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Kendall intro & index

Travels through the northern parts of the United States in the years 1807 and 1808

by Edward Augustus Kendall

Volume 2; chapters LIV-LVII; pp. 235-263

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CHAPTER LIV.           
Massachusetts—Boston.

BOSTON, the capital of Massachusetts, is seated in the bottom of Massachusetts Bay, in forty-two degrees and twenty-three minutes, north latitude, and seventy-one degrees and four minutes, west longitude. The peninsula that it covers projects into an inner bay or harbour, lying between Point Shirley and Point Alderton, and of which the entrance is filled with islands.

In the village, there is supposed to be an actual population of thirty thousand souls; but the latest census, that of the year 1801, exhibits only twenty-five thousand.* The number of houses

* The city of New York, which is also a county, contains a total population of 83,530 souls, of which number 1,776 are slaves. The total male population is 40,649; the total male free population, 39,991 ; and the total number of electors, 12,407.

The total number of female free persons is 41,763 ; and the total number of female slaves, 1,118.

The total number of electors, voting as possessed of freeholds of the value of 100l. currency and upward, is 3,010; of those possessed of freeholds of the value of 20l. and under 100l. 20 [?]; and of those renting tenements of the yearly value of 40 shillings, 9,348.

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may be three thousand. In 1790, the actual enumeration amounted to two thousand three hundred and seventy-six. In 1790, it had ninety-seven streets, courts, lanes and alleys; but these have been since increased to a hundred and five.

Of the general appearance of Boston, in reference to the picturesque, I have already attempted to express myself in terms of some admiration. Boston stands on an uneven surface, is adorned with many handsome buildings, is crowned by the dome of its state-house, and has the accompaniments of wood, water and surrounding

The number of slaves is less in this year than in 1806, by 272 souls:

Years. Males.
Females. Total.
1806 818 1,230 2,048
1807 658 1,118 1,776

The following table exhibits the population of this city, as taken at different periods: 

1697 4,802
1756 *15,000
1771 21,863
1786 23,614
1791 33,131
1801 60,489
1805 75,770
1807 83,530

See the Census taken by order of the common-council of the city of New York, and dated City Inspector's Office, December 1st, 1808.

* Smith's History of New York, London, 1757, p. 96.

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hills. On every side, it has in its vicinity several smaller, but well-built villages.

Such is the description of the exterior. Arrived within the streets, various features present themselves, of which some support the first impression, while others are less favourable. Unevenness of surface, though it is the source of a thousand beauties in the distant prospect of a populous place, is productive of some inconveniences in the place itself, by throwing many houses and streets into unpleasant and inconvenient situations. An irregularity in the laying out of streets, is no real injury to their beauty ; but many of the streets of Boston are both crooked and narrow. In the houses there is much variety, many being mean, but many also of a costly, modern, and elegant architecture and finishing: of the latter, several have been erected at an expense of from forty to eighty thousand dollars each. The buildings are very generally of brick ; and all new ones, more than ten feet high, are now, in consequence of several losses by fire, required by law to be of brick or stone. Of late, the brick, every-where admired in the United States, is of a red colour; but that seen in the older buildings is brown. The yellow or stone-coloured brick, that is fashionable in England, has not been introduced. Red bricks, of a fine clay, are imported from Philadelphia into Boston; and as the humidity, together with the

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frosts, is found to bring on a speedy destruction of their substance, an attempt has been made, with what success remains to be seen, to render them impenetrable, by saturation with molosses. State-street, and several others, are handsome streets. State-street leads from the old state-house to the head of Long Wharf, which is a pier of seventeen hundred feet in length, by a hundred and four in breadth, and lined with a range of roomy and solid warehouses of brick. The street and the wharf extend in one straight line. Park-street has a row of houses, of which the back is turned to the buildings nearer the harbour, while the front overlooks the common, a green surface of forty-five acres, that lies on the side of Beacon Hill, and at the foot of the state-house; and beyond which an inlet of the sea presents itself, on the west side of the peninsula. The inlet is denominated Charles River. Between Common-street and the common, is a handsome mall, well shaded with trees, and six hundred yards in length.

