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Travels through the northern parts of the United States in the years 1807 and 1808

by Edward Augustus Kendall, Esq.

IN THREE VOLUMES,
volume III.

NEW-YORK: Printed and published by I. Riley

1809.

DISTRICT OF NEW-YORK, s.s.

    BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the twenty-seventh day of October, in the thirty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Isaac Riley, of the said district, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words and figures following, to wit:

"Travels through the Northern parts of the United States, in the years 1807 and 1808, by Edward Augustus Kendall, Esq. In three volumes. Volume III."

    In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, "An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;" and also to an act, entitled, " An act, supplementary to an act, entitled, an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

CHARLES CLINTON,

Clerk ot the District of New-York

CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.

CHAPTER LX.                 Page
Names of Parties,                   1

CHAPTER LXI.
Massachusetts—Charlestown—Cambridge— Harvard College,                     8

CHAPTER LXIII.*
Massachusetts—Salem—Marblehead—Newburyport,                       21

CHAPTER LXIV.
New Hampshire—Portsmouth—Dover, 30

CHAPTER LXIV.
Massachusetts—Maine— Saco,          40

CHAPTER LXVI.
Massachusetts—Maine—The Kennebec—Taconnet Falls,                      46

iv                   CONTENTS.

CHAPTER LXVII.              Page
Massachusetts—Maine—Falls of Noridgewoc— Noridgewoc or Nanrantswac,             52

CHAPTER LXVIII.
Massachusetts—Maine—Bingham Purchase— Sandy River—Noridgewoc,            70

CHAPTER LXIX.
Massachusetts—Maine—Noridgewoc, continued,                           84

CHAPTER LXX.
Massachusetts—Maine—Augusta, 108

CHAPTER LXXI.
Massachusetts—Maine— Hallowell—Gardiner,                           118

CHAPTER LXXII.
Massachusetts—Maine— Wiscasset—Bath, 127

CHAPTER LXXIII,
Massachusetts—Maine—Brunswic—Pejipscot Falls—Bowdoin College,            139

CONTENTS.                        v

CHAPTER LXXIV.              page
Massachusetts—Maine—Portland,      152

CHAPTER LXXV.
Massachusetts—Maine—Population—Militia,                       169

CHAPTER LXXVI.
New Hampshire—White Mountains, 172

CHAPTER LXXVII.
New Hampshire—Bethlehem—Bath—Haverhill—Dartmouth College,          188

CHAPTER LXXVIIL
Vermont—New Hampshire—Hartford—Windsor—Great Falls,              199

CHAPTER LXXIX.
Vermont—Rockingham—Brattleborough, 216

CHAPTER LXXX.
Massachusetts—Northampton—Worcester—Ethiopic Inscription,                223

vi                     CONTENTS.

CHAPTER LXXXI.             Page
Vermont—Rutland—Middlebury—Vergennes,                        235

CHAPTER LXXXII.
Vermont—Rutland, resumed, 249

CHAPTER LXXXIII.
The same, continued,              258

CHAPTER LXXXIV.
Vermont—Burlington—University of Vermont—Saint-Alban's,              269

CHAPTER LXXXV.              
Vermont—Lake Champlain,         282

CHAPTER LXXXVI.
The same, concluded,              293


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CHAPTER LX.

Names of Parties.

OF political parties, there has appeared, in these chapters, little more than the names; but, evert the names appear to demand elucidation. A former traveller* apologizes for having introduced into his book the names federalist and anti-federalist; and, I, perhaps, owe an apology for having continued to employ them. His apology is made to depend on the necessity, which is sometimes imposed upon a writer of travels, to adopt the terms of the country of

    * The Duke de la Rochefoucauld Liancourt.

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which he writes; but, mine will be found, not only in the convenience which attends the preservation of terms once understood, but in the difficulties which, in this instance, would attend the substitution' of any others.

    Federalist and anti-federalist are the terms best known to the general reader, by which to distinguish the two political parties in the United States; but, in the United States themselves, one of these terms, the term anti-federalist, appears to be obsolete. Meanwhile, it is in the name alone that the change consists ; the antagonism is continued between the same persons, and the same principles, as formerly ; and there is, therefore, no necessity for our following the prejudices, the passions or the intrigues, by which alone any variation of names is occasioned.                               

    But if, nevertheless, we were disposed to speak the political language of the day, much embarrassment would attend the choice that we should have to make.

