was installed as pastor and served several years. But these seceders at Scusset were compelled to pay a tax for the support of the parent church at Sandwich village, and the petition of Moses Swift and thirty-three others in 1789, to be released from such taxation, was refused.

    The death of Mr. Fessenden, August 7, 1746, left the church without a pastor for two years, during which period unavailing efforts were made to fill the vacancy. In 1748, by agreement, the names of five ministers were presented, from which the names of two were submitted to the church to select from, and the choice fell upon Mr. Lawrence. But his anxiety was not equal to that of the church, and he

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declined the proffered honor. Mr. Turrell was then called, but declined. In 1749 Abraham Williams accepted the call and was installed June 14th. His pastorate restored harmony and twelve of the Scusset brethren returned to the parent church. The meeting house received its share of attention by being thoroughly repaired in 1755. The plan of the pews of this meeting house and the owners, with the price of each, were minutely recorded on the proprietor's records of the town —one page representing the first floor and another the gallery. Indeed it could be said that the aspirations of the church were much more heavenward, for a new and taller spire was raised in which a new bell was placed. This occurred in 1756, and soon after, the old bell which had been given by Mrs. Adolph, whose husband was shipwrecked and given a burial here, was sold to the county to be placed in the court house at Barnstable.

    Mr. Williams died August 8, 1784, and Rev. Jonathan Burr was installed as pastor April 18, 1787. Mr. Williams had exerted a lasting influence for good, an evidence of which was seen in the gratitude of one of his slaves, who would not accept freedom while his master lived, and who at his own death bequeathed to the parish a fund from the interest of which a town clock was purchased. The society had become so cemented that in 1800, after the depreciation of the currency by the war, the vote was "that Mr. Burr's salary be paid by the principal necessaries of life so as to make the compensation equal to what it was at the time of his ordination."

    The years 1808-9 were a period of revival and interest; 115 persons, mostly heads of families, were added to the church. But Mr. Burr, by a change of his views, greatly changed his parochial instructions, which created a feeling of opposition. Mr. Clapp, the schoolmaster, was the pastor occasionally, when Mr. Burr preached in the west part of the town, and he with others opposed Calvinism. The clouds of discontent and opposition thickened, resulting in a storm that dismissed Mr. Burr and scattered the church. Calvinism was the descending bolt that rent the society, Mr. Burr's adherents forming a Calvinistic congregational society with him as pastor. A severe contest over the church funds and property followed, in which the council decided for the seceders, but the supreme court, on appeal, awarded the property to the original society, over which Ezra S. Goodwin had been settled. Mr. Burr ministered to the Calvinistic society from February 26, 1814, to 1817, when he was released by his own urgent request, and Rev. David L. Hunn was the minister until 1830; he was succeeded by Rev. Asahel Cobb, from March 31, 1831, to the latter part of 1842, after which Rev. Giles Pease officiated until 1846. Mr. Pease's adherents withdrew, and March 21, 1847, formed a society under the title of "The Puritan Church." The life of this society, being

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thirteen years, was so brief that of its influence and history little can be said. It is known, however, that a meeting house was provided for its use, which soon became a place of useful manufactures, and is now occupied by O. H. Howland as a hardware store.

    In the old church—called First parish—Mr. Goodwin officiated until his death in February, 1833. His successor, Rev. John M. Merrick, became pastor May 11th of the same year, and continued till his retirement in 1839. Rev. Eliphalet P. Crafts was installed September, 3839. He was succeeded by J. G. Forman, in October, 1854; by John Orrell, in 1857; Albert B. Vorse, 1863; Thomas W. Brown, 1864; Samuel B. Flagg, 1869; James Mulligan, 1871; Charles T. Irish, 1876; M. C. Brown, 1877; and C. F. Bradley, in 1886, who officiated two years. The pulpit was supplied by different ministers until the church in 1889 settled Nathan S. Hill. A new church edifice was erected in 1833 and is now the meeting house of the First parish generally known as the Unitarian church. Charles E. Pope, the present sexton, has faithfully rung the bell and wound the clock for half a century.