The state-house stands at the top, and to the left or west, of Park-street, and on the western brow of Beacon Hill. This building, whose architect is Mr. Bulfinch, of Boston, and of which the corner-stone was laid on the fourth day of July, 1795, is a hundred and seventy-three feet in front, and sixty-one in depth ; and consists of a basement and principal stories, with an attic story

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in the centre of the front. The basement story is twenty feet high, and the principal story thirty. The centre, with its attic story, twenty feet high, making a total height of seventy feet, is covered with a pediment, above which rises a dome, fifty feet in diameter, and thirty feet high. The dome is lit by a lanthorn, of which the height is probably included in the measurement of the dome, giving a total height to the edifice of one hundred feet. The level on which the state-house stands is about a hundred feet above the harbour. On the top of the lanthorn is a gilded pine-cone.

The body of the building is of red brick; but there are posts hewn out of the red granite of the country, placed for the defence of the surrounding pavement ; and these, and some other appurtenances of the same material, appear to have occasioned a mistaken account, that the state-house of Boston is built of granite.* The

* M. Volney is made the authority for this description, but whether justly or not, the want of immediate access to his work leaves me in doubt. Some variation of meaning maybe supposed to belong to the passage referred to, as given by the translators in the United States:
——" A granite, red, black and grey, the same of "which the state-house of Boston is built." A View of the Soil and Climate, &c. By C. F. Volney, &c. Philadelphia, 1804.

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basement story is finished in a plain taste on the wings, with square windows.

In the centre, which is ninety-four feet in breadth, it forms an arcade, above which is a range of columns, supporting the pediment. The outside walls are of large patent bricks, and adorned with fascias, imposts and key-stones, of white marble.

The edifice contains, in the basement story, the offices of the treasurer and secretary of the commonwealth, and an apartment allotted to the use of the Massachusetts Academy, disposed on either side of a hall fifty-five feet square and twenty high, and of which the ceiling is supported by eight Doric columns. From the hall, which occupies the whole depth of the building, and has entrances, each sixteen feet wide, on the two fronts, a double flight of stairs ascends to the principal floor, in the centre of which is the chamber of the representatives, fifty-five feet square, with niches, in the four corners, for stoves. Doric columns support a gallery, raised twelve feet above

"A granite, of a red, black and grey colour, abounds a on the right bank of the river, opposite Quebec, resembling that of the state-house at Boston." A Geological Account of the United States, &c. Philadelphia, 1807.

M. Volney is at least mistaken as to the imputed abundance of granite on the shores opposite Quebec.

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the floor. From a Doric entablature, which surrounds the whole apartment, spring four flat arches, united above, by a circular cornice, and forming, in the angles, four large pendants to the dome. The pendants are ornamented with emblems of commerce, agriculture, peace and war; and the dome is finished, the centre of which is fifty feet from the floor, in compartments of stucco. The seats of the members form an amphitheatre, in front of the speaker's chair.

On the north side of the chamber of representatives, is the senate-chamber, also fifty-five feet in length, but only thirty-three in width. The height of the apartment is thirty feet; and the ceiling, which is vaulted, is supported by two skreens of columns, with their entablatures. The whole is in the Ionic order, elegantly finished, and is ornamented with pilasters, and with the arms of Massachusetts and of the United States, placed in corresponding pannels. It contains a gallery, for the accommodation of strangers.

On the same floor, the south wing contains the council-chamber, twenty-seven feet square, and twenty high, with a flat ceiling. The walls are finished with Corinthian pilasters, and pannels of stucco, enriched with armorial bearings, with the scales and sword of Justice, the caduceus of Mercury, and the cap of Liberty; and with

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wreaths of oak and laurel.—Beside these principal apartments, there are about twenty of smaller dimensions, plainly finished, and designed for committee-rooms. The stair-cases are spacious, and the top of the outer dome is reached by a hundred and seventy-six steps from the floor of the basement story. When I qualified my praise of the exterior of this building, I had principally in view the proportions of the dome. A nearer approach to the sphere, than to the ellipsis, would impart more majesty; but the architect, confined as to the diameter, has apparently aimed at giving the highest admissible elevation.