    Among the more modern compellations of the federalists, the favourite ones are traitors, tories, damned tories, and British tories; and, among those of the anti-federalists, are jacobins, French tories, republicans and democrats. With each of these, and with its signification and appropriation, it is necessary to be acquainted, in order to read and listen with edification,.

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in the United States; but, upon which, of all the list, a stranger ought to fix his choice, either for his tongue, or for his pen, it might not be easy to determine.

    To the general reader, the term republican conveys no other idea, than that of a person whose political opinions are unfavourable to a regal government; or, in other words, whose opinions are favourable to a republican. But, the government of the United States is republican. All its subjects, therefore, being loyal subjects, are republicans; and how shall a writer make himself understood, if he suffers himself to employ, as the name of a party, a name which is the common property of the nation ? In point of fact, the federalists are not silent in their claims in this regard, but often call themselves federal republicans. The same want of exclusive signification will be allowed to the term Americans, which it has occasionally pleased each party to take to itself only.

    In a situation similar to that of the term republican, is the term democrat. The government of the United States is a democracy; and, therefore, every loyal subject of that government is a democrat. But, things are otherwise understood in the United States.

    By the exclusive assumption of the name republican, the assuming party designs to throw, up-

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on the other, the stigma, (for a stigma, in these countries, it is generally supposed to be,) of a fondness for a regal government. By the name democrat is intended, a democrat of a peculiar school.

    Democracy consists in a government of the people, and every man, that is willing to vest the government in the people, is a democrat. But, democracy is, therefore, a term, which, after defining the seat of the public authority, is, for the rest, of the loosest signification. A democracy, not less than any other form of government, may be differently modified.

    But, democracy, without its modification, is mere matter of theory ; and, to be made matter of practice, it must be modified: that is, it must receive a practical form. To say, The people shall govern, is to advance what is merely theoretical; to say, that The people shall govern in this or that manner, is to supply the practice.

    But, it is precisely this question of practice, and not the question of theory, that divides the two parties in the United States, of which the one adopts, and the other shrinks from, the name of democrat. Both are champions of a government of the people, as the basis of their views; both are champions of that form of a government of the people which is contained in

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the constitution of government of the United States; but, these particulars determined, an infinity of others successively present themselves ; and, upon every one, perhaps, of these, they disagree.

    It is from France that the democrats of the United States have derived, as well their name, as much of what is peculiar in their tenets. The name was adopted at the era of the French revolution, and, is understood to imply, an attachment to the general principles of that revolution, as well as to the particular and political interests and practices of France. For the followers of these combined views, the only term, hitherto used in Europe, by their enemies, is jacobin. The French jacobins called themselves des démocrats.

    But, to the principles of the French revolution, and to the particular and political interests and practices of France, the federalists are hostile. To them, the questions of jacobinism and anti-jacobinism have appeared nearly in the same light as to the enemies of jacobinism in Europe.

     Democracy, therefore, is the name of a sect in philosophy, as well as of a party in foreign and domestic politics. The sect and the party are commonly espoused by the same individual; and the individual, so espousing, calls himself, and is called, a democrat; and a democrat is an anti-

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federalist. The individual, who espouses an opposite system, as to his philosophical tenets, and as to his views of the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, is called a federalist.

    To weigh the merits of the principles of these parties, either as matter of general philosophy, or as applicable and applied to the United States, is not, in this place, my intention. I confine myself to definitions of their names. But, in the following language of a Boston partisan, the reader will see a solemn statement of the differences, depending between the two, such as it is generally considered to be, by the federalists, not only of Boston, but of all this part of the country:

"MANY people indulge an opinion, that the divisions, which now agitate the public mind, originate merely in a difference of sentiment, respecting certain principles in politics, or the best mode of administering government. This is a sad mistake. Observe attentively the characters of those, who compose a major part of the class called democrats ; remark, likewise, the tenor of the instructions addressed to them,through their public prints; —it will, then, be impossible not to see, that the controversy is of a more serious nature; that

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the points in dispute go to the foundation of social establishments, and aim at a total revolution in the present state of society ; that ignorance, prejudice, profligacy and their concomitant, want, are marshalled and combined against all laudable eminence.

    It is true, that some infomed, but unprincipled men, are making use of these instruments solely with a view to effect their own selfish plans, in pursuit of office; but, should their object be accomplished, the evil will not end here.

    That malignant hostility, which they have fostered, against those, who eilher by inheritance or industry, have arrived at affluence, will pursue its career, like a torrent. The line of affluence is not easily drawn; competence will be the second sacrifice. Men of intrigue can easily raise the worst passions; they can lead them in the work of destruction ; but they cannot stay them at pleasure: that sovereignty, which they have flattered, will be, maintained, and will triumph, over truth and justice, until, in the course of events, the strong arm of  'physical power' will again restore order; and that, for a time, at the expense of civil liberty."

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CHAPTER LXI.

Massachusetts— Charlestown— Cambridge—Harvard College.

    THE environs of Boston contain, not only well built, but populous villages, of which the most remarkable are Cambridge and Charlestown, both approached, as it will be remembered, by bridges. Charlestown, on the north-east, has an inlet of the sea, called, from a little stream that falls into it, Mistic River. In the town are Bunker's, Breed's and Barrell's Hills. It was Breed's Hill, as it is now said, and not Bunker's, on which the battle took place, in the year 1775. Another variation in the historical topography of Charlestown is to be noticed; namely, that the hill, which is now called Barrell's, was more anciently called Cobble's.—On Breed's Hill is a monument, dedicated to the memory of Major-general Warren, who fell in the battle. On Barrell's Hill there is a large and elegant mansion ; and Breed's Hill promises to be soon covered with buildings.

    Charlestown, which is busily engaged in commerce, in ship-building, and in a great variety

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[... manufactures, composes with Boston one ... It has a handsome congregational church, and an alms-house ; and it contains the state-prison of Massachusetts, a building ...  establishment in which, perhaps, every ... that humanity and wisdom can suggest, ...iplished, for the comfort and reform of ... Here, as in the other gaols in the ....prisoners are condemned .... and others for terms of ...]

Within the prison, and surrounding a -- spacious court, are work-shops, for shoe-making, nail-making, brass-founding and other manufactures ; and nothing, in the appearance of the shops or of the prisoners, remind a visitor that  he is walking through a gaol. The cells, to which the prisoners retire at night, are strong, and well secured; but they are at the same time sufficiently large and airy.

    Cambridge presents a contrast to Charlestown, which it adjoins on the west; for, here, we are in a degree sequestered from the bustle of commerce, and led to the halls of a university, for which an antiquity of more than a century and a half begins to demand some veneration.  This town contains two parishes, severally called Cambridge and Menotomy. Little Cambridge, lately a third parish, has been erect-.

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ed into a town itself, under the denomination of Brighton. Cambridge, Brighton, Watertown and Waltham, all bordered by Charles River, contain, amid agreeable landscapes, a great number of houses that exhibit, both within and without, much wealth and taste. Mr. Gore's, in Waltham, at nine miles from Boston, built and fitted up in patrician style, is the most elegant mansion in New England. It is of red brick, a rare circumstance out of the cities and villages, other gentlemen's houses being generally of wood, and painted white. The library and other apartments display a love and knowledge of the fine arts ; and the grounds, though not particularly .indebted to nature, are well laid out. Mr. Lyman, in the same town, has embellished his residence with made grounds, in a good taste, and at a very large expense. Mr. Lyman has also a handsome collection of exotics. The house and grounds of Mr. Gorham Parsons are strictly a ferme ornée ; and though they do not in all respects resemble Shenstone's Leasowes, they are of the same description. As commanding a very beautiful prospect, the residence which still surpasses those that I have mentioned, is that of Mr. Pomeroy ; and this is in a particular manner grateful to my recol-

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[account of the friendship and kind--- experienced in it.

    Menotomy* contains Mr. Whitmore's manufactury of cotton and wool-cards, in which the [work] is performed by patent machinery, singularly ingenious. The manufacture of cards consists in inserting close and sharp teeth of ... wire into a back of leather, which is ... backed with wood, for use ; and ... teeth require to be crooked.]
 machine, set in motion by a lathe, and performing seven operations at the same instant, draws the wire, cuts it into lengths, punctures the leather, takes the teeth as it were between its fingers, inserts them into the leather, fastens them at the back of the leather, arid bends their points; the aid of the manufacturer being required merely to place the leather, and to work the lathe.

    Harvard College, otherwise called the University of Cambridge, was, in its original foundation, only a public school, for the establishment of which, in the year 1637, or six years after the first settlement of Massachusetts, the court directed the sum of 400l. currency, to be paid out of the public treasury. In the year 1638, the Reverend Mr. John Harvard died, leaving a legacy of

* Miantonomy.