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posted Nov 2005

An Elementary Geography for Massachusetts Children
by
William Bentley Fowle, 1795-1866
Asa Fitz, 1810-

    This is scanned from our own battered volume, except the title and copyright pages and covers are from the American Antiquarian Society copy. It's a small book, about 5 x 5½ inches. There are probably some errors in the text, despite proof-reading the OCR output, and please report them to: webmaster[at]capecodhistory.us. (The criteria for italization of words is unclear, but is reproduced as found.)

Index:
Introduction to geography
Massachusetts intro
United States
North America
South America
Europe
Asia
Africa
Massachusetts history
Towns are arranged by population within their counties:
Suffolk, Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, Plymouth, Barnstable, Dukes, Nantucket, Bristol, Worcester, Hampshire, Hampden, Franklin, Berkshire
Railroads
Pronunciation of Proper Names
back cover advertisements

cover

AN

ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

FOR

MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN

BY

WM. B. FOWLE and ASA FITZ.
tree

BOSTON:

FOWLE AND CAPEN,

No 136½ WASHINGTON STREET


title page


An
ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY
for

MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.
by

WM. B. FOWLE and ASA FITZ.

tmp1B33-28.jpg

BOSTON:
FOWLE AND CAPEN,
No. 138½ Washington Street.









Entered accodring to Act of Congress, in the year 1845,
By William B. Fowle and Asa Fitz
In the Clerk's Office of thte District Court of the District of Massachusetts













Stereotyped by S.N. Dickenson & Co., Boston


PREFACE.

    Many Geographies have been prepared for Primary Schools, but still it is believed that in several points, both of matter and manner, there is great room for improvement.

    In regard to the matter of Common School geographies, it has not only been the custom to introduce much that is not geography, but I to devote the larger part of the book to remote countries, with which children have little or no sympathy.

    The mischief is, that authors are so anxious to make books that may be used every where, that they are nearly unfitted to be used any where; and it is a striking fact, that, with the exception of the Common School Geography, one eighth of which is devoted to Massachusetts, the popular text books despatch our State in two or three pages, and these contain all that our children are taugt at school of their native town, county, and State! This little work proposes to make them acquainted with Home, at the risk of not being used out of Massachusetts.



4                                          PREFACE


    In regard to manner, it may be said, that this is a practical book, neither intended to be learned by rote, nor to amuse children, except so far as the acquisition of distinct ideas may give them pleasure; the object being not to give a few unconnected notions, but a regular series of lessons, that will serve as a sure foundation for future progress. The book is intended, in fact, to be an introduction to the Common School Geography, and, like that, contains little or nothing that will not be as true as it is now, when the child has left school and gone forth to use what he has acquired. The time will probably never come, to the present generation at least, when the newest edition of either book cannot be used in the same class with the oldest edition, — a consideration of some importance in the selection of a school book.

    Large Outline Maps, similar to those in the Look, will soon be prepared by the author, at a low price ; and, as the plan is different from that of other geographies, all the directions necessary for its use are given as fast as they are needed.

WM. B. FOWLE,
ASA FITZ

Boston, April, 1845,  


ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.
_______________________

PART FIRST.
__________

LESSON I.

THE EARTH OR GLOBE.
globe

     The teacher should first give the child some idea of the world on which he lives; and, if he has not an artificial globe, or even if he has one, he may take a wooden ball, or any other round body through which a hole can be made, and then, in familiar conversation, he may proceed somewhat in the following manner.

     We live on the surface or outside of the Earth, which is a large ball as round as an orange.

                           


6          ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

     On the cover of this book is a picture of the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon. The Earth moves round the Sun, and the Moon moves round the Earth.

     Men live on the outside of the Earth, and they do-not fall off, because the great Earth draws every thing towards itself.

     Show the first picture, page 5.

     If the teacher can procure a small magnet, he can illustrate the attraction of the Earth, by attracting smaller bodies, If he can borrow a magnet, he can make another from it in a few minutes, as follows: Take a small bar of steel, (not iron,) — a very coarse knitting-needle will do, — hold it by the middle, and draw one end of the magnet from the middle to one end of the steel, about twenty or thirty times; then draw the other end of the magnet from the middle to the other end of the steel, as many more times. The new magnet will then draw needles or small pieces of iron towards it, and will retain the power a long time.

     Besides moving round the sun once a year, the Earth turns itself round once every day.

     Show them, by rolling a ball on the table, how the Earth rolls round also as it goes forward.

     Let the teacher now put a wire or stick through the ball or apple, find spin it from his left hand to his right. If it be evening, he may place the lamp on the right of the ball, and show the pupil that tlay and night are caused by this spinning of the earth, and the line of day and night, or of light and darkness, is constantly travelling over the globe, making morning and evening as it goes.

QUESTIONS TO LESSON I.

1.  On what do we live ?
2.  What is the shape of the Earth?



FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN                      7


3.  What does the Earth move round?
4.  What moves round the Earth ?
5.  On what part of the Earth do men live ?
6.  What keeps us from falling off this great ball when it turns round?
7.  How often does the Earth go round the Sun?
8.  How often does the Earth turn itself round?
9.  Why is half of the world always light, and half always dark?
10.  What is the meaning of day and night?

_____

LESSON II

     The Earth always turns in the same direction; and, of course, two spots on opposite sides must be almost still, while the rest of the Earth moves round them, as the ball moves round the wire or stick.

     The teacher may stick pins into the ball, and let the child see how much faster those half way between the two turning points move, than those do near the turning points, and yet they are just as long in going entirely round.

    The two points on which the Earth turns are called the Poles.

    The child may be told that God made the world and turned it round at first, and still keeps it turning on nothing, in one and the same direction, just as invariably as if it turned upon a pole or stick.




8                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


     One of the points on which the Earth turns is called the North Pole, and the other the South Pole.

    When we face the North Pole, all things on our right hand are East of us, and all things on our left hand are West of us.

    The Earth always turns from west to east, but the sun does not move, as it appears to do.

    Here let the teacher tell the child which way is north from where he stands, and then ask him which way is south, which way east, and which west. Then let the child face south, east, and west, and tell the direction of all the other points, while facing in each direction. As all pictures of the Earth, or maps, as they are called, place the north part of the country at the top, the other parts may easily be found.

    To find the real north, the child has only to face the rising or setting sun. If he faces the rising sun, the north is at his left hand; if he faces the setting sun, the north is at his right hand. If the teacher has not a magnetic needle, he may lay a small sewing needle carefully on the surface of a cup of water, and it will generally point north and south when it stops moving. The floating of the needle will interest the children, whether it points north or not,

QUESTIONS TO LESSON II.

1.  What are the points on which the Earth turns called?
2.  When we face the North Pole, which way is South? East? West?
3. When we face the South Pole, which way is North? East? West?


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN                      9


4.  Face the North; the East; the South; the West
5.  Which way do you face when you face the rising sun?
6.  When you face the North, on which hand will the sun rise ? On which will it set ?
7.  Which way is your house from the school-house ?
8.  Before noon which way do shadows fall ?
9.  Which way do shadows lean in the afternoon ?
10.  What part of the Earth, or of a ball, turns the fastest?
11.  What two points almost stand still?
12.  In what direction does the Earth turn?

LESSON III

    A line drawn round the Earth, as far from one pole as from the other, is called the Equator.

    The teacher may let the pupil hold a pencil or piece of chalk midway between the poles of the wooden ball, and murk an equator while the ball is turned round. Tell the child, also, that the equator is drawn there to measure from, if you go north or south of it; and to measure on, if you go east or west,

    A very pretty exercise consists in drawing a circle and marking the equator and poles. This may be correctly done on slate or paper, without any instrument but the fingers and pencil. Hold the pencil between the thumb and the end joint of the fore finger, — the handle of the pencil being under the fingers, and pointing towards the little finger. Then press the fore finger nail hard on the slate




10               ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


or paper. If paper is under, turn it round with your left hand. If a slate is used, lay the slate on the spread fingers of your left hand, press hard on it with your fore finger nail as before, twist the slate to the right, and the pencil (without marking) to the left, as far as you can, and then begin to mark as you twist them back again. After the circle is made, dot a centre; dot the poles; draw the equator between them; draw a line from pole to pole. To draw parallels of latitude, keep the equator over the line you wish to draw. To draw meridians, hold the poles horizontally, and draw from left to right, resting the hand on the wrist.

    Distance measured north from any part of the equator, is called North Latitude; and distance measured south from aoy part of the equator, is called South Latitude.

    The teacher, with a globe, or map of the world, may point at a few places north and south of the equator, and ask whether they are in north or south latitude.

    Distance or measurement lengthwise of the equator, from west to east, or from east to west, is called Longitude.

    The teacher may, with a globe or a map of the world, show how latitude and longitude are reckoned, and even explain the figures at the meridians on the equator, or at the parallels on the meridians. He must, however, be guided by the age of the child.

    A Map is a drawing of the round Earth, or a part of it, on a flat surface, like paper.

    To draw the whole Earth, it is necessary to cut it in halves, as in the following picture.


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN                      11

split globe

     Let the teacher cut an apple in halves and lay it upon paper, to show how Map No. 4, on page 16, is drawn. It is better, however, to have his wooden ball sawed in two, and secured by a hook or pin on one side of the equator, so that it can be opened on a hinge at the opposite side. If the ball is painted white, an outline of the continents may be drawn on it with pencil or ink:

     Half of the Earth is called a Hemisphere. The eastern half is called the Eastern Hemisphere, and the western half the Western Hemisphere.

QUESTIONS TO LESSON III.

1.  Where is the Equator drawn on the Earth ?
2.  What is distance north of the Equator called?
3.  What is distance south of the Equator called?
4.  What is Longitude ?



12              ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


5.  What is the difference between a Map and a Globe?
6.  What is half a globe or ball called?
7.  What is the eastern half of the globe called ?
8.  What is the western half called ?

LESSON IV.

key

     The surface of the Earth consists of Land and Water, and there is much more water than land.


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   13


    The teacher must explain the preceding map, from the book, or by a drawing on the black-board. Ile must teach the child how to distinguish water from land; and, after he is familiar with this map, the maps of an atlas, or a large outline map, should be shown to him, and he should be required to point out the continents, islands, oceans, lakes, &c. — not the names, but the things.

DIVISIONS OF LAND.

     The largest connected portions of land are called Continents.

    Land entirely surrounded by water is called an Island.

    Land almost surrounded by water is called a Peninsula.

    The strip of land that prevents a peninsula from being an island, is called an Isthmus.

    Points of land running into the water are called Capes.

    Very high Hills are called Mountains. A burning mountain is called a Volcano.

DIVISIONS OF WATER.

     Large bodies of water between the continents are called Oceans.

     Large bodies of water surrounded by land are called Lakes. Small lakes are called Ponds.



14                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Large bodies of water nearly surrounded by land are called Seas.

     The narrow passage that prevents a sea from being surrounded by land is called a Strait.

    Water running far into the land, with a wide mouth, is called a Bay or Gulf.

    A stream of water running through the land is called a River if it be large, and a Brook if it be small.

    Two or more streams that unite to form a large river are called its Sources; but all that afterwards run into the river are called Branches.

Divisions of Land. Divisions of Water.
Continents, Oceans,
Islands, Lakes and Ponds,
Peninsulas, Seas,
Isthmuses, Straits,
Capes, Bays or Gulfs.
Mountains or Hills. Rivers or Brooks.

     The teacher may impress the divisions of land and water upon the pupil's mind, by showing him that continents are to land what oceans are to water. So islands correspond to lakes ; peninsulas to seas; isthmuses to straits, and capes to gulfs or bays.

    Be sure to teach children that livers run from high land down hill into the sea. Let them find mountains on maps, and follow to their mouths such rivers as run from them.

    Ask them if they ever saw an island, a cape, a pond, a river, &c. The author has found many advanced children, who had never, as


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN                      15

they supposed, seen a peninsula, although they had always lived in Boston or Charlestown, both of which are peninsulas.