    The Calvanistic Congregationalists were not disorganized by the secession of a portion of the society in 1846. Rev. Elias Welles being ordained pastor July 28,1847, which position he acceptably filled until his death in 1853. Rev. P. C. Headly was settled in April, 1854, for three years, and was succeeded by Rev. William Caruthers, June 16, 1858, who was dismissed December 4, 1860. Rev. Henry Kimball was ordained March 18, 1862, and was dismissed November 27, 1862. Rev. Luther H. Angier supplied the pulpit for one year from January 1, 1863, and Rev. John C. Paine was installed as pastor, June, 8, 1864; Wilbur Johnson, in 1867; Frederick Oxnard, 1871; Bernard Paine, 1880; James B. King, 1884; and William W. Woodwell in 1889. The present church edifice was erected in 1848 upon the site of the former one.

    The Episcopal rites were observed here by those of the faith during the growth of the Freeman Institute, which perhaps was instrumental in the introduction of this sect. Rev. W. W. Sever officiated a short time in 1854, under the direction of the diocesan board. For a few years past Mr. Bevington has preached to the society, occupying the hall of the old Universalist church on Jarvis street. The society is now supplied from Boston.

    The Universalists organized a society in 1845, erecting a church edifice on the corner opposite the residence of Gustavus Howland. The life of the society was brief and no special history of it can be given. After the fire on Jan-is street, its edifice was removed by J. Q. Miller to that portion of the village to do service as a business place, the lower floor as stores and the other as a hall.

    As early as 1796 Jesse Lee, a pioneer of the M. E. church, preached

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to the Methodists of Sandwich, it then being in the circuit with other towns. Joshua Hall and Joseph Snelling traveled the circuit in 1797, and Epaphras Kibby and Reuben Jones in 1798; Daniel Fiddley in 1800; Jashua Soule in 1801; the interval to 1805 was filled by Solomon Lang-don, Daniel Bacheler and Moses Currier; Erastus Otis and Nathan Ryder preached in 1806; Mr. Asbury, Nathan W. Stearns and Joseph A. Merrill in 1807-8; B. F. Lumbert, 1809; Stephen Bailey, 1810; Aaron Lummis, 1811-12. The society was incorporated during the circuit preaching of Rev. Mr. Lummis. Stephen Bailey preached in 1813; J. W. Hardy in 1815-16; Richard Emery, Benjamin Hoit and Moses Fifield, 1817; Rev. Mr. Hazelton, 1818-19; E. T. Taylor, F. Upham and Mr. Brown, 1820-22; A. D. Sargent and Jonathan Mayhew, 1823-24; Erastus Otis, John Hutchinson and J. M. Maffit, 1825; F. Upham, 1826-27: Enoch Bradley and Nathan B. Spaulding, 1828; F. Upham and Lemuel Harlow, 1829; R. D. Esterbrook, 1830; Joel Steele, 1831; C. C. Noble and Joseph Marsh, 1832; J. J. Bliss, 1833; George Stone, 1834; Henry Mayo, 1835-36; Henry H. Smith, 1837; Samuel Phillips, 1838; Warren Emerson, 1839-40; Elisha Bradford, 1841-42, and again in 1852; George F. Pool in 1843; Frank Gavitt, 1844; Thomas Ely, 1845-46; Robert M. Hatfield, 1847-48; James D. Butler, 1849; Micah J. Talbot, 1851; Horatio W. Houghton, 1853-54; Bart. Otheman, 1855-56; C. H. Payne, 1857; N. P. Philbrook, 1858-59; Nathaniel Bemis, 1860-61; W. V. Morrison, 1862-63; William T. North, 1864; William Star, 1867; Charles Young, 1868; A. J. Kenyon, 1869; A. W. Paige, 1870-71; John Livesey, 1872-74; Charles Nutter, 1875-76; Eben Tirrell, 1877-78; E. Fletcher, 1879; Silas Sprouls, 1880-81; J. Q.Adams, 1882-83; S. M. Beale, 1884-86; O. A. Farley, 1887-88; Robert Clark, April 1,1889.

    The first church edifice was erected in 1829, and the present one in 1848.