A town-hall, called Faneuil Hall, from Peter Faneuil, Esquire, by whom, in 1740, it was founded, occupies the centre of the market place. It has lately been enlarged, at an expense of fifty-six thousand dollars, and is a hundred feet in length, by eighty in width. The basement story is open, and is used as a market-house. On the principal floor is the town-hall, seventy-six feet square and twenty-eight feet high, with a gallery on the sides ; and, adjoining, are offices for the selectmen, board of health, and assessors. The attic story has a hall, in which the military corps assemble to exercise; and small apartments, in which they deposit their arms and equipments.

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In Leverett-street, which abuts on Charles River, is a large and exceedingly commodious alms-house, two hundred and seventy feet in length, seventy feet wide, and three stories high. Within the edifice is a, chapel, well fitted up, and all the apartments are spacious and well-aired. At the back, or toward the water, is a large grass-plat, and the walls likewise inclose a garden, a bath-house, and several other detached buildings. The edifice and appurtenances are handsome; and the whole establishment is in the highest degree creditable to its founders and superintendants.

The churches, and other edifices of public worship, are twenty-one in number:


Congregational,
9
Church of England,
3
Anabaptist,
3
African do. 1 4
Methodist,
2
Roman Catholic,
1
Quaker,
1
Universal,
    1


21

Of these, one or two congregational churches, and particularly the Old South Church, which is of brick, are respectable for their magnitude; but that called Stone Chapel is the only one that has any pretension to elegance : in general, they

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are of wood. The Stone Chapel, which is in the form of a Greek temple, is reckoned among the edifices belonging to the church of England ; but its congregation are of the Unitarian creed.

In Franklin Place, apartments are occupied by the Boston Social Library, and by the Massachusetts Historical Society. By social is here intended society ; for, by a perversion of language,* the society-libraries, of which some account has been given in a former chapter, are so called. In the Library of the Historical Society are many valuable books and papers, and some natural curiosities, antiquities and Indian manufactures, all connected with the object of the Institution, namely, the history of the United States, and particularly of Massachusetts. Boston has no public Museum, or collection of specimens of the works of art and nature; but it has a Museum, so called, in which wax-work is exhibited for money, and humble concerts are sometimes performed; and where there is a collection of English prints, and of some other objects of curiosity. Repeated fires have injured the proprietors, and defeated their efforts for creating a more important establishment.

* Social is an epithet applicable to what belongs to society, and not to what belongs to a society or association.

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Federal-street Theatre, which is under the management of Mr. Bernard, an excellent comedian, from England, is not remarkably small, and has often numerous and genteel audiences. There is a second theatre, for tumblers and rope-dancers.

Boston Harbour is sufficient for the accommodation of any number of vessels, in deep water; but its mouth is so narrow as scarcely to admit two ships abreast. The islands already mentioned, are said to be forty in number, of which nearly fifteen afford pasturage, the remainder being either small rocks, or banks of sand, slightly covered with mould and verdure. Seven are within the town of Boston, and pay taxes accordingly.* Castle Island, one of the largest, and which has been ceded to the United States, is distant about a league from the wharfs of Boston, and has on it a strong fort, formerly called Castle William, and now Fort Independence. This fort, which is maintained and garrisoned by the United States, is in complete repair, and well provided with heavy ordnance. Ships of war might nevertheless pass it with little injury ; but the harbour is a cul de sac.

* These are Noddle's Island, Hog Island, Long Island, Deer Island, Spectacle Island, Governor's Island and Apple Island.

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out of which they could scarcely escape from an enemy on shore. A light-house, sixty feet high, stands on a small island in the north entrance of the channel.

Boston has about eighty wharfs and quays. Excluding Long Wharf, India Wharf, with its warehouses, is the most considerable work. India-street, a new street, of which the buildings are not yet finished, leads to this wharf. The street is intended to be lined with sixty brick warehouses, of which forty will be five stories high. Broad-street, which is contiguous, contains sixty warehouses, of uniform exterior, four stories high. All these buildings are the property of a company. This street, which was first built upon in 1806, is seventy feet wide; and Front-street, leading from Beach-street to South Boston bridge, is of the same width. The Mill-pond, a large surface of water, dammed for the use of mills, is just purchased by the town, and is to be filled up, and built upon.