QUESTIONS TO LESSON IV.

1. What is a Continent? 2. An Island? 3. A Peninsula? 4. An Isthmus? 5. A Cape? 6. A Mountain ? 7. What is a burning mountain called ? 8. What is an Ocean? 9. A Lake? 10. What are small lakes called? 11. What is a Sea? 12. A Strait? 13. A Bay or Gulf? 14. A River? 15. What is a small river called?

. ______

LESSON V.

    If the school is supplied, as it ought to be, with large Outline Maps, the teacher will find them excellent aids in this lesson.

     The six grand divisions of land are called

North America, Europe, Africa,
South America, Asia, Australasia.

    North and South America form the Western Continent.

    Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australasia form the Eastern Continent.

    The Pacific Ocean separates America from Asia and Australasia.




hemispheres


    Show the pupil how the globe is cut into these hemispheres, by Plate No. 2, or by the hinged ball before described.

    Let the pupil draw a circle as before directed, and then let him try to draw the grand divisions. Do not langh at his work, if it should be done coarsely, for the figure in his mind will be much better than that on paper, nnd he will soon acquire courage and do better.


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   17


    The Atlantic Ocean separates America from Europe and Africa.

    The Indian Ocean separates Africa from Australasia.

    The Arctic Ocean surrounds the North Pole, and separates Europe and Asia from America,

    The Antarctic Ocean surrounds the South Pole.

    The manner in which oceans separate continents or -surround the poles can only be shown on a globe or marked ball. All mapSj unless thoroughly compared with a globe, will mislead the child,

QUESTIONS TO LESSON V.

1.  What are the six Grand Divisions of the Earth?
2.  Which Grand Divisions are on the Western Continent?
3.  Which Grand Divisions are on the Eastern Continent ?
4.  What Ocean separates America from Asia?
5. What Ocean separates America from Europe ?
6.  What Grand Divisions is the Indian Ocean between ?
7.  What Ocean surrounds the North Pole ?
8.  What Ocean surrounds the South, Pole ?



18                          ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


LESSON VI

    The hottest part of the Earth is at the Equator, and it grows colder and colder the farther you go from the Equator towards either Pole.

    North and South America are both peninsulas, connected by one isthmus.

    Africa is a peninsula, connected with Asia by an isthmus.

    Asia and Europe form one peninsula, and are united to Africa.

    Australasia and Polynesia consist of islands; and Australia, the largest in the world, is one of them.

    The Arctic and Antarctic Oceans are generally frozen over.

QUESTIONS TO LESSON VL

1.  What part of the Earth is the hottest?
2.  What parts of the Earth are the coldest ?
3.  To what division of land does North America belong ?
4.  What unites it to South America ?
5.  To what division does South America belong?
6.  To what division does Africa belong?


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   19


7.  To what division is it connected by the isthmus?
8.  Which Grand Division consists of Islands?
9.  What two Grand Divisions form one peninsula ?
10.  Which Oceans are usually frozen over?
11.  In which Ocean are the islands of Polynesia?

_____

LESSON VII.

    The teacher may tell the pupil that Massachusetts is situated where the black spot is on North America, and the whole State is not much larger, compared with the whole world, than that spot is compared with the whole map.

     Teach the child by the little diagram at the bottom of the map, that the point half way between North and East is Northeast; that half way between South and East is Southeast; that half way between North and West is Northwest; and that half way between South and West is Southivest.

QUESTIONS TO LESSON VII.

TO BE ANSWERED BY THE PUPIL WITH THE MAP BEFORE HIM.

1.  Which way does Europe lie from Massachusetts?
2.   On which side of North America is Massachusetts?
3.  Which way from Massachusetts is the Equator ?
4.  Which way from Massachusetts is the Pacific ? The Atlantic?


20                            ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

5.  Which way from Massachusetts are Europe and Asia?
6.  Which way from Massachusetts are Africa and Australasia?
7.  Which way from Massachusetts lies the Antarctic Ocean?
8.  Which way lies the Arctic Ocean ?
9.  Which way is Massachusetts from Europe ?
10.  Which way from Australasia?
11.  Which way from Polynesia?
12.  Which way from the Arctic Ocean?

_______

LESSON VIII

     Is North America north or south of the Equator? Which way does it lie from South America ?

    Which way does South America lie from North ? Which way from Africa?

    Which way does Europe lie from North America ? Which way from Asia? Which way from Africa ?

    Which way does Australasia lie from Asia ?

    On which side of the Pacific Ocean is America ?

    On which side of America is the Atlantic Ocean ?

    On which side of the Atlantic are Europe and Africa?

    On which side of the Pacific Ocean is Asia ?

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   21

     On which side of the Indian Ocean is Africa ?

     Which way does the Arctic Ocean lie from Europe, Asia, and North America?

     In what direction do the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans lie from the Antarctic Ocean ?

     Which Ocean is the largest ? Which the smallest ?

     Which Hemisphere contains the most land?

_______

LESSON IX.

     Having given the child a general idea of the globe, the teacher may now give him a general idea of the State of Massachusetts.

Mass


     And first let him familiarly call the attention of the child to the shape of Massachusetts, which is not unlike that of a shoe. Amuse

p

22                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


him by asking what State is at the heel? what under the heel? what under the centre ? what two States over the shoe ? what part of the shoe is in the water ? what on the strap ? &c.

    Now explain to the child the meaning of a County. To do this, make him use the knowledge he possesses. Ask him what town he lives in ? what village or parish he lives in ? how many villages or parishes are in the town ? Then call his attention to the scattered houses. Tell him that the town has been measured all round, and touches other towns on every side. Tell him that all other towns do the same, and several such towns united form a County, and several counties form the State.

    Let him draw, as well as he can, an outline of the State of Massachusetts, without marking the counties. When he can do this pretty correctly, let him try to mark off the counties, or make them one at a time, beginning at Berkshire. In the mean time, show him the map of the county to which his own town belongs, and ask him, and, if necessary, show him, what counties touch it on the north, east, south, and west. This map is at the end of the book. [not present]

    Massachusetts contains 307 towns and 14 counties, which, according to their population, are as follows.

1.  Middlesex, 8.  Berkshire,
2.  Suffolk, 9.  Hampden,
3.  Worcester, 10. Barnstable,
4.  Essex, 11.  Hampshire,
5.  Bristol, 12.  Franklin,
6.  Norfolk, 13.  Nantucket.
7.  Plymouth, 14.  Dukes.
QUESTIONS TO LESSON IX.

1.  What does the State of Massachusetts resemble in shape ?
2.  What are united to form a town ?

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                23


3.  What do several towns united form?
4.  How many counties are in Massachusetts?
5.  What county do you live in ?
6.  What bounds it on the North? East? South? West?
7.  Name the counties according to the number of their inhabitants.
8.  How many towns are in the whole State .
9.  What county lies the farthest east ?
10.  Which county lies west of all the rest?
11.  What three counties touch Berkshire?
12.  What county has the largest surface?
13.  Which county touches Barnstable?
14.  Which touches Plymouth?
15.  What county lies north of Bristol?
16.  What north of Norfolk?
17.  What east of Middlesex?
18.  What county has the smallest surface?
19.  What two counties are islands?

    Such questions may and ought to be asked until the child is perfectly familiar with the situation of every county.

_____

LESSON X.

    The largest river in Massachusetts is the Connecticut, which crosses the State, dividing the three


24                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


counties of Franklin, Hampshirer and Hampden nearly in their centres, and runs south into Connecticut

    The next river in size is the Merrimack, which enters Middlesex, crosses Essex, and runs east into the Atlantic Ocean.

    The third river is the Honsatonic, which rises m Berkshire and runs south.

    The teacher should show the child that the Housatonic rises in Massachusettss but the Connecticut and Merrimack do not. The sources of the Housatonic and not its mouth, are visible. The mouth of the Merrimack is in Massachusetts, but the source is not. Neither source nor mouth of the Connecticut is in the State.

    The chief capes are Cape Cod, at the end of Barnstable county, and Cape Ann, at the east end of Essex county.

    The chief islands are Nantucket, which is also a county, and Martha's Vineyard., which is the largest island of Dukes county.

    The chief peninsula is that which includes the whole of Barnstable county.

    The chief bays are Massachusetts, which includes all the water between Cape Cod and Cape Ann, and Buzzard's Bay, which runs up between Plymouth and Barnstable counties.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.               25


QUESTIONS TO LESSON X.

1.  What is the largest river in Massachusetts ?
2.  What counties does it cross?
3.  In what direction does it run ?
4.  What river runs through Middlesex and Essex?
5.  From what State does it come into Massachusetts ?
6.  What river is in Berkshire ?
7.  In what direction does it run ?
8.  Which of the three great rivers rises in Massachusetts ?
9.  Which has its mouth in this State ?
10.  What are the two chief capes?
11.  In what counties are they?
12.  What bay lies between them?
13.  What island is also a county?
14.  What large island in Dukes county?
15.  Which way does it lie from Nantucket?
16.  Where is the chief peninsula of Massachusetts?
17.  Where is Buzzard's Bay?

 ______

SPECIAL DIRECTION.

    If the teacher now thinks it best to make the pupil acquainted with the towns of Massachusetts, before he acquires a little more general knowledge of the "World, he can turn to Part Second, where particular information in regard to every town may be


26                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

US

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                        27


found. The author preferred to place the towns at the end, because, lst, he was in doubt as to the best place for them; 2dly, they can be used now, if desirable, though not placed here; and, 3dly, should this plan be approved in other States, these towns can more easily be omitted, and their place supplied by similar notices of the towns of any other State.

__________

THE UNITED STATES.

    Having acquired a general idea of the World, and a particular acquaintance with the State where he resides, the pupil may now take the Map of the United States, and learn how Massachusetts is connected with the other States of which the Union is composed.

    The United States are bounded North by Canada, marked C; East by New Brunswick, marked B, and the Atlantic Ocean, marked A; South by the Gulf of Mexico, marked M; and West by Texas, marked T, and the Indian Territory, marked d.[sic]

    After explaining the above, ask the following questions.

QUESTIONS ON THE STATES.

    What country do the United States lie south of?
    What ocean are they west of?
    What gulf are they north of?
    What are they east of?
    What large bodies of water lie between the United States and Canada?



28                     ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Direction First. Let the child learn the names of the States, by being told the name when the State is pointed at. The teacher must be careful that the child does not merely learn the list of States according to their numbers, by rote, without regard to the shape or situation of each State. The teacher should chalk a map of the United States, like that in the book, and then he can place it before the whole class, point to the numbers, and tell the names, until the children can call the name when he points to the number. Then the numbers should be rubbed out, and the State only pointed at.

    Second. After the names and numbers are thus learned, the child may be required to tell how each State is bounded; first, while looking on the black-board, and afterwards from memory. A very capital exercise is, to let one child chalk one State, say Maine; let another add to it New Hampshire; a third, Vermont; a fourth, Massachusetts ; and so on, till all are chalked. Do not require any thing but the outline of each State at first, and do not expect the first attempts to be very perfect.

    Third. When the pupils are familiar with the States, let the teacher add the rivers to the map, pointing to each according to the numbers, and naming it, according to the list given in this book. Then take the lakes, bays, capes, and other divisions of land and water.

    Fourth. When the natural features of the United States, and the boundaries, are thus made familiar, the teacher may mark the towns, one at a time, making a square for the capitals, and a dot for the others.

    It is believed that this method will make both teacher and pupils better acquainted with the country than if the names were inserted. If the map is not chalked on the black-board, let each pupil have his map, but do not let him refer to the key-lists while he is reciting. He may do this as much as he pleases at other times.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                 29


TABLE.