    In the south part of the town there are two places of worship more humble in appearance than those of the thickly settled north part, but supplying the wants of the respective communities. A small, plain church building at Forestdale, claimed to be Methodist, is used for occasional service by different denominations; and a school house has been purchased at South Sandwich for occasional service there.

    The history of St. Peter's church extends back to the first quarter of the present century. The erection of the vast works of the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company created a demand for workmen skilled in glass making, and from various localities large numbers, of whom many were Catholics, were drawn to Sandwich. That their number and character were of an elevated nature is evinced by the fact that they immediately made every possible effort to secure an opportunity to build a house where the doctrines of their church might be heard. Application was made to the Rt. Rev. B. J. Fenwick, then bishop of

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Boston, who favorably considered their wishes and sent a missionary to investigate their circumstances. At this time the number of the Catholic clergy in New England was extremely limited, and their labors were necessarily scattered over wide tracts of territory between Canada and New York. Such being the case it was impossible to have at that date a resident clergyman as they desired; but they were gladdened by occasional visits from the missionaries. In 1829 a suitable frame building adapted to their necessities was erected, and on the 19th day of September. 1830, the church was dedicated. The following account of the service of dedication, taken from a Boston periodical, is interesting at the present time. "On Sunday the 19th of September, the imposing ceremony of dedicating a new church to Almighty God took place at Sandwich. An immense concourse of people of all denominations had assembled at 10 a.m. to witness the interesting ceremony. So great was the anxiety that many individuals of other towns, especially Wareham, and no small number on foot came a distance of eighteen miles. The Rt. Rev. Bishop,with Rev.Virgil H. Barber and a number of the laity of Boston, including a select portion of the choir of the Cathedral of the Holy Cross, embarked on the Saturday morning previous on the packet Henry Clay, in expectation of reaching Sandwich the same evening; but in consequence of contrary winds they did not arrive in port until the next morning at 11.30, an hour later than the time announced for the divine service.

    "The Rt. Rev. Wm. Tyler, who was afterwards the first Bishop of the Diocese of Providence, had gone by land a few days before in order to make the necessary arrangements and was about to begin the service of the day when the anxiety of all was relieved by the arrival of the Bishop and his party. The clergy and assistants repaired to the house of Mr. John Doyle, and at noon commenced a procession through the main street, followed by a long line of Catholics. The ceremony of dedication was performed in a very impressive manner, the clergy below and the choir above alternating the solemn tones of the Miserere. At o p.m. the church was again opened, large numbers being unable to gain admittance. The Bishop and Rev. Mr. Barber delivered discourses. The services continued to a late hour."

    Great interest and religious enthusiasm was shown by the members and a deep religious spirit prevailed among them. Far away from the central points where their brethren dwelt, the difficulty of obtaining a priest—all seemed to increase in them the spirit of faith, and doubtless gave them a thorough appreciation of those blessings which are esteemed more highly only as they are with difficulty obtained.

    At stated intervals the church was visited by clergymen from Boston, all of whom at the present day have rested from their labors after

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many trials and hardships, such we may say as were of old encountered by the Apostle St. Paul. Among the old records may be found the names of Revs. P. Byrne, George Goodwin of Charlestown, Mass., John O. Beirne, J. J. Aylward, R. A. Wilson and John T. Roddan. A few of the earlier members are now left who recall the labors and self-sacrifices of these noble missionaries who gave their lives for the salvation of the scattered faithful of those days, and these names will ever be held by them in grateful memory and benediction.

    In September, 1850, the first resident pastor, Rev. William Moran, was appointed to the charge of the church. At that time the mission embraced all of Barnstable county, with Plymouth, Wareham, and all the country between Middleboro and Provincetown. Rev. Mr. Moran remained in charge of this extensive district about fourteen years, when he removed to Ware, Mass., where he now resides at an advanced age. He was succeeded by Rev. Peter Bertoldi, a native of Italy, who labored with zeal and energy until the separation of southwestern Massachusetts from the Boston jurisdiction and its attachment to the diocese of Providence, which occurred in 1872, when he retired from the pastorate and returned to his native country.