The peninsular situation of the village, separated from the main land, to the north-west and south-east, by shallow arms of the sea, has given occasion for the construction of three bridges of wood, of considerable length. Charles River and West Boston bridges are both on Charles River, or that arm of the sea which receives

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the water of a little river so called. Charles River bridge, which leads from the north part of Boston to the village of Charlestown, was opened in 1787. It is fifteen hundred feet long, and forty-two broad, and is supported by seventy-five piers; and it cost fifty thousand dollars. West Boston bridge, which leads from West Boston to the village of Cambridge-port, cost seventy.six thousand, seven hundred dollars, stands on one hundred and eighty piers, is forty feet wide, is nearly three thousand five hundred feet long, and abuts, on the Cambridge side, on a causey of three thousand four hundred feet. South Boston bridge, which leads from Boston to South Boston and Dorchester, is described above.*

All these bridges are works of great public utility, and interesting through their magnitude. In their style of building there is little given to ornament; but they are ornaments themselves, on account of the industry, ingenuity and prosperity which they discover. They are well contrived for the accommodation of passengers, well provided with lamps, and as substantial as the nature of their materials will permit. Two other bridges are projected, one-leading to Charlestown, by the way of Leverett-

* Chap. xxxix.

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street, and the other to South Boston, by the way of South-street. An act incorporating the adventurers in the first has passed the assembly.

On Beacon Hill, the summit of which is higher than that part on which the state-house is built, is a pillar, that rising near the dome, to which it affords a contrast of form, adds greatly to the picture. It was erected to commemorate the revolution, and has several inscriptions ; but it is already almost a ruin. Where the pillar now is, there was formerly a beacon.

Boston was begun to be built in 1630, and is the third settlement effected in Massachusetts Bay, those of Plymouth and Salem having preceded it. The site is said to have been called Shawmut by the Indians; and it had for some time the name of Trimountain among the colonists of Charlestown, to whom it presented a prospect of three hills ; but it received its present name from those who first founded it, in compliment to the Reverend Mr. Cotton, one of the clergy to whom they were principally devoted, and who went to the colony from Boston in England. It was early the seat of government in Massachusetts Bay, and this distinction it has constantly retained. It lies to the north-east of New-York, distant two hundred and fifty-four miles; and its distance

249

from Washington is four hundred and eighty-one, in the same direction.


CHAPTER LV.
The same, continued.

BOSTON is the seat of numerous institutions, commercial, humane and economical.

I. The commercial institutions comprise four banks, an office of exchange, and six insurance-offices ; in all, eleven.

1.  The Boston Bank, of which the capital stock is one million eight hundred thousand dollars, was incorporated in the year 1803, for nine years.

2.  The Union Bank, of which the capital stock is one million two hundred thousand dollars, was incorporated in 1792, for nineteen years.

3.  The Branch Bank, by which name is meant a bank that is a branch or portion of the Bank of the United States, has a capital stock of seven hundred thousand dollars.

4.  The Massachusetts Bank, of which the capital stock is at present four hundred thousand dollars, was incorporated in the year 1784.

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The act of incorporation, called its charter, allows its stock to be increased ; and is to be in force so long as there are proprietors.

5. The Boston Exchange-Office, incorporated in 1804, for eight years.

6.   The Fire and Marine Insurance Company, of which the capital stock is seven hundred thousand dollars, incorporated in 1795, to continue till 1815.

7.   The Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of which the capital stock is three hundred thousand dollars, incorporated in 1798.

8.  The Boston Marine Insurance Company, of which the capital stock is five hundred thousand dollars, incorporated in 1799, for twenty years.9.  The Suffolk Insurance Company, of which the capital stock is two hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, incorporated in 1803, for twenty years.

10.  The New England Marine Insurance Company, of which the capital stock is three hundred thousand dollars, incorporated in 1803, for twenty years.

11.  The Union Insurance Company, of which the capital is three hundred thousand dollars, incorporated in 1804, for twenty years.

To this list of companies, incorporated for purposes of profitable adventure, might be added

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an almost endless one, of such as have vested their stock in canals, bridges, roads, and other works of public use.

II. The humane institutions are twelve in number.

1.  The Massachusetts Charitable Society, which was incorporated in 1779, has only in view the relief of decayed members, and of the necessitous widows and orphans of members. The number of members is restricted to one hundred.

2.  The Boston Episcopal Charitable Society was first instituted in 1724, and was incorporated in 1784, for the relief, first, of such as are members of the church of England, and secondly, of such others as the society shall think fit; but more especially decayed members and benefactors. The number of members, in this, as in the former institution, is restricted to one hundred.

3.  The Massachusetts Congregational Society, instituted for the relief of the widows and children of the deceased congregational clergymen.

4.  The Massachusetts Charitable Fire Society, instituted for the two-fold purpose of relieving necessitous sufferers by fire, and of encouraging inventions for the safety of lives and property from fire.

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5.  The Society for the aid of Immigrants,* instituted in 1793, for the purpose of relieving the circumstances of necessitous foreign adventurers in Massachusetts. The meetings of this society have been suspended.
(* Immigrant is perhaps the only new word, of which the circumstances of the United States has in any degree demanded the addition to the English language.)

6.  The Boston Medical Dispensary, instituted in 1796.

7.  The Humane Society, instituted in 1785, for the resuscitation of drowned persons, and relief of other cases of suspended animation, and for providing huts and necessaries for the use of shipwrecked mariners and others;

8.  The Female Asylum, instituted in 1800, for maintaining and educating orphan and other indigent female children. The managers are sixteen ladies, annually chosen by the members.

9.  The Mechanic Charitable Association, instituted for the relief of members and their families, and for "promoting and regulating the arts."

10.  The Marine Society.

11.  The Scots' Charitable Society.

12.  The Irish Charitable Society.

III. There are four societies, for Christian missions, and for the promotion of Christian knowledge.

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1.  The Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians and Others in North America, incorporated in 1787. This society includes a board of commissioners from the Scotch Society for Promoting Christian knowledge.

2.  The Massachusetts Missionary Society, instituted in 1799.

3.  The Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Society, instituted in 1802.

4.  The Massachusetts Society for promoting Christian knowledge.

IV.  For public education, there are nine schools, supported, agreeably with the ordinary system, by town-taxes, at an annual expense of fourteen thousand dollars. The number of scholars is about one thousand.

V.  For the advancement of knowledge there are three institutions:

1.  The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, was incorporated in the year 1780.

2.  The Boston Medical Society, incorporated in the year 1781, for the advancement of medical and chirurgical knowledge.

3.  The Society for promoting Agriculture, incorporated in 1792, has large funds for defraying the expense of premiums and bounties.

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VI. For the diffusion of knowledge and letters there are also three,

1. The Boston Library Society.

2. The Law Library.

3. The Boston Athenaeum, an institution that has received its incorporation in the present year, and which is professedly established, in part, on the plan of the Athenaeum in Liverpool, and with a warm though humble emulation of the Royal and London Institutions. It originated in a simple reading-room, opened to subscribers by a society of gentlemen, whose engagements in the conduct of a periodical publication, (the Monthly Anthology,) afforded them some facilities in the collection of books; but in the enlarged plan, it has more multifarious objects. Beside a Reading Room, well furnished with newspapers and pamphlets, and other productions of Europe and the United States, it is proposed that the Athenaeum shall comprehend a Library, filled with the great works of learning and science in all languages; a Museum or cabinet, containing specimens in natural history ; a Repository of Arts, for models of new and useful machines, drawings, paintings, engravings, statues and other objects of the fine arts; a Laboratory, for experiments in chemistry; and an Apparatus for astronomy and natural philosophy. An appropriate

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building is designed to be erected; and the actual library consists in twelve hundred volumes. The institution, which principally owes its birth to the literary zeal of Mr. William S. Shaw, its present secretary, reckons, in its list of officers and directors, several of the other most respectable names in Boston. The Honourable Theophilus Parsons, Esq. Chief-Justice of Massachusetts, is its President; the Honourable John Davis, Esq. District Judge, its Vice-President; John Lowell, Esq. Treasurer; and the Rev. William Emerson, Rev. John T. Kirkland, D. D. Peter Thacher, Esq. Robert Hallowell Gardiner Esq. and the Rev. Joseph Buckminster, directors.

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CHAPTER LVI.
The same, continued.

I HAVE called Boston a village; for, though it clearly comes within the definition of a town, yet, having employed this latter term, conformably with its use in New England, in a very different sense, I am prevented from recurring to it here. The Boston topographers are sometimes. less scrupulous ; but I cannot consent to follow them, in confounding, under one denomination, two very different things: "Boston," say they, "is the largest town in New England." Now, it is certainly the most populous town, but it is far from being the largest. The town of Boston comprehends a peninsula two miles in length, by half a mile, in its broadest path, in width; to which is to be added a small tract of land, called South Boston, and the lands of some petty islands : but what is this, when compared with the towns of Plymouth and Rochester, and others, of which the length is sixteen miles. In Boston, as in all the other

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towns in New England, we are to distinguish both a village and a town. The village has never been erected into a city, the attempts for that purpose failed, through the "democratic spirit of the "people."*
(* American Gazetteer.)

At the annual town meeting are chosen nine selectmen, to manage the civil and prudential affairs of the town ; a town clerk, a treasurer, twelve overseers of the poor, twenty-four fire-wards, and the various other officers. Twelve constables are annually appointed by the selectmen. A board of health is annually formed, by the election of one member from each of the twelve wards into which the town is divided. This board regulates the quarantine of vessels arriving from sickly climates. The quarantine usually continues from May to October; and the board has power to establish such rules and regulations as may conduce to the prevention of contagious or epidemic disorders.

The collection of the town taxes, the amount of which is first agreed to at a regular town meeting, is confided to the treasurer. Two freeholders are chosen in each ward as assistant assessors; and these form a board for the election of three permanent assessors, who are not members of the board. The permanent as-

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sessors, aided by the assistants in their respective wards, value and appraise the estates and income of the inhabitants, and assess their respective portions of the tax. Six months, from the date of the tax-bill, is allowed for the payment, with a proportional discount of from 5 to 2 per cent, for early payments. The tax for the present year is estimated at 90,000 dollars, and the income of town-land and estates at 10,000. Of these sums, 14,000 is appropriated for schools, 5,000 for lamps, 6,500 for watchmen, 18,000 for the support of the poor, 10,000 for repairing streets, and 5,000 for the expenses of the Health Office.

Boston has twelve companies of infantry divided into three sub-legions, not uniformed; and the Ancient and Honourable Artillery, the Independent Cadets, Boston Fusiliers, Boston Light Infantry, Winslow Blue Light Infantry, Washington Light Infantry, Boston Cavalry, and two companies of Artillery, in complete uniform.

There are forty-nine physicians and surgeons practising in Boston. Stage-coaches pass daily between Boston and all the neighbouring villages, as well as all the more distant parts of the United States. To and from several of the villages, they go and return twice a day ; but this must be understood of week-days, the only

259

stages that travel on Sundays being those that carry the mails, and which are therefore under the direction of the general post-office, and not of the legislature of Massachusetts,

The principal manufactures in Boston consist in rum, loaf-sugar, beer, cordage, wool and cotton-cards, playing-cards, paper-hangings, hats, window-glass and chocolate.

The Aqueduct Corporation, instituted in 1795, supplies the village with excellent water, conveyed by pipes about six miles, from a pond, called Jamaica Pond, to the reservoir on Fort-Hill, and thence distributed through the principal streets.

Boston has suffered very considerable losses by fire. That of July, 1794, consumed ninety-six houses, and other property to the amount of two hundred and ten thousand dollars. Several parts of the town are still very much exposed to great damage from fire, being crowded with wooden buildings ; but the act of the legislature that prohibits the erection of any building more than ten feet in height, except of brick or stone, is gradually remedying the evil; and this regulation, which a few years since received the serious opposition of a great portion of the inhabitants, is now generally regarded as an essential benefit.

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CHAPTER LVII.
Massachusetts—Port of Boston.

MASSACHUSETTS is one of the most commercial divisions of the United States, and Boston one of the most flourishing ports. In 1784, the entries of foreign and coasting vessels were 372, and the clearances 450. In 1794, the entries from foreign ports were 567. In 1795, they amounted to 725 ; and, in 1806, to 938.

The principal exports, of domestic produce or manufacture, are pot and pearl-ashes, flax-seed, whale-oil, whale-bone, spermaceti, candles, fish dried and salted, beef, pork, cheese, butter and other kinds of provisions; lime, livestock, home-made rum, cotton and wool-cards, men's and women's shoes, snuff, manufactured tobacco and household furniture; boards, plank, oars, oak and pine timber, shingles, staves, heading, ship-timber, and other descriptions of lumber.

Pot and pearl ashes are carried principally to Great Britain, whence manufactures are taken in return; masts and provisions, to the East Indies ; fish, oil, beef, pork, lumber, candles and

261

other articles, to the West Indies; fish and fish-oil to France, Spain and Portugal; and barley, hops, butter, cheese and other provisions, together with hats, saddlery, and manufactures in general, to the southern states.

The entire annual exports of Massachusetts are estimated at the original value of nineteen millions of dollars; the exports of fish and of agricultural produce being taken at thirteen millions, and the foreign commodities, imported and reshipped, at six millions. Her total shipping is said to amount to three hundred and thirty-eight thousand tons, of which eighty-eight thousand is employed in the fisheries and in the coasting trade ; and two hundred and fifty thousand in the foreign trade. The value of the tonnage is given at twelve millions of dollars.

The exports of dried fish, which belong almost exclusively to New England, and principally to Massachusetts, amounted, in this year, to four hundred and seventy-three thousand, nine hundred and twenty-four quintals; and the value of the whole product of the fisheries is said to have amounted to two millions eight hundred thousand dollars.

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The four hundred and seventy-three thousand quintals exported, were disposed of in the several ports of Europe, and other parts, as follows :                      


quintals
To ports of France, on the Atlantic Ocean,
65,697
Ditto, in the Mediterranean Sea, 22,557
Ports of Spain, on the Atlantic, 43,649
Ditto, in the Mediterranean, 35,460
Ports of Italy, 18,000
All other ports, 288,561
                          Total,  
473,924

The annual profits, derived by Massachusetts from her commerce, are estimated at twenty-six millions of dollars.

Amount paid for fish and other domestic produce, and for manufactures, $13,000,000
Mercantile profits on export of ditto, 9,000,000
Mercantile profits on reshipments of foreign commodities, for which six millions of dollars has been paid in the foreign market,   4,000,000

26,000,000

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Of this sum, the direct distribution, among the several descriptions of persons interested, is as follows:

1. Farmers, country dealers, fishermen, and manufacturers receive, for domestic produce and domestic manufactures,
$13,000,000
2. Merchants, marine-insurers, sailors, ship-wrights and other artificers, labourers, and all others whose employment or capital is connected with commerce, receive, on the export of domestic produce and manufactures, 9,000,000
3. Ditto, ditto, on the export of forein commodities,   4,000,000

$26,000,000

                             

                                                         

But, since the merchants, and all other persons connected with commerce, are consumers of domestic produce and manufactures, therefore the manufacturer, fisherman and farmer, ultimately receive, through the medium of commerce, a large proportion of a gross sum of twenty-six millions of dollars.

264

CHAPTER LVIII.

MassachusettsIndian Missions.

IN the summer of the year 1805, a missionary, from one of the missionary institutions of Massachusetts, requested the Indian agent for the United States, resident at Buffalo Creek, on Lake Erie, to assemble the chiefs and warriors of the Six Nations, and particularly the Senecas, whose lands are in that neighbourhood. A council was accordingly held, and the missionary presented himself, to offer the Christian doctrines for its acceptance.

After the usual preliminary, of shaking hands, the agent addressed himself to the council, in the few words that follow:

"Brothers of the Six Nations! I rejoice to meet you at this time, and thank the Great Spirit, that he has preserved you in health, and given me another opportunity of taking you by the hand.

Brothers, the person who sits by me, is a friend, who has come a great distance to hold a talk with you. He will inform you what his