    In the following Table, which is a Key to the Map, the States are arranged according to their population. The largest town is printed in italic type. Sometimes the capital is also the largest town.
States.
Capitals.
Largest Towns.
1.  New York, Albany, New York,
Rochester,
Buffalo.
2.  Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Philadelphia,
Pittsburg.
3.   Ohio, Columbus, Cincinnati. 
4.  Virginia, Richmond, Wheeling.
5.  Tennessee, Nashville.
6.  Kentucky, Frankfort, Louisville.
7.  North Carolina,  Raleigh, Newbern.
8.  Massachusetts, Boston, Lowell,
Salem.
9.  Georgia, Augusta, Savannah.
10.  Indiana,  Indianapolis.
11.   South Carolina, Columbia, Charleston.
12.  Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Mobile.
13.  Maine, Augusta, Portland.
14.  Illinois, Springfield, Chicago.
15.  Maryland, Annapolis, Baltimore.


30                             ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


States. Capitals. Largest Towns.
16.  Missouri, Jefferson, St. Louis.
17.  Mississippi, Jackson, Natchez.
18.  New Jersey, Trenton.
19.  Louisiana, New Orleans,
20.  Connecticut, Hartford, New Haven.
21.  Vermont, Montpelier Burlington.
22.  New Hampshire, Concord, Portsmouth.
23.  Michigan, Detroit.
24.  Rhode Island, Providence, Newport.
25.  Arkansas, Little Rock.
26.  Delaware, Dover.
27.  Florida, Tallahassee, Pensacola.
 23. Iowa, Burlington.
Territories.
Capitals.
a Columbia, Washington.
b Wisconsin, Madison.
c Indian, No large towns.

 

QUESTIONS ON THE STATES.

    What States are north of Massachusetts? South of it? What State lies west of it? What Ocean is east of it?

    What State is north of Florida ? North of Georgia? North of Tennessee ? North of Kentucky ? North of Ohio and Indiana ? North of Illinois ?

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   31


    What State is north of Louisiana ? North of Arkansas ? North of Missouri?

    What State lies east of Illinois ? East of Indiana ? East of Ohio ? East of Pennsylvania ?

    What State lies west of South Carolina? West of Georgia? West of Mississippi? What lies west of Louisiana?

     What State lies north of South Carolina ? North of North Carolina? North of Virginia? North of Maryland? North of Pennsylvania?

     What State lies south of Wisconsin? South of Illinois? South of Kentucky? What States south of Tennessee? What State south of Georgia and Alabama ?

    The teacher will perceive that these or similar questions may be asked from the map, or from memory, till the child is perfectly familiar with the location of the States. In fact, all such questions may be asked while the pupils are learning the map, according to the Four Directions before given.

     The following are the names of the rivers, which are numbered according to their length.

1.  Mississippi, 7. Tennessee, 13. Wabash,
2.  Missouri, 8. Cumberland, 14. James,
8. St. Lawrence, 9. Alabama, 15. Savannah,
4.  Arkansas, 10. Susquehanna, 16. St. Johns,
5.  Red, 11. Potomac, 17. Connecticut,
6.  Ohio,
12. Illinois,
18. Santee,



32                          ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


19.  Delaware, 23.  Pearl, 27.  Scioto,
20.  Altamaha, 24.  Neuse, 28.  Genessee,
21.  Penobscot, 25.  St. Johns, Fl. 29.  Sabine.
22.  Hudson, 26.  Merrimack,

    See Direction Third, for teaching the rivers, and then practise further, as follows; on the map first, if necessary, and then from memory.

    1.  In what direction does the Mississippi run? Into what gulf does it empty ? What States lie on its western bank ? What States on its eastern bank ?
     2.  In what direction does the Missouri run ? What river does it run into ? In what State is its mouth ?
     3.  In what direction does the St. Lawrence run? From what lake does it come ?
     4.  In what direction does the Arkansas run ? Into what does it empty its waters ? Through what State does it run ?
     5.  In what direction does Red River run? In what State is its outlet or mouth ? Into what river does it empty ?
     6.  In what direction does the Ohio run ? In what State do its sources unite to form it? Into what river does it run? Between what States is its mouth ? Opposite what State is its mouth ? What States lie north of the Ohio ? What States lie south of it?
     7.  In what direction does Tennessee river run?

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                          33


In what mountains does it rise ? What States does it touch ? In which is its mouth ? Into what river does it fall or empty ?
    8.  In what direction does the Cumberland run? In what State does it rise? In what State is its mouth ? Does it touch any other State ? Into what river does it fall ?
    9.  In what State is Alabama river ? In what direction does it run ? Into what gulf does it empty ? On which side is its largest branch, the Tombigbee?
     10.  In what direction does the Susquehanna run? In what State does it rise ? What two States does it divide ? Into what bay does it empty ?
    11.  In what direction does the Potomac run? What States does it separate ? Into what bay does it fall ?
    12.  In what State is the Illinois? In what direction does it run ? Into what river does it empty ?
    13.  In what State does the Wabash rise ? In what direction does it run ? What States does it partly separate ? Into what river does it fall ?
    14.  In what State is James river? Which way does it run ? Into what bay does it empty ?
    15.  What States does the Savannah separate? In what direction does it run ? Into what does it fall ?
    16.  In what State does the St. Johns rise? In what British territory is its mouth? What is its direction into the Bay of Fundy?



34                            ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

    17.  What two States does the Connecticut separate ? What other two does it divide ? What is its course ? Into what Sound does it empty? Ans. Long Island.
    18.  In what State does the Santee rise? What other State does it divide ? What is its course ? Into what does it einpty ?
    19.  In what State does the Delaware rise? What States does it separate ? In what direction does it run ? Into what bay does it empty ?
    20.  In'what State is the AUamaha? In. what direction does it run ? Into what does it fall ?
    21.  In what State is the Penobscot? What is its course ? Into what bay does it fall ?
    22.  In what State is the Hudson? What is its course ? Into what ocean does it run ?
    23.  In what State is the Pearl? Which way does it run? What two States does it partly separate? Into an arm of what gulf does it fall ?
    24.  In what State is the Neuse? What is its course? Into what Sound does it fall ? Ans. Pamlico.
    25.  In what State is the St Johns? In what direction does it run ? Into what ocean does it fall ?
    26.  In what State does the Merrimack rise? In what State is its mouth? In what directions does it run?
   27.  In what State is the Scioto? What is its course? Into what river does it fall?


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   35


28,  In what State is the Genessee? What is its course ? Into what does it empty ?
29.  What State and country does the Saline separate ? What is its general course? Into what does it empty?


LAKES.
1.  Superior. 3.  Michigan. 5.   Ontario.
2.  Huron. 4.  Erie. 6.  Champlain.


BAYS.

1.  Chesapeake.  3. Massachusetts. 5. Narraganset
2.  Delaware.  4. Penobscot.


CAPES.

1.  Cod.
3. Henlopen. 5. Henry
2.  May. 4. Charles. 6. Sable.


ISLANDS.

1.  Long Island.
3. Key West
2.  Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard.

                         
    As the Lakes, Bays, Capes, and Islands have already been pointed out to the pupils, according to Direction Third, page 28, it will be only necessary to ask a few questions like the following.

    Which is the largest and most northern of the great lakes ? What lake is south of Lake Superior ? What lake is southeast of it ? What lake at the south ef Huron ? What lake is northeast of Erie ? What State between Superior, Huron, and Michigan?



36                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

What States does Erie touch ? What State is south of Ontario? What States does Champlain partly-separate ? With what great river is it connected by a small one?

    What States does the Chesapeake divide ? What States separate it from Delaware Bay? Between what States is Delaware Bay? Of what ocean are Chesapeake and Delaware bays a portion ? What bay is enclosed by Capes Cod and Ann ? What bay divides the seacoast of Maine ? What State does the Narraganset nearly divide ?

    In what State is Cape Cod? Cape May? Cape Henlopen? Capes Charles and Henry? Cape Hatteras ? Cape Sable ? What bay enters the land between Capes Charles and Henry? What bay between Capes May and Henlopen ?

    In what State is Nantucket? South of what State is Long Island? Where is Martha's Vineyard? What small island is near Cape Sable, in Florida?

    Through what States do the Allegheny Mountains chiefly run?

CITIES AND TOWNS.

    Tell the child that a city only differs from a town in its form of government; the city having one man at the head, called the Mayor, and the town having several men, called Selectmen, If the child

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                 37


has not been thoroughly exercised according to Direction Fourth, page 28, the teacher should go back and practise, before asking the following questions.

    1.  In what State are Albany, New York, Rochester, and Buffalo ? At the mouth of what river is New York city? In what part of the State is it? On what river is Albany ? Which way is it from New York city ? At the mouth of what river is Rochester ? On what lake is Buffalo ? Which city is the capital ? Which is the largest city ?
    2.  In what State are Harrisburg, Philadelphia, and Pittsburg ? On what river is Harrisburg ? On what river is Philadelphia, east of Harrisburg? At the head of what river is Pittsburg? Which is the largest city ? Which is the capital ?
    3.  In what State are Columbus and Cincinnati? On what river is Columbus ? On what is Cincinnati ? Which is the capital ? Which is the largest ?
    4.  In what State are Richmond and Wheeling? On what river is Richmond? On what is Wheeling? Which is the capital and largest city ?
    5.   On what river is Nashville ? Of what State is it the capital ?
    6.  In what State are Louisville and Frankfort? On what river is Louisville? Which way from Louisville is Franhfort? Which is the capital? Which is the largest ?


38                            ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    7.  In what State are Newbern and Raleigh ? On what river are Newbern and Raleigh ? Which is the largest ? Which the capital ?

    8.  In what State is Boston ? On what bay is it situated ?

    9.  In what State are Augusta and Savannah ? On what river are they ? Which is the capital ? Which the largest ? Which is highest up the river ?

    10.   Of what State is Indianapolis the capital ? In what part of the State is it situated ?

    11.  In what State are Charleston and Columbia? Which is the capital ? Which nearest the Atlantic ? On what river is Columbia ?

    12.  In what State are Tuscahosa and Mobile? On what river is the capital? Which is the largest? Which is on a bay near the gulf?

    13.  In what State are Portland and Augusta? Which is on Casco Bay, near the Atlantic ? Which is on the Kennebec River? Which is the capital?

    14.  In what State are Springfield and Chicago? Which is on Lake Michigan ? Which is the capital ?

    15.  In what State are Baltimore and Annapolis? Which is the capital ? Which is the largest ? What bay are they near?

    16.  In what State are Jefferson and St. Louis ? On what river is St. Louis ? On what river is Jefferson ? Which is the largest ? Which is the capital ?

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   39


    17.  In what State are Natchez and Jackson? Which is on Pearl River? On what river is the other? Which is the capital?

    18.   Of what State is Trenton the capital? On what river is it ? In what part of the State is it ?

    19.   Of what State is New Orleans the capital? On what river is it ? Is it on the right or left bank of the river ?

    The right bank is that which is on the right hand of a person descending the river.

    20.   Of what State are Hartford and New Haven by turns the capital? Which is on Long Island Sound ? Which on Connecticut River ? Which is the largest ?

    21.  In what State are Burlington and Montpelier? Which is the capital? Which is on Lake Champlain ? Which is the largest?

    22.  In what State are Concord and Portsmouth? Which is on the Atlantic? On what river is the other ? Which is the largest ? Which the capital ?

    23.   Of what State is Detroit the capital? In what part of the State is it?

    24.   Of what State are Providence and Newport by turns the capital? On what bay are they? Which is the largest ?

    25.   Of what State is Little Rock the capital? On what river is it ?


40                          ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    26.  Of what State is Dover the capital ?

    27.  In what State are Tallahassee and Pensacola? Which is the capital ? Which is a seaport ? Which is the most easterly ?

    28.   Of what western State is Burlington the capital ?
Of what Territory is Madison the capital ?

    What is the capital of the United States? In what District is it? On what river? Between what States is the District?

_____

    The teacher may enlarge upon the following statement of events which led to the present geographical limits of the United States.

    At the Revolution, there were but thirteen colonies, and these were all on the seacoast,

    Vermont joined the Union after the war of Independence commenced. Maine was a part of Massachusetts till 1820. Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin were made out of what was called the Northwestern Territory. Kentucky was cut from Virginia ; Tennessee from North Carolina; and Alabama and Mississippi from Georgia.