    His successor for a short period was Rev. H. F. Kinnerny. He was succeeded by the Rev. M. McCabe of Fall River, Mass., who remained about two years, when Rev. Andrew J. Brady assumed charge and labored earnestly for seven years, after which he withdrew from the parish and removed to Fall River, Mass., where he has since died.

    The present pastor, Rev. T. F. Clinton, entered upon the pastorate in November, 1880. He is a native of Providence, R. I., and was educated in the College of the Holy Cross at Worcester, Mass., from which he was graduated in 1870. He then entered the New York Provincial Theological Seminary at Troy, N. Y., and there completed the usual theological course of studies. His first appointment was to St. Mary's church, Newport. R. I., where he remained for a period of eight years until his appointment to the present position. In Sandwich, Rev. Father Clinton has made many important improvements in the church property—the church being almost rebuilt and the interior beautifully decorated. A new sanctuary was made, which is elegantly furnished, .and the many needed improvements accomplished, place the edifice among the best churches in New England.

Schools.—These important assistants in the proper development of the body politic may have been supported by private means prior to 1680. or the action of the town relative to schools may yet be hidden in the imperfections of the early records; for in the year mentioned we find by the first entry that "at a town-meeting for the choice of military officers, it was agreed to allow £12 in pay as it ordinarily passes, to Mr. James Chadwick upon consideration that he keep a

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school in Sandwich one year." The school was continued from this date, and the schoolmaster's wages were gradually increased with his duties. The teacher of those days was assured of the gratification of at least one desire of his nature, for contracts were made "with diet." The term "boarding 'round " if used in a contract for teaching was only an earnest of a variety of toothsome corn cakes and bacon. The advance must have been rapid, for in 1699 the teacher, Mr. Battersby, was called "grammar-schoolmaster" with a salary of .£10, "he to teach reading, writing and arithmetic." A still greater advance is noted in the records of 1707, in which year Sandwich voted " that Thomas Prince be hired to instruct the children in reading, writing, arithmetic and latin, and those who send shall pay £10 more."

    This was additional to the £10 and board, voted by the town; and whether it was rated among the Latin scholars only, or among the whole number does not appear. Samuel Jennings assumed the mastership of the school in 1710, and was succeeded in 1711 by Mr. James Dorr, who was allowed "£20 and diet." In 1713 Mr. Samuel Osborn was hired for £60 per year, and was to teach Latin and Greek with the English branches. Tuition was charged for pupils according to the studies pursued, and this important school was to be open to the young of the neighboring towns. A school house was built this year "on the common near the middle of the town."

    In 1720 John Rogers was employed to teach, but at what wages is not known; nor can any historian speak of his qualifications for the important position.

    In 1724 Major Bourne was appointed—"to answer for the town at Barnstable court, to the presentment for not having a school-master approbated according to law." Mr. Rogers continued teaching for many years at the annual sum of £20 and " board round; " but as late as 1751 James Otis, Esq., lodged a complaint against the town "for not being provided with a schoolmaster according to law." Agents were chosen by the town to answer this charge at the general sessions at Barnstable, and it is evident that the law in the premises was enforced, for in 1752 Silas Tupper who at as engaged by the town for the sum of £26, 13s., 4d. and board, is recorded as a teacher "according to law." He remained twenty-five years in the service of the town, teaching alternate terms at Sandwich village and Scusset.

    In 1778 the excitement and burdens consequent upon the war caused a neglect of the schools and a failure to provide funds for their support. More schools were required at the beginning of the present century, but the teachers' names are not recorded. The amount of money appropriated annually by the town has steadily increased, being $500 in 1810, $1,200 in 1829, $2,180 in 1842, and $9,000 in

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1876. The first year after division from Bourne, $5,100 was appropriated, and in 1889, $5,600.

    Rev. Jonathan Burr, in 1803, while in charge of the church at Sandwich, urged the establishment of an academy for the purpose of promoting education and piety amoung the youth. In response to a large petition Sandwich Academy was incorporated February 21, 1804, and Rev. Mr. Burr became its principal. A board of eighteen trustees was elected, eight of whom were residents of Sandwich and ten were chosen from adjoining towns. A grant of six square miles of land in the district of Maine was made by the legislature for the use of the academy, provided that the sum of $3,000 be actually raised and secured by its friends for its endowment. It was a useful institution, rising to a high standard among similar schools in New England. Mr. Burr was succeeded by Elisha Clapp, A.M., assisted by Miss Bathsheba Whitman as preceptress. Before the close of the first decade of the academy religious dissensions caused its decline in usefulness and importance. Its incorporation and name have been perpetuated by an election of trustees annually.

    Many years ago the school committee of Sandwich hired the property for a high school which has continued its existence. In 1881 the academy building was sold by the trustees to Susan McFarland, and is now occupied as a boarding house. From the sale of the building here and the lands in Maine, a more suitable building was erected which is now occupied by the high school of the town. This school has attained a high standard and to its excellence the efficiency of the other schools of the town is largely due. In 1882 a class of thirty-six pupils were examined for admission to the high school, twenty-four of whom were admitted after a rigid examination; but in a similar examination a few years before only two out of eighteen could be admitted. The benefit of this high school is also clearly demonstrated in the fact that in recent years a large portion of its graduates have been engaged as teachers of the first grade. The scholars have been held to a high plane of excellence in order to be admitted, which fact has created the habits of application and a more thorough preparation in the lower departments, thus strengthening the interest in and benefits from the entire system.

    In 1862 the schools were placed under the town's care, called the Massachusetts system, abolishing that of districts, and from this date their progress was more rapid. The school houses were lessened in number, better teachers were employed, and the schools rapidly advanced in attendance and standing. In his report of 1874-75, Charles Dillingham suggested that the town avail itself of the law providing for the conveyance of pupils to and from public schools, which was done. In 1876 the custom of a rigid examination at the close of every

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term was inaugurated, which proved eminently successful in advancing the grade by inducing greater care and industry on the part of the pupil as well as teacher. In 1877 Sandwich was third in the county in the value of its school property, a commendable liberality that has produced its reward. A list of meritorious scholars was next printed in the reports of the schools of the town, which fact was another incentive to regular attendance and proper industry. The adoption of by-laws in accordance with the statute regarding truant children, was also a help to the advancement of the schools. The town elected officers for the enforcement of these laws. The superintendent of schools had given a large share of his time to the schools while they were in session for the past few years; apparatus had been purchased and other and better text books placed in the hands of the pupils, and in 1886 the schools were found by comparison, as reported by George H. Martin of the state board, to be on a higher plane of excellence than most of the towns of the county and equal to the best. The printed list of meritorious scholars, given for 1883 by the superintendent, forms an army of young soldiers struggling for an education, and strongly supported by parents and school officers. The erection of the town of Bourne in 1884 reduced the number of schools to nine, the village school having three departments and the Jarvisville two. Free text books were supplied by the town the same year, and under the laws of 1885, text books and charts on physiology were added.

Societies.—De Witt Clinton Lodge. A. F. and A. M., was given a dispensation under which it worked one year with Thomas R. Borden as master. The charter was received March 16, 1856, and the charter members were: William E. Boyden, Rev. Thomas R. Borden, Rev. J. G. Fortnan, Charles B. Hall, Dr. John Harper, Seth F. Nye, John W. Pope, and Bazillia Sears. The masters have been: Rev. John R. Borden, 1856; Dr. John Harper, 1857-59; for the years 1860-62 the record was burned; W. H. F. Burbank, 1863-65; A. F. Sherman, 1866-67; C. B. Hall, 1868-69; I. T. Jones, 1870-71; W. C. Spring, 1872-73; A. F. Sherman, 1874-76; W. A. Nye, 1877-78; D. F. Chessman, 1879-80; F. W. Holway, 1881-83 and 1890; J. F. Knowles, 1886; C. M. Thompson, 1887; C. T. C. Whitcomb, 1888; Dr. G. E. White, 1884-85 and 1889. The Lodge numbered 55 members in 1889. The treasurer for 1890 is Willard E. Boyden, and the secretary Ambrose E. Pratt.

    The Cape Cod Mutual Benefit Association was instituted February 7, 1879, for mutual life insurance, and has a large number of beneficiaries. Charles Dillingham was elected its first president and I. K.J Chipman vice-president, which offices they were chosen to fill each year after, including 1889. Charles H. Lapham was chosen secretary and treasurer at the meeting of February, 1889.

    The Knights of Honor. Lodge No. 1358, was instituted February 3,

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1879. and their tenth anniversary was celebrated on that elate of the past year. The charter members were thirteen in number, and the Lodge now embraces a large number of the best citizens of the town. Its dictators have been: A. F. Sherman, 1879; F. S. Pope, 1880; S. R. Bourne. 1881; S. W. Hunt, 1882; P. T. Brown, 1883: F. W. Holway, 1884; E. G. Hamlen, 1885; J. H. Stevens, 1886; F. W. Holway, 1887; and B. F. Chamberlain, 1888-89.

    A flourishing G. A. R. Post, Charles Chipman No. 132, is also found here, organized February 24, 1882, and meeting in Hunt's Hall. It has seventy members. S. W. Hunt has filled the post of commander during the years 1882-83-85 and 86; John F. Cunningham for 1884; and William C. Gifford for 1887-88-89.

    The Women's Relief Corps is an organization to assist the G. A. R., and meets the second and fourth Saturdays of each month. The organization was effected June 23, 1887.

The ladies have also the usual W. C. T. U., organized March 18, 1887, of which Mrs. Mercy Littlefield was two years president. The officers elected for 1889 were; Miss Lydia Jenkins, pres.; Mrs. Fletcher Clark, vice-pres.; Delia R. Baker, sec; and Mrs. Vina Blackwell, treas.

    The village has three halls for public use; the principal one being the Casino on School street, built in 1884 by ten men. It is a very large and pleasant hall, accommodating an audience of eight hundred. The front offices are occupied by the engineer and treasurer of the Cape Cod Canal Company. The others are Carlton Hall on Jarvis street, and Hunt's over Benjamin G. Bartley's store.

    The only library of the village is the Circulating Library of Frederick S. Pope, in the same building with the post office.

    The first station agent of the Old Colony railroad was Captain George Atkins, who in 1859 at his death was succeeded by his son, Thomas Atkins; Alvin P. Wing succeeded him a short term, and March 13, 1876, James D. Lloyd, the present agent, was appointed.

Cemeteries.—The records of the proprietors designated these places of the dead as burial places. The first mentioned by the records is July 6, 1663, when it was ordered "that the little neck of land that lies by Wm. Newland's house shall be appropriated as a burial place for the town." This is known as the old burying ground, partially surrounded by the ponds in Sandwich village. In 1695 "The town did give to those of their neighbors, called Quakers, half an acre of ground for a burial place, on the hill above the Canoe Swamp between the ways." This is now the Friends' burying ground and near it the present one is located. All grounds are now kept in better order and with more reverence than by the proprietors themselves, for in 1715 by a vote. Mr. Cotton, the minister, had the privilege of pasturing his horse in the burying place by the pond, if he would

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fence it by joining each end of the fence to the pond. It has now a substantial wall where the fence was.

    The Catholics have a small cemetery northeast of the village, and have more recently purchased land for another to the southwest. The Plowed Neck Cemetery in the eastern part of the town and the Wing, Spring Hill or Chipman, are also names given to another old burying ground; at Sand Hill (by some called Plain Hill), Farmersville, formerly Hog Pond; and Greenville or Forestdale, are others. There is also a small one at Wakeby.

    As early as 1829 the Freeman Cemetery was used for burial, and was incorporated April 13, 1889. The trustees elected were Watson Freeman, C. I. Gibbs, and George F. Lapham; the clerk elected was William L. Nye.

    Bay View Cemetery was incorporated June 23, 1868, and contains over six acres of land situated near the Freeman Cemetery. The original purchasers were W. H. F. Burbank, H. G. O. Ellis, John C. C. Ellis, Samuel Fessenden, S. W. Hunt, James M. Atherton, Setli O. Ellis, James D. Lloyd, James H. Faunce, Samuel C. Burbank, and Charles E. Pope. W. H. F. Burbank was president until March 12, 1889, when Samuel Fessenden was elected; Charles Dillingham was elected vice-president; and Charles E. Pope, who has served since the incorporation, was elected secretary.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.