        In 1804, the United States bought Louisiana Territory, which included the States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and all the country now belonging to the United States, westward, to the Pacific Ocean.

In 1821, the United States bought Florida ; and when this book was printing, she was bargaining for Texas.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.              41


NORTH AMERICA.

    Having learned that Massachusetts is one of the United States, the pupil may now be taught that the United States is but one country of North America. The teacher will chalk North America on the black-board, and point out the different countries to the pupil, according to the following table.

Countries.
Capitals. Large Towns.
I. The United States, Washington, Boston.
II. Mexico, Mexico, Vera Cruz.
III.   Canada, Montreal, Quebec.
IV.  Nova Scotia, Halifax.
V. New Brunswick, Frederickstown.
VI. Central America, Guatimala.
VII. Texas,* Austin.
VIII. British America, No towns.
IX. Russian America, No towns.
X. Greenland. No towns.

       If the country is chalked on the black-board, it will be unnecessary to furnish any questions here, for the teacher can ask them to suit himself. But, if no enlarged map is held up before the whole class, and the child only uses the small map in his book, he may be questioned as follows.


    * If Texas should become one of the United States, the teacher is requested to inform the pupil that it was not one when this book was published, and the authors dared not assume the fact.



42                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

North America

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.             43


    What country is numbered 1? 2 ? 3 ? 4? 5 ? 6? 7? 8? 9? 10?

    What is north ? east ? south ? west of the United States?

    Ask the same questions in regard to Mexico and Central America.

    What is north of New Brunswick ? What southeast of it ?

    Which country is separated from the continent by water? Which forms a small peninsula?

    Let the pupil find and describe the place of the following.

A.  Atlantic Ocean.
D. Caribbean Sea.
B.  Pacific Ocean. E. Part of Asia.
C.  Arctic Ocean. F. Part of South America.

    Point at the letter, and ask what ocean or country it is. Then ask how they are situated in regard to North America, &c. &c.

BAYS AND GULFS.
1.  Baffin's Bay. 5.  Bay of Honduras.
2.  Hudson's Bay.  6.  Gulf of Mexico.
3.  James's Bay. 7.  Gulf of St. Lawrence.
4.  Bay of Campeachy 8.  Gulf of California.
    After carefully pointing out these, the teacher may ask where they are. In what direction from each other or from certain countries.
LAKES.
1.  Lake Superior. 3. Lake Michigan.
2.  Lake Huron. 4. Lake Erie.




44                                 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


5.  Lake Ontario. 8. Slave Lake.
6.  Lake Winnipeg. 9. Great Bear Lake.
7.  Lake Athapescow.

    Question as in regard to the Bays, &c.

STRAITS.
1.  Davis's Strait.
3. Barrow's Strait.
2.  Bhering's Strait. 4. Belle Isle

    Ask what waters these connect; what lands they separate.

ISLANDS.
1.   Cuba. 5. Porto Rico.
2.  Hayti. 6. Nootka.
3.  Jamaica. 7. The Bermudas.
4.  Newfoundland.

    Point and ask the names, after having previously pointed them out, or required the child to look them out by the map and book. Then, without any map, name the island and ask where it is.

PENINSULAS.
1.  Nova Scotia. 4. California.
2.  Florida.
5. Greenland.
3.  Yucatan. 6. Alaska.
    Point them out as was done in regard to the Islands. Then ask, to what are they joined ? What water nearly surrounds them ? What country are they in ?

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                45


CAPES.
1.   Cape Farewell. 4. Cape Hatteras.
2.   Cape Sable, N. S. 5. Cape Sable, F.
3.   Cape Cod. 6. Cape St. Lucas.

       After having shown them, question particularly as to where the Capes are ? from what country they project ? &c. &c.

MOUNTAINS.
1.  Rocky Mountains. 3. Mount St. Elias,
2.  Alleghany Mts.
        a volcano.

    Where are they ? In what direction do they run ? &c.

RIVERS.
1.  Mississippi. 8.  Churchill,
2Missouri.
9.  Nelson,
3.  St. Lawrence. 10.  Severn.
4.  Arkansas. 11.  Albany.
5.   Columbia. 12.  Mackenzie.
6.  Red River. 13.  Colorado.
7.   Ohio.
     Make the child familiar with, the rise, course, and outlet of each river, by showing it and chalking it, and .then ask questions like the following.

     1. In what country is the Mississippi ? Near what lakes does it rise ? Which way does it run ? Into what does it empty ?



46                                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    2.  In what mountains does the Missouri rise ? Of what is it the largest source? In what direction does it run?

    3.  Of what great bodies of water is the St. Lawrence the outlet ? In what course does it run ? Into what gulf does it flow ?

    4.  Where does the Arkansas rise ? how flow ? into what fall?

    5.  In what mountains do the sources of the Columbia rise ? Which way does it run ? Into what does it fall?

    6.  How does Red River rise? How run? Into what does it fall ?

    7.  Of what is the Ohio a branch? What is its course ?

    8.  Which way does the Churchill run ? Into what does it fall?

    9.  10. Of what lake are Nelson and Severn rivers the outlets ? What is their course ? Into what do they fall?

    11.  Which way does the Albany run? Into what does it fall?

    12.  Of what great lakes is Mackenzie's river the oiitlet ? In what direction does it run ? Into what does it empty ?

    13.  Where does the Colorado rise? How run? Into what does it fall ?

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   47


CITIES AND TOWNS.

    Of what country is Washington the capital ?

    Of what is Mexico the capital ? Montreal ? Halifax ? Frederickstown ? Guatimala? Austin?

    In what country is Boston ? Vera Cruz ? Quebec ?

    What is the capital of Mexico? Nova Scotia? Central America? The United States? Canada? New Brunswick? Texas?

    Which way is Washington from Boston ? Which way is Boston from Washington? Which way is Mexico from Boston ? Which way is Boston from Mexico ?

    Ask a similar question of every other city and town.

________

    It is to be hoped that the teacher, as he goes over the lessons, will spare no pains to tell the child such facts as will impress the lessons upon the mind. One class of facts only can be glanced at here.

    North America, though full of inhabitants, was claimed by whichsoever of the civilised nations of Europe first discovered it.

    By this rule, Spain claimed what is now Florida, Mexico, Central America, and all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi river. Mexico and Central America declared themselves independent of Spain, and are so now.

    France claimed all that part which lies north of what now belongs to the United States, excepting Greenland, which was claimed by Denmark, and the northwestern portion, claimed by Russia.

    England conquered all that belonged to the French, and this still belongs to England. The original English Colonies, now the United States, purchased Florida of Spain ; and all our territory west of the Mississippi was bought of France, which had obtained it from Spain.



48                                      ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

South America

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                     49


SOUTH AMERICA.

The teacher must, as before directed, make the pupils acquainted with the countries, by chalking an enlarged map on the black-board, if he has no large outline map to hang before them.



Countries.

Capitals.

Large Towns.

I.


Brazil,

Rio Janeiro,

Bahia.

II.


Venezuela,

Caraccas,

Laguayra.

III.


New Grenada,

Santa Fe,

Panama.

IV.


Peru,

Lima,

Callao.

V.


United Provinces,

Buenos Ayres.


VI.


Chili,

St Jago,

Valparaiso

VII.


Ecuador,

Quito.


VIII.


Bolivia,

La Plata.


IX.


Paraguay,

Assumption.


X.


Banda Oriental,

Monte Video.



{

British Guiana,

Georgetown.


XI.

Dutch Guiana,

Parimaribo.



French Guiana,

Cayenne.


XII.


Patagonia,

No towns.


    South America is one great peninsula, united by the Isthmus of Darien to North America. It lies between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and south of the Caribbean Sea.

    The Andes mountains extend through its whole length on the western coast.



50                              ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    In what part of South America is New Grenada ? Venezuela? Brazil? The Guianas? Ecuador? Peru ? Patagonia ? Chili ? United Provinces ? Banda Oriental? Bolivia? Paraguay?

    Then ask how each country is bonneted ? that is, what is north, east, south, and west of it ? Repeat the questions a thousand times, if necessary.

    Where is the Atlantic Ocean ? A,

    Where is the Pacific ? B

    Where does the Equator cross South America ? D.

    Where is the Caribbean Sea? C.

    What mountains along the whole western coast ?

    What part of South America is a peninsula?

    What is the isthmus called ?

CAPES.
1.   Cape La Vela. 3. Cape Horn.
2.   Cape St. Roque. 4. Cape Blanco.

     Ask in what country each cape is, Which is most northerly, southerly, easterly, and westerly?

ISLANDS.
1.  Terra del Fuego. 4. Juan Fernandez,
2.  The Falkland Isles.       or Robinson Crusoe's Island.
3.  Chiloe. 5. Joannes.

    Ask, where are they ? What coast are they nearest to ? Which appears to have the most land ? &c.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                51



DIVISIONS OF WATER.
1.  Bay of Panama. 4. Lake Maracaybo.
2.   Gulf of Venezuela. 5. Lake Titicaca.
3.   Gulf of Guayaquil. 6. The Strait of Magellan.

    Ask, in what country are they? In what part of the country? What do they unite or separate ? &c
RIVERS.
1.  Amazon. 7.  Tocantins.
2.  La Plata. 8.  Negro.
3.  Madeira. 9.  Topayos.
4.  Orinoco. 10.  Uraguay.
5.  Xingu. 11.  Magdalena.
6.  Francisco.

    Point out tlie rise, course, and outlet of these rivers, and make the child so familiar with them that he can answer such, questions as the following from memory.

    In what mountains is the source of the Amazon ? In what direction does it run? Into what does it empty ?

    In what direction does the La Plata run? In what country are its sources ? In what is its mouth ?

    What is the course of the Orinoco ? Into what does it empty ?

    In what country is the St. Francisco? What is its course ? Into what does it fall ?



52                      ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Europe
EUROPE.


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                     53


    In what direction do the Madeira, Xingu, and Topayos run? Of what are they branches? Are they on the right or left side of the Amazon ? * Where is the Negro ? How does it run? Into what does it fall?

    In what country is the Tocantins ? How does it run ? Into what does it fall ?

    What is the course of the Magdalena? Into what sea does it fall?

_______

EUROPE.

    Europe is a great peninsula, connected on the east with Asia.

    It has the Atlantic Ocean (A.) on the west; the Arctic Ocean (B.) on the north; the Mediterranean Sea (D.) at the south; and Asia (C.) on the east.

    If stood upon the eastern side, its form is not unlike that of a woman. Spaia and Portugal are the head; France the neck and shoulders; Great Britain and Italy the arms; and the rest of Europe the dress. Such imaginations have great weight with children.


    * To answer this question, suppose you are sailing down the river.




54                             ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

     The countries, according to their population and importance, are as follows.

Countries.

Capitals.

Large Towns.

I.

Russia,

Petersburg,

Moscow,




Warsaw.
II. 

Austria,

Vienna,

Venice.

III. 

France,

Paris,

Bordeaux.

IV. 

Great Britain,

London,

Liverpool,



Dublin,



Edinburgh.

V. Italy, Rome,

Naples,

 


Leghorn,




Genoa.

VI. 

Turkey,

Constantinople.


VII. 

Germany,

Frankfort,

Hamburg.

VIII. 

Spain,

Madrid,

Cadiz.

IX. 

Prussia,

Berlin.


X.

Belgium,

Brussels.


Holland,

Amsterdam.


XI. 

Portugal,

Lisbon.


XII. 

Sweden,

Stockholm,

Gottenburg

XIII. 

Denmark,

Copenhagen.


XIV. 

Switzerland,.

Berne, &c*

Geneva.

XV. 

Norway,

Christiania,

Bergen.

XVI. 

Greece,

Athens.


XVII. 

Lapland,

No towns.


* Berne, Zurich, and Lucerne are each the capital two years at a time.


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   55


    The teacher will now point out the general features of Europe, and will, as before, cause a large map to be chalked on the blackboard, or he will use an outline map, till he has pointed out every country, and made the pupils familiar with the situation and boundaries of each.

    The pupil may be shown how much Italy resembles a boot in form. One of the author's pupils once said, that France seemed to her like the body of a giant, whose neck was England, and whose head cut off was Iceland. One leg was Italy, and the other leg was in a basket, represented by Spain.

    A more interesting association for Spain, and Portugal which was once a part of Spain, may be made with a Spanish dollar or other coin with pillars. The shield is shaped like the country. The pillars are the Rock of Gibraltar and Ceuta, two hills that were once called the Pillars of Hercules. The castle on the coat of arms represents the kingdom of Castile, and the lion the kingdom of Leon; which two kingdoms were united to form the kingdom of Spain. The motto, Ne plus ultra, which is on the older coins, and which means There is nothing beyond, refers to the notion of the ancients, that there was no country west of Spain, for America was not then discovered.

    It is difficult for children to draw Europe well and preserve its proportions, and the teacher must be patient. The best way is to begin with Spain, and draw the southern coast to the Caspian Sea. Then build the others upon this basis. But, for a general rule, when chalk is used, it is better to begin at the top or north of the map.

    When the pupils are made familiar with the countries, by drawing them or seeing them repeatedly, the teacher may proceed to point out the natural divisions of land and water, as on former maps.

CAPES.
1.  North Cape.
4. Finisterre.
2.  Landsend.      5. St. Vincent.
3.   Clear.


56                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Finisterre means the same as Landsend. Ask, in what country the Capes are ? What water they project into ? &c.

ISLANDS.
1. Great Britain, or 7. Candia.
       England and Scotland. 8. Corsica.
2.  Iceland. 9. Zealand.
3.  Ireland. 10. Majorca.
4.   Sicily. 11. Malta.
5.  Sardinia. 12. Ionian Isles.
6.   Cyprus.

    The teacher must ask where each Island is ? What water surrounds it ? What country is it nearest to ? &c, as in former lessons.

    It may be time now to give the child an idea of the relative size of these islands, and of the different parts of the world. This must be done on some map of the World, for there only are all the countries drawn on the same scale. It will appear that

    Great Britain is about as large as Cuba. Iceland and Ireland compare with Newfoundland. Sicily, Sardinia, and Cyprus will match Jamaica. Candia and Corsica will go with Porto Rico. Zealand and Majorca will match Long Island. Corfu, the largest-of the Ionian Isles, and Malta are not much larger than Martha's Vineyard.

    This habit of comparing different countries, and the different divisions of land and water, besides exercising the judgment of the child, will make a lasting impression on his memory.


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                         57

PENINSULAS.
1. Spain. 4. The Morea.
2. Sweden and Norway. 5. Crimea.
3. Denmark.

     Let the pupil point them out, and then tell him the name. Ask to what country the isthmus connects them, &c.

MOUNTAINS.
1.  The Alps. 4. The Ural.
2.  The Apennines.
5. The Dofrafield.
3.  The Carpathian. 6. The Pyrenees.
VOLCANOES.
1. Hecla. 2. Etna. 3. Vesuvius.

    Ask where each of these ranges or volcanoes is. In what country ? Between what countries ? &c.

SEAS AND THEIR STRAITS.
D.   The Mediterranean, Strait of Gibraltar.
1.   Black Sea, Constantinople.
2.   The Baltic, The Sound.
3.   North Sea, Dover,
4.   Archipelago, Dardanelles.
5.   White Sea,
6.   Irish Sea, St. George's Channel.
7.   Sea of Azoph, Kaffa.

    Ask in what countries or between what countries the Seas are, and what bodies of water the Straits connect? What lands they separate? &c.


58                                  ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


GULFS, BAY, &c.
1.   Gulf of Venice. 4. Bay of Biscay.
2.   Gulf of Bothnia. 5. English Channel.
3.   Gulf of Finland.
    Ask where they are ? What countries border on them ? &c.
RIVERS.
1.  Volga. 6.  Elbe. 11.  Ural.
2.  Danube. 7.  Vistula. 12.  Rhone.
3.  Don. 8.  Tagus. 13.  Seine.
4.  Dnieper. 9.  Dniester. 14.  Thames.
5.  Rhine. 10.  Loire.

    The teacher must point out the rise, course, outlet, &c. of each river, on the large map, if possible. Then he may let the pupils look on their small map and answer his questions; and, finally, he must require answers without the aid of maps.

    Let the pupil be ready to answer the following questions, at least. Where does the river rise ? Which way does it run ? Into what does it empty ? Does it separate any country ?

    The longest river of the above list, the Volga, is less than our Arkansas ; and the shortest, the Thames, is less than the Merrimack.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Of what country is Petersburg the capital? In what part of the country is it ? Where is Moscow ? On what river is it ? Where is Warsaw ? On what river ?

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                  59


    Of what country is Vienna the capital ? On what river is it ? On what gulf is Venice ?

    Of what is Paris the capital? On what river is it? On what river is Bordeaux?

    Of what is London the capital ? On what river is it ?. Which way is Liverpool from London ? Where is Dublin ? Where is Edinburgh ?

    Where is Rome? Which way is Naples from Rome? In what part of Italy are Leghorn and Genoa?

    Of what is Constantinople the capital ? Near what sea is it ? Where is Frankfort ? It is situated on a branch of what river ? On what river is Hamburg ?

    Of what is Madrid the capital ? On a branch of what river is it situated ? Near what strait is Cadiz ? Which way is it from Madrid ?

    Of what is Berlin the capital ? On what river is it ?

    Of what is Brussels the capital? Of what is Amsterdam the capital ?

    Of what is Lisbon the capital ? On what river is it ?

    Of what is Stockholm the capital ? Which way is Gottenburg from it ?

    Of what is Copenhagen the capital? On what island is it ?

    In what country are Berne and Geneva? On a branch of what river is Berne? On what lake is Geneva ?



60                      ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

Asia

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   61


    In what country are Christiania and Bergen? Which is the present capital ?                       
    Of what is Athens the capital ?

    To vary this exercise, the teacher may name the country, and ask what is its capital ? its large town? ? It is taken for granted, that the teacher will see that the child knows where the country and where the city is by actual inspection of the maps.

    ____

ASIA.

    Asia is an irregular country, joined to Europe at the northwest, and to Africa at the southwest.

    It has the Arctic Ocean (A.) on the north; the Pacific Ocean (B.) on the east; the Indian Ocean (C.) on the south; America (D.) at the northeast; Europe (E.) at the northwest; Africa (F.) at the southwest. G. marks the Equator; H. the Chinese wall.

    It may amuse the pupil who is acquainted with Europe, to call his attention to some points of resemblance between Europe and Asia. Thus, Arabia resembles Spain, in being a peninsula at the southwest. Turkey and Persia resemble France. Hindostan resembles Italy; and Thibet, north of it, resembles Switzerland. China and the countries south of it resemble Turkey and Greece.

    So the western coast of Europe somewhat resembles the eastern coast of China; for, the peninsula of Sweden and Norway has Kamtschatka; the Baltic Sea has the Sea of Okotsk; the British Isles



62                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


have the Japan Isles ; and the North Sea the Sea of Japan. These correspondences may be fanciful, but they will help the memory and give interest to the lesson.

    The following Table of the principal countries of Asia must be carefully gone over on the map and on the black-board, until the pupil is familiar with the location of the countries. The towns will better be taught when the child knows the rivers, &c.


Countries.

Capitals.

Large Towns.

I.

China,

Pekin,

Canton.

II.

Hindostan,

Calcutta.


III.

Japan,

Jeddo.


IV.

Persia,

Teheran.


V.

Anam,

Kesho.


VI.

Turkey,

Constantinople,

Jerusalem

 

      in Europe,

Smyrna.

VII.

Thibet,

Lassa,


VIII.

Arabia,

Mecca.


IX.

Independent  Tartary,

Bukharia.


X.

Siam,

Bankok.


XI.

Siberia,

Tobolsk.


XII.

Afghanistan,

Cabul.


XIII.

Burmah,

Ava.


XIV.

Chinese Tartary,

No important town.


XV.

Beloochistan,

Kelat.


    When the pupil is familiar with the location of the countries, the teacher may proceed to point out the natural divisions of land and water, as on former maps.

FOR. MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                     63


CAPES.
1.   Taymour. 3. Lopatka.
2.  East Cape. 4. Comorin.

     When the child finds them, ask what country each projects from ? into what water it projects ? &c.

Islands.

CLUSTERS.

1.  Japan Isles, which form an Empire.

2.  Philippine Isles, which belong to Spain.

3.   Sunda Isles, claimed by the English and Dutch.

SINGLE ISLANDS, ACCORDING TO SIZE
1.  Borneo. 6. Nova Zembla. 11. Ceylon.
2.  New Guinea. 7. Luzon. 12. Mindanao.
3.   Sumatra. 8. Saghalien. 13. Kiusiu.
4.  Niphon. 9. Jesso. 14. Formosa.
5.   Celebes. 10. Java. 15. Hainan.

    Borneo and New Guinea are each larger than all the West India Islands together.

    Sumatra, Niphon, Celebes, Nova Zembla, Luzon, Saghalien, Jesso, and Java class with Cuba, which is the largest American Island.

    Ceylon, Mindanao, and Kiusiu match Newfoundland.

    Formosa and Hainan rank with Jamaica.


64                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


PENINSULAS.
1.  Arabia. 3. Corea.
2.  Kamtschatka. 4. Malaya.

    Ask with what country these are connected.

MOUNTAINS.
1.  Himmaleh.
4. Gaut.
2.  Altaian.
5. Caucasian.
3.  Ural. 6. Belur Tag.

    Ask where these are ? What they separate or are in ? In what direction they run?

SEAS.
1.   Chinese. 4.  Japan. 7. Black.
2.  Mediterranean. 5.  Blue. 8. Caspian.
3.  Okotsk. 6. Yellow. 9. Red.
LAKES.

    1. Aral. Aral is less than Lake Huron.
    2. Baikal. Baikal is less than Michigan.

BAYS AND GULFS.
1.  Arabian Gulf.
4. Gulf of Siam.
2.  Bay of Bengal. 5. Gulf of Tonkin.
3.  Persian Gulf.

    Ask what countries these are in or between.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                  65


STRAITS.
1.  Bhering's. 3. Babelmandel.
2.   Sunda.
4. Dardanelles.

    Ask what countries they separate. What waters they connect.
RIVERS.
1.  Yangtse Kiang or Blue. 8. Irawaddy.
2.  Lena. 9. Ganges.
3.   Obi. 10. Burrampooter.
4.  Hoangho. 11. Yenisei.
5.  Amour. 12. Euphrates.
6.   Cambodia. 13. Meinam.
7.  Indus. 14. Jihon.

    The teacher must ask the rise, course, and outlet of all the above rivers, as in former lessons; the pupil having previously been shown every particular on the maps.

    These Asiatic rivers compare with American rivers nearly as follows:

    Yangtse Kiang with the Missouri.

    Lena, Obi, Hoangho, Amour, and Cambodia with the St. Lawrence or Arkansas.

    The Indus, Irawaddy, Ganges, Burrampooter, Yenisei, and Euphrates compare with the Ohio and Columbia.                                                                  I
    The Meinam and Jihon range between the Cumberland and Tennessee.


66                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

Africa

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                    67


CITIES AND TOWNS.

    Take the map, and after showing the towns, and telling in what country or on what river they are situated, name the country and ask its capital, or name the capital and^sk its country.

    Pekin is probably the most populous city in the world. Pekin, Canton, Calcutta, Jeddo, Bankok, are larger than New York.

    Smyrna is, in size, between New York and Boston. The others axe smaller than Boston.

______

AFRICA.

    Africa is one great peninsula, of which but little is known.

    It has the Atlantic Ocean (A.) on the west; the Indian Ocean (B.) on the east; the Mediterranean (C.) on the north; and Asia (D.) on the northeast E. is the Equator,

Countries. Capitals.
I.  Morocco, Morocco.
II.  Egypt, Cairo.
III.  Senegambia,
None.
IV. Upper Guinea,
Coomassie.
V.  Lower Guinea, Loanda.
VI.  Abyssinia, Gondar,


68                          ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY



Countries
Capitals,
VII. Tunis,
Tunis,
VIII. Algeria,
Algiers.
IX. Tripoli,
Tripoli.
X. Sahara, None.
XI. Barca. Derne.
XII. The Cape Colony, Cape Town.
XIII.
Liberia, Monrovia.
XIV.
Sierra Leone, Freetown.
XV. Fezzan,
XV-XXIII
Unimportant divisions, but little known, and having no lange towns or definite boundaries. The teacher had better omit them, or only glance at them very slightly.
XVI. Cimbebas,
XVII. Hottentots,
XVIII.
Caffraria,
XIX. Mozambique,
XX. Zanguebar
XXI. Magadoxa,
XXII. Ajan,
XXIII. Adel.
a.
Bambarra,
a-j
Countries of which too little is known to render them an object of interest to the young. The teacher may pass over them with this very general remark.
b.
Howssa,
c.
Bornoo,
d.
Bergoo,
e.
Darfoor,
f.
Kordofan,
g.
Biafra,
h.
Fellatas,
i.
Donga,
j.
Shillooks,

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   69


CAPES.
1.  Serrat and Bon. 5. Verd.
2.  Guardafui. 6. Blanco.
3.  Good Hope. 7. Negro.
4.  Palmas.

    Ask in what country they are.   Into what sea or ocean they project.

MOUNTAINS.
1.  Atlas.
3. Moon.
2.  Kong. 4. Snow.

ISLANDS.
1.  Madagascar. 5.  Cape Verds. In the Atlantic,
2.   Socotra.
        opposite Cape Verd.
3.  Bourbon & Mauritius. 6.  Canaries.
4.  St. Helena. 7.  Madeiras.

ISTHMUS.
1. The Isthmus of Suez.

SEAS, GULFS, STRAITS, &c.
C. Mediterranean.
4. Strait of Babelmandel.
1.  Red Sea.
5. Strait of Gibraltar.
2.  Gulf of Guinea.
6. Lake Tchad.
3.  Mozambique Channel.

     The teacher must ask all needful questions about these divisions, of which there are too few to form distinct classes.


70                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.


RIVERS.
1.  Nile.
5. Zaire.
2Niger. 6. Zambeze.
3. Senegal. 7. Gambia.
4. Orange.

    Ask the rise, course, and outlet of these rivers, as in former lessons.

TOWNS

    The teacher may exercise the pupil upon the towns by naming a town and requiring the country, and then, by naming the country and requiring the capital.

END OF PART FIRST


ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY,

__________

PART SECOND
__________

    In regard to the best method of teaching this part, teachers will probably differ. No method, however, will fail, if it so unite the history and description with the topography, that they shall be inseparably associated in the child's mind.

    A simple method is to place suitable maps before the class, and then read the outline sketch of Massachusetts history, pointing out every place or boundary mentioned, explaining every word, and enlarging upon every article, as the teachers knowledge of the subject may enable him to do.

    After several such readings, ask the pupils such questions as are suggested by the words in italic type, as, for instance,

    Why was the State named Massachusetts ?
    What were the first settlers called? Why?
    Why did they leave England ?
    Whither did they flee ? Where did they settle ?
    Who was their minister? When was this?
    When did they sail for America ?
    How many came in the first vessel?
    What was her name ? &c. &c.


72                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


HISTORY OF MASSACHUSETTS.

    The State of Massachusetts derives its name from an Indian tribe which lived upon the shores of Massachusetts Bay, when the country was first visited by Europeans.

    The first settlers from England were called Puritans, because of their efforts to restore purity in divine worship.

    Being persecuted in England, a congregation of them with their minister, John Robinson, fled to Holland, and settled at Leyden, in 1609.

    In 1620, a hundred and one of them sailed in a small vessel called the May Flower, and arrived at Cape Cod on the 9th of November.

    After examining the shore, they concluded to settle at Plymouth, Dec. 21, 1620; and this was the first permanent settlement of any colony in New England.

    Before landing, they prudently signed a sort of constitution of government, and chose John Carver for their first Governor.

    The most distinguished of this first company were John Carver, William Bradford, Edward Winslow, who, in turn, were governors; Miles Standish, who

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   73


was the military commander; and Wm. Brewster, who was the ruling elder of the church.

    During the first winter, 46 of the 101 died in consequence of hardships and exposure, for which they were unprepared, not having intended to settle so far north as Cape Cod.

    They made a treaty of peace with Massasoit, the nearest and most powerful Indian prince, early in the spring, and both parties kept it faithfully more than fifty years.

    The colony of Plymouth, which for. sixty-two years had a separate government, was united to Massachusetts in 1692.

    Plymouth colony included what are now the counties of Plymouth, Barnstable, and Bristol.

    The second permanent settlement was made by John Endicott and a small company at Naumkeag, now Salem, in 1628.

    In 1630, Gov. Winthrop came over with seventeen vessels containing more than 1500 passengers, who settled at Charlestown, Boston, Dorchester, Cambridge, and Roxbury.


74                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    In 1637, the first Indian war commenced with the Pequots, a tribe within the limits of what is now called Connecticut. The tribe was almost entirely destroyed.

   In 1640, it is supposed that about twenty-one thousand immigrants had come over, and very few came afterwards.

    In 1652, the State coined silver shillings, sixpences, and threepences. The king of England forbade their coining any more, but they continued to coin for thirty years, and concealed the crime by never altering the date of 1652.

    The following is an exact copy of both sides of a shilling. It is not known that the tree was intended for a pine, but from its resemblance to one, the money is generally called the Pine-tree money.

coins

    The inscription reads, Masathvsets in New England, An. (for Anno,) Do. (for Domini,) 1652. XII. (pence.) But, probably, no shilling can now be found so perfect as this engraved shilling, some of the letters being generally worn off. The engraving gives a perfect idea of the rough state in which these ancient coins are found, and in which they appear originally to have been made.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                    75


    In 1652, the inhabitants of Maine submitted to Massachusetts and were taken under its protection.

    In 1675, Philip, the grandson of Massasoit, whose home was at Mount Hope, in Rhode Island, seeing that the natives were dwindling before the whites, united several tribes of Indians in one general attack upon the settlements.

    In this dreadful war, about six hundred of the colonists were killed, twelve or thirteen towns were destroyed, and six hundred dwelling houses burned.

    In the second year of the war, Philip was killed, peace was restored, and the Indians of New England were never afterwards formidable to the colonists.

    In 1690, Massachusetts and the other colonies of New England united with New York in an attempt to conquer Canada from the French, but the expedition failed. A second unsuccessful attempt was made in 1711.

    In 1691, Maine was formally incorporated with Massachusetts, by a charter from the king of England.

    In 1692, Plymouth colony, which had been distinct from that of Massachusetts, was united with it under the same governor, and has continued so ever since.

    In 1692, the Salem Witchcraft raged, and about twenty supposed witches were put to death. The


76                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


same thing, however, was done in the most enlightened countries of Europe, and is no proof that the people of Massachusetts were less enlightened than others.

    In 1744, Massachusetts planned and took the lead in a successful attack upon Louisburg, a French fortress on the island of Cape Breton. (Pr. Bre-toon'.)

    In 1755, an army, chiefly from Massachusetts, conquered Nova Scotia, laid waste the country, and cruelly scattered the Acadians among the English colonies.

    In 1759, Canada and all the French Possessions in North America were surrendered to Great Britain, and General Wolfe, the English commander, was slain.

    In 1763, the British Parliament began to tax the colonies without their consent, and continued to do so till the Revolution, which commenced in 1775, by the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Banker Hill.

    The British troops kept possession of Boston till May 17, 1776, when they left it and went to New York. "With the exception of Nantucket and some smaller islands, Massachusetts was not afterwards troubled by any invasion.

    In 1776, Independence was declared, and after a war of eight years, it was acknowledged by Great

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                  77


Britain, and the colonies became a free nation, under the name of the United States of America.

    In 1780, the Constitution of Massachusetts was formed by a convention of the citizens. It was amended in 1821, and is now in force.

    In 1786, a rebellion, headed by Daniel Shays, and called Shays's Insurrection, threatened the peace of Massachusetts, but it was happily subdued without bloodshed.

    In 1788, the Federal Constitution, by which the whole Union is governed, was adopted by Massachusetts, and by the other States.

    In 1820, the District of Maine, which had belonged to Massachusetts, was made a State and received into the Union.

________________

    After this general sketch of the Historical Geography of the State, let the pupil begin upon the counties as they are here arranged, or let him first take that in which he lives, and then those adjoining it.

    Chalk the county on the black-board, and divide it into townships, or take a single town and add the others to it. The author once had a game, in which one pupil drew a town, and the others in turn added the next town on any side, until the whole county was drawn from memory.

    For a general rule, the teacher should read the description of each town in the county, and make the children familiar with its


78                   ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


number and place and every thing suggested by the map or the description, by exercises on the black-board or outline maps; and the child should use the book and slate when studying by himself.

    It would occupy too much room to insert questions upon every county and town. The words in italic type will suggest some questions, but there are many common to every county and every towa, such as,

    How is it bounded on every side ?
    What divisions of water does it contain ?
    What divisions of land ?
    How far is it from Boston ?
    How far from the county town ?
    When settled or incorporated ?
    How many inhabitants ? &c. &c.

    By all means connect the history and description with the topography, and ask questions so that the child will not be satisfied with learning the book by rote.

    It may not be amiss again to state, that A Town is a collection of houses or villages, whose officers are chosen and whose business is transacted by the citizens assembled in one town meeting.

    A City is the same as a town, excepting that the officers are chosen in divisions of the city, called wards, and the public business is done by representatives chosen by the citizens, and not by the whole body of citizens themselves.

    A Township means all the land belonging to any town.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                 79


    A County Toivn is one where county business is transacted, county courts held, and county records kept.

    A Capital Town is one where the business of the State is transacted, the Legislature convened, and the State records kept

    The largest town is that which contains the most inhabitants, and not that which contains the most land.

    When the largest town is conveniently situated, it is often made the capital or the county town also, as is the case with Boston, Worcester, &c.

    Note. The population of the towns, unless otherwise stated, is that of 1840.

_________________

SUFFOLK COUNTY.

    Suffolk County was incorporated m 1648, and then included Norfolk County as well as Suffolk. It now contains- only tlie city of Boston, the town of Chelsea, and the Islands in Boston Harbor.

Inc. 1630.] BOSTON. Population,
in 1845. E.
115,000

    The Indian name of Boston was Shawmut, which is said to mean a spring of water.

    The first name given to it by the English was Tri-mountain or Tremont, which means three hills; but whether it was named from Beacon, Copps, and Fort hills, which are seen from the harbor, or from the three eminences of Beacon Hill, which were seen from


80                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Suffolk


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   81


Charlestown, is uncertain. All the hills, and particularly the eminences of Beacon Hill, have been partly levelled to make new land.

    The name of Boston was adopted as a compliment to the first minister, Mr. Cotton, who came from Boston, in Lincolnshire, England.

    The first permanent settlement was made July 6, 1630, by Governor Winthrop and a large company, including persons of wealth and distinction from England.

    The old town was a peninsula, surrounded by water, except where it was attached to Roxbury by a narrow strip of land, just wide enough for a road, and called The Neck. South Boston and East Boston were afterwards added.

OLD BOSTON.

    Old Boston (numbered 1 on the map) is about three miles long and one mile in breadth. It is now joined to Roxbury by the Neck; to Brookline by a mill-dam, called the Western Avenue; to Cambridge by two bridges; to Charlestown by two bridges, and to South Boston by two more.

    The chief Railroads that centre in Boston are, The Worcester and Western, from Boston to Albany.

    The Providence, to Providence in Rhode Island, and Stonington in Connecticut.

    The Lowell, to Lowell in Massachusetts, and Concord in New Hampshire.

    The Eastern, and the Boston and Maine, to Portland in Maine.

    The Fitclhburg, to Fitchburg in Worcester County, and thence to Brattleboro' in Vermont.

    The Old Colony Railroad, to Plymouth.

    To these railroads there are numerous branches.

    Boston Harbor is included between Point Alderton or Nantasket,



82                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


on which is the small town of Hull, and Point Shirley, the southeastern point of Chelsea, named after Governor Shirley.

    The chief islands are Noddle's, No. 3, now called East Boston; Long Island, No. 7; Deer Island, No. G ; Governor's Island, No. 5; Fort Independence, No. 8; George's Island, No. 9; and Lighthouse Island, No. 10. Of these, Governor's, George's, and Fort Independence are strongly fortified. Noddle's alone is, to any extent, inhabited.

    The Rivers that empty into Boston Harbor, are

   The Charles, which forms a bay called the Back Bay, west of the city, and then passes between Boston and Charlestown.

    The Neponset, which enters the harbor between Quincy and Dorchester.

    The Mystic, which separates Charlestown from Chelsea,

    The Maniquot, in Braintree.

SOUTH BOSTON.

    South Boston (numbered 2) was a part of Dorchester until 1804. In form it is a peninsula, and it contains those memorable heights, the occupation of which by General Washington, in 1776, obliged the British to quit Boston.

EAST BOSTON.

    East Boston (numbered 3) was called Noddle's Island until 1832, when it was purchased by a company of gentlemen, who laid it out in building lots, since which time its increase has been almost unexampled.

__________

    The first newspaper in America, called the News Letter, was published at Boston, in 1704.

    Among the great men of America, Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, and Samuel Adams were Bostonians.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                 83


Faneuil Hall, though not the largest or most magnificent structure in the city, is perhaps the most celebrated building in the United States. Its connection with the authors and deeds of the Revolution, has long given it the name of 'The Cradle of Liberty.'

Incorporated, 1738.] CHELSEA. [Population, 2,390.

    Chelsea (numbered 4) was formerly a part of Boston, and was called Romney's Marsh. Its Indian name was Winnesimet.

    The inhabitants were chiefly gathered around the first church, on the road to Lynn, until the increase of Boston, .and the establishment of steam ferry-boats, induced many from Boston to settle around the ferry, where is now the largest village.

    The only public buildings, except churches and schoolhouses, are the United States Hospitals ; and the chief business, next to farming, is brickmaking.

    The southern extremity of Chelsea, ending in Point Shirley, (so called from one of the colonial governors of Massachusetts,) forms one of the defences of Boston Harbor against the ocean.
__________

ESSEX COUNTY.

    Essex County was incorporated in 1643, and is more densely settled than any tract of its size in the United States.

    Its extensive seacoast has numerous bays, inlets, and harbors, and its commercial enterprise and industry have long been celebrated.

    Much of the shore is rocky, and the surface is hilly, but without mountains. The chief rivers are the Merrimack (A) and Ipswich (B).

    County courts are held by turns at Salem, Newburyport, and Ipswich, which are called Shire or County towns.


84                          ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Essex

    The four towns north of the Merrimack, once formed part of a county called Norfolk; but they were united to Essex when a part of Suffolk County was separated and called Norfolk..

Inc. 1629.] 1. SALEM. [Pop. 15,082.

    The Indian name of Salem was Naumkeag.

    The first colony arrived under the guidance of Capt. John Endicott, in September, 1628; but Roger Conant and others, from Plymouth Colony, had removed hither two or three years earlier.

    A second company of several hundreds joined them is 1629, of whom about one hundred went and settled Charlestown.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                        85


    Salem originally included the towns of Lynn, Wenham, Manchester, Marblehead, Topsfield, Beverly, Middleton, and Danvers.

    Salem is the largest place in the county, and was made a city in 1836.

   Perhaps no event has given Salem so much notoriety as the supposed prevalence of witchcraft in Salem Village, now the town of Danvers, in 1692.

    The belief in witchcraft was as general in Europe as in New England, but the delusion passed away much sooner here than elsewhere.

    Salem proper is a peninsula, its harbor is safe and capacious, and it has always been distinguished for the enterprise of its merchants.

    Among the many distinguished citizens of Salem, may be named Timothy Pickering, one of the cabinet of General Washington; Dr. Bowditch, the great mathematician; and the Rev. Wm. Bentley, in his day remarkable for his acquaintance with languages, American history, and general literature.

    Distance from Boston, 14 miles.

Inc. 1637.] 2. LYNN. [Pop. 9,369.

      Lynn, called Saugus by the Indians, was named after a town of the same name in England. The eastern part of Lynn still retains its original name of Swampscott.

    Lynn is the oldest town in Essex County, except Salem; and it is still the second in size, although Saugus and Lynnfield, of Essex County, and Reading and South Reading, of Middlesex County, have been separated from it.

    Nahant, a small rocky peninsula, connected to Lynn at the south by a beautiful beach, has, for twenty or thirty years, been the most fashionable watering-place in the vicinity of Boston. The first settlers kept their sheep and swine on it, because a slight fence across the beach or isthmus easily protected them from the wolves.



86                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    No town in the United States is so celebrated for the manufacture of boots and shoes.

    Distance from Salem, 5 miles; from Boston, 9.

Inc. 1764.] 3. NEWBURYPORT. [Pop. 7,161.

      This town was the port of Newbury until it was separated by the act of incorporation.

    It is compactly built, and is remarkable for comsuning less land than any other town in the Stale, not even excepting Hull.

    Its situation on the bank of the Merrimack, gradually rising from the water, renders it one of the most beautiful towns in the State.

    A series of misfortunes, among winch was the disastrous fire of 1811, which consumed about 250 buildings in the centre of the town, for several years checked the commercial activity of Newburyport.

    It is fast recovering, however; and the establishment of several large factories, and the great attention paid to education, give indications of reviving prosperity.

    Among the great men of Newburyport, were Chief Justice Theophilus Parsons, surnamed the Giant of the Law, and Jacob Perkins, the inventor of the nail machine, the bank-note plate, and many other curious and useful things.

    Newburyport contains the tomb of the celebrated preacher, George Whitefield, who died and was buried here, in 1770.

    Distance from Salem, 20 miles : from Boston, 38

Inc. 1642.] 4. GLOUCESTER. [Pop. 6,350.

    Gloucester was named after Gloucester in England, from which some of the first settlers came. It was settled by persons from Plymouth Colony several years before it was incorporated.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                87


    The eastern portion of old Gloucester is a peninsula, and was named Cape Ann by King Charles, out of respect to his mother; but the Cape only has retained the name, and the larger part of the peninsula forms the town of Rockport.

    The isthmus was early cut through by a canal, but this is little used by coasting vessels, for whose accommodation it was intended.

    There are two villages, The Harbor, south of the isthmus, and Squam, north of it.

    The inhabitants of Gloucester are very largely concerned in the fisheries, and their quarries of granite employ many workmen.

    Distance from Salem, 16 miles; from Boston, 29.

Inc. 1619.] 5. MARBLEHEAD. [Pop. 5,575.

    Marblehead was originally a part of Salem, and it is a rocky cape or headland, as its name denotes.

    Its situation and its harbor are peculiarly adapted to commerce ; and perhaps no place in the United Stales is, and always has been, so completely commercial.

    The patriotism of Marblehead, by sea and land, has never been excelled. Her fisheries have supplied our fleets with seamen; and, in the struggle for independence, this little town furnished an entire regiment of soldiers.

    General John Glover, a brave officer of the Revolution, and Elbridge Gerry, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, were natives of Marblehead.

    Besides its immense share in the fisheries, its manufactures of boots and shoes are very considerable.

    Distance from Salem, 4 miles; from Boston, 16.



88                            ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

Inc. 1646.] 6. ANDOVER. [Pop. 5,207.

    The Indian name was Cochichewick, and that of Andover was given in remembrance of Andover in England, from which some of the first settlers came.

    Andover suffered considerably from the Indians just before and after Philip's war.

    Great Pond, in the east, sends a stream into the Merrimack; and Shawshin river divides the town, and furnishes valuable mill seats.

    Andover is bounded by the Merrimack on the north, and is the most extensive township in the county.

    The Theological Institution, in the South Parish, is the best endowed of any in the country ; and Phillips Academy has long been distinguished.

    The chief manufactures are woollen cloths, and boots and shoes.

    Distance from Salem, 16 miles ; from Boston, 20.

Inc. 1757.] 7. DANVERS. [Pop. 5,020.

    Danvers was settled by Governor Endicott and his associates, and was called Salem Village till its incorporation. The name is supposed to be taken from that of Earl D'Anvers, Anvers being the French for Antwerp ; but why it should have this name is unknown.

    The famous General Israel Putnam was a native of Danvers, as were several other valuable officers of the revolutionary army.

    In 1692, the delusion usually called the Salem Witchcraft commenced in this town, while it was a part of Salem, in the family of Mr. Parris, the minister. Those who suffered were executed on a hill in the westerly part of the town, still called Gallows Hill.

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    The chief manufactures are boots, shoes, and leather. Strange as it may seem, in the revolutionary war, four 20 gun ships were built in Danvers.

    Distance from Salem, 2 miles ; from Boston, 14.

Inc. 1668.] 8. BEVERLY. [Pop. 4,689.

    Beverly is separated from Salem, of which it was originally a part, by an arm of the sea called Bass River, over which is a bridge.

    Beverly is quite an agricultural town, although extensively engaged in the fisheries, and in the manufacture of boots and shoes.

    Captain Lathrop, who, with his men, was killed by the Indians at Bloody Brook, Deerfield, in 1675, was a citizen of Beverly, as was Nathan Dane, the distinguished statesman, to whom we owe the Act of Congress that prohibited slavery in the Western States.

    Distance from Salem, 2 miles ; from Boston, 17.

Inc. 1643.] 9. HAVERHILL [Pop. 4,336.

.

    The Indian name of this place was Pentucket.

    This town was probably named in compliment to the first minister, Mr. Ward, who came from Haverhill in England.

        Before the settlement of the boundary line between New Hampshire and Massachusetts, in 1737, Haverhill included a part of Methuen, as well as a part of Salem, Atkinson, and Plaistow, three towns of New Hampshire.

    Haverhill was often attacked by the Indians, and few instances of heroism exceed that of Mrs. Dustin, who, in 1697, was captured, but killed nearly all her foes and escaped. In 1708, the French and Indians attacked the town and killed about forty of the inhabitants.



90                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

    Haverhill is pleasantly situated on the north bank of the Merrimack, which river is navigable only up to this place. A fine bridge connects the town with Bradford.

    The chief manufactures are boots and shoes, hats, leather, and woollen goods.

    Distance from Salem, 21 miles ; from Boston, 30.

Inc. 1635.] 10. NEWBURY. [Pop. 3,789.

    The Indian name of Newbury was Quafcacanquen. It was originally a large town, and the settlement began on the banks of Parker's river.

    Newbury included Newburyport and West Newbury, and the greater part of Plum Island, which is a mere sand bank, belongs to Newbury.

    Dummer Academy, supposed to be the oldest in the State, is in Byfield Parish.

    The chief employment of the inhabitants is in ship building and the fisheries.

    Distance from Salem, 17 miles ; from Boston, 31.

Inc. 1634.] 11. IPSWICH. [Pop. 3,000.

    The Indian name of Ipswich was Agawam, and the first minister, Mr. Ward, wrote a witty satire, entitled The Simple Cobbler of Agawam.

    Essex and Hamilton were formerly a part of Ipswich.

    The second minister was a descendant of the martyr, John Rogers. Another minister, Mr. Hubbard, is distinguished for his History of the Indian Wars.

    The principal village is built on Ipswich river, over which is a substantial Stone Bridge.


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                        91

    Ipswich was once celebrated for the manufacture of lace, but its chief manufactures now are shoes, and cotton goods.

    Distance
from Salem, 12 miles ; from Boston, 27.

Inc. 1639.]

12. SALISBURY. [Pop. 2,739.

    This town, which once included Amesbury, was named from Salisbury in England, whence the first minister came.

    It is the most northeasterly town in the State, and lies on the north bank of the Merrimack, over which is an excellent bridge connecting it with Newburyport.

    Its chief manufactures are shoes, and cotton and woollen goods. Ship building is also attended to, and the Frigate Alliance was built here during the war of Independence.

    Distance from Salem, 24 miles ; from Boston, 35.

    This town, which once included Amesbury, was named from Salisbury in England, whence the first minister came.

    It is the most northeasterly town in the State, and lies on the north bank of the Merrimack, over which is an excellent bridge connecting it with Newburyport.

    Its chief manufactures are shoes, and cotton and woollen goods. Ship building is also attended to, and the Frigate Alliance was built here during the war of Independence.

    Distance from Salem, 24 miles ; from Boston, 35.

Inc. 1840.] 13. ROCKPORT. [Pop. 2,650.

    Rockport was originally the eastern portion of Gloucester, containing the village of Sandy Bay.

    In this town is Cape Ann, one of the points that inclose Massachusetts Bay.

    The inhabitants, like those of Gloucester, are extensively engaged in the Fisheries, and in Commerce.

    Distance from Salem, 20 miles; from Boston, 34.

Inc. 1668.] 14. AMESBURY. [Pop. 2,471.

    Amesbury was named after a town in England, and was originally a part of Salisbury.

    Mills Village, a manufacturing place on both sides of Powow River, is partly in Amesbury and partly in Salisbury. The chief manufactures are of woollen goods.





92                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Josiah Bartlett,
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and afterwards Governor of New Hampshire, was born in this town.

    Distance from Salem, 20 miles; from Boston, 40.

Inc. 1725. 15. METHUEN. [Pop. 2,251.

    The eastern part of Methuen was once a part of Haverhill.

    The Merrimack forms the southern boundary of the town, but its industry depends much upon a little stream, called the Spicket, which runs through Methuen, and affords excellent sites for factories.

    The chief manufactures are cotton goods, shoes, hats, and paper.

    Distance from Salem, 20 miles; from Boston, 25.

Inc. 1675.] 16. BRADFORD. [Pop. 2,222.

    This place was at first called Merrimack, then Rowley Village, and after its separation from Rowley, in 1673, it was called Bradford after the second governor of Plymouth colony.

    It lies on the south bank of the Merrimack, opposite Haverhill,, with which it is connected by an excellent bridge.

    Shoes are the chief article of manufacture.

    Distance from Salem, 18 miles; from Boston, 30.

Inc. 1819.] 17. WEST NEWBURY. [Pop. 1,560.

    This town was a part of Old Newbury, and formed the second parish of it.

    It lies on the south bank of the Merrimack, opposite Amesbury, with which it is connected by a bridge.

    West Newbury is chiefly an agricultural town.

    Distance from Salem, 16 miles; from Boston, 34.


 
FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                          93


Inc. 1838.] 18. GEORGETOWN. [Pop. 1,540.
     This thriving town was formerly the western part of Rowley, and called New Rowley. It is watered by a branch of Parker's River, and may be called a manufacturing town.

    The highest land in the county, called Bald Pate, is in this town.

    Boots, shoes, and leather are manufactured to a great amount.

    Distance from Salem, 15 miles ; from Boston, 30.

Inc. 1819.] 19. ESSEX [Pop. 1,450.

    Essex, formerly called Chebacco, was a parish of Ipswich until 1819.

    The chief business, is ship-building, fishing, and agriculture. Distance from Salem, 10 miles ; from Boston 25.

Inc. 1645.] 20. MANCHESTER. [Pop. 1,855.

    Manchester, when a part of Salem, was called Jeffrey's Creek. The Magnolia, a beautiful flowering tree, is found in this town, and no where else in New England, in a native state.

    The inhabitants are more or less connected with navigation. Distance from Salem, 8 miles; from Boston, 26.

Inc. 1639.] 21. ROWLEY. [Pop. 1,203.

    Rowley was named in honor of its first minister, who had previously been settled at Rowley in England, and who afterwards left a considerable legacy to the town.

    Rowley once included Bradford, Boxford, and Georgetown.



94                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

    This town has the credit of having manufactured the first cloth made in North America.

    Boots, shoes, and leather are the chief manufactures. Distance from Salem, 16 miles; from Boston, 28,

Inc. 1815.] 22. SAUGUS.
[Pop. 1,098.

    Saugus was once the Indian name of all Lynn, of which this town was the west parish.

    Saugus River divides the town, and agreeably diversifies the landscape.

    Saugus, like its parent, Lynn, is celebrated for its manufacture of shoes.

    Saugus, Nantucket, Pawtucket, Seekonk, and Natick are probably the only towns in the State that retain their Indian names.

Inc. 1650.]  23. TOPSFIELD.     [Pop. 1,059.

    Topsfield, before its incorporation, was a part of Salem, and called New Meadows.

    The soil is hilly, although the chief village is pleasantly situated on a plain.

    Boots and shoes are the chief manufacture.

    Distance from Salem, 9 miles; from Boston, 21.

Inc. 1685.] 24. BOXFORD. [Pop. 942.

    Boxford was originally a part of Rowley.

    Although the soil is not generally good, the chief dependence of the inhabitants is upon agriculture.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   95


    The retired situation of this pleasant town has prevented it from increasing as it would do, if more accessible.

    Distance from Salem, 10 miles; from Boston, 24.

Inc. 1793.] 25. HAMILTON. [Pop. 818.

    Hamilton, formerly a part of Ipswich, was named after Alexander Hamilton, a distinguished statesman, and fiiend of Washington.

    Agriculture is the chief resource of the inhabitants.

    Chebacco River, the outlet of Chebacco Pond, divides the town ; and Ipswich River separates it from Ipswich and Topsfield.

    Distance from Salem, 8 miles; from Boston, 26.

Inc. 1814.] 26. LYNNFIELD.  [Pop. 707.

    This town, formerly a part of Lynn, and with Lynn a part of Salem, is a farming town, although not favored by nature with a good soil.

    Its seclusion from the great thoroughfares has probably prevented its increase.

    Distance from Salem, 10 miles ; from Boston, 12.

Inc. 1643.]  27. WENHAM. [Pop. 689.

    While a part of Salem, Wenham was called Enon. [John 3 : 23.] The inhabitants are mostly farmers, and the soil is generally good. Wenham Pond, on the edge of Beverly, is a beautiful sheet of water.

    Distance from Salem, 6 miles; from Boston, 21.



96                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

Inc. 1728.] 28. MIDDLETON. [Pop. 657.

    Part of Middleton once belonged to Salem, and it may have been named because it was formed from the corners of several towns, of which it was a sort of centre.

    The inhabitants chiefly get their support from the soil, which is by no means productive.

    Distance from Salem, 7 miles ; from Boston, 20.

__________

MIDDLESEX COUNTY.

    This county was incorporated in 1643, and named, after that in England, which includes the city of London.  

    The surface of this large county is uneven, but none of the hills rise more than a few hundred feet.

    The principal rivers are —

    The Merrimack, which enters at the north and runs east into Essex county:

    The Concord, which rises at the south of the county, and runs into the Merrimack:

    The Nashua, which rises in Worcester county, crosses the north part of Middlesex, and passes through a part of New Hampshire into the Merrimack:

    The Charles, which comes from Norfolk County, in the south part of Middlesex, and falls into Boston Bay.

    Cambridge and Concord are the county towns.

    Middlesex canal, probably the oldest canal in the country, is entirely in this county ; and the manufactures, especially of cotton, excel in amount those of any three other counties in the State.


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Middlesex
Inc. as a town, 1822
       as a city, 1836
1. LOWELL. Population
in 1840, 
20, 796
   
    Lowell, originally an Indian settlement called Wamesit, was annexed to Chelmsford in 1726. With a part of Chelmsford it was named Lowell, in 1822, in honor of the Hon. John Lowell of Roxbury ; and, finally, it was made a city, in 1836.

    A village of Tewksbury, called Belvidere, has recently been annexed to Lowell.


98                            ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    This city owes its greatness to a few Boston merchants, who established cotton manufactories here in 1820.

    It is built on the bank of the Merrimack, but the great water power is obtained by carrying a wide and deep canal around the falls of the river, which have a descent of about 32 feet at this place, into Concord River.

    A large portion of this rapidly increasing city depends upon the numerous factories ; but for good order, means of education, and religion, Lowell is equal to any manufacturing place in the world.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, but carpet-ing, powder, and many other things are also manufactured to an immense amount.

    Distance from Concord, 14 miles; from Boston, 25v

Settled 1628.] 2. CHARLESTOWN. [Pop. 11,484.

    Charlestown, the oldest town in the county, and called Mishawum by the Indians, was named after King Charles the First, by Winthrop, the first Governor, who resided here before he crossed over to Boston.

    Charlestown was first settled by some of the Salem people.

    The present town is a peninsula, nearly all beyond the isthmus having been, from time to timer set off into the towns of Maiden, Woburn, and Somer\ille.

    It is connected to Boston by two free bridges, and to the towns of Maiden, and Chelsea, by toll bridges of great length.

    Charlestown has the peculiar honor of containing Bunker Hill, where the first regular battle of the Revolution was fought,* June 17, 1775.


    * The battle was actually fought on Breed's Hill, a small eminence between Bunker's Hill and Boston, but it is too late now to correct the popular error.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   99


    The State Prison and United States Navy Yard are in Charlestown.

    Charles River separates this town from Boston, as the Mystic does from Chelsea. The Middlesex Canal also has its outlet in Charlestown,

    The commerce is considerable, and the manufactures of Charlestown are very various, and to a great amount.

    Distance from Concord, 16 miles.

Inc. 1631.] 3. CAMBRIDGE. [Pop. 8,409.

    Cambridge, originally called The New Town, was settled by the first Governor, and intended for the seat of government. It was named Cambridge, after that famous seat of learning in England.

    The first college in the country, founded here, in 1636, by a donation of the Rev. John Harvard of Charlestown, is now the best endowed university in the country. The first Printing Press in New England was connected with this college.

    Cambridge, besides having parted with Newton, Brighton, and West Cambridge, still contains three distinct and populous settlements, called Old Cambridge, East Cambridge, and Cambridge Port.

    This town is connected to Boston by two toll bridges of great length, and by the Viaduct or railroad bridge to Lowell.

    Mount Auburn, a most beautiful cemetery, is in this town.

    The chief manufactories are at East Cambridge, and the chief articles are glass, soap, bricks, &c.

    Charles River flows by Cambridge, separating it from Boston, and Fresh Pond is celebrated for its beauty, and the ice that it furnishes for exportation to warmer climates.

    Distance from Concord 12 miles.


100                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1691.] 4. NEWTON. [Pop. 3,351.

    Newton is a corruption of New Town, by which name this part of Cambridge was called after it was dropped by the alder part of the town. Previously it had been called Cambridge Village.

    The Indian name was Nonantum, and the hill on which the apostle Eliot collected the first congregation of Indians, still is called by its Indian name. The first minister of Newton was a son of the apostle.

    Newton is nearly surrounded by Charles River, the falls of which furnish excellent sites for mills and factories.

    The town has also a large pond, near which, on a beautiful hill, is the Baptist Theological Institution.

    Besides the agricultural or East part of the town, there are four or five large and distinct villages, in one of which, called West Newton, is one of the State Normal Schools.

    The chief manufactures are paper, cotton and woollen cloth, and nails.

    Distance from Concord, 12 miles; from Boston, 7.

Inc. 1700.] 5. FRAMINGHAM. [Pop. 3,030.

    Framingham, when only a plantation, had the same name it now bears, and it once included a part of Sudbury, northeast of it, called the Farms.

    A branch of Concord River, called Sudbury River, runs through the town, and Saxonville, a thriving manufacturing village, is built upon it. The Ponds are large and pleasant.

    The chief articles of manufacture, are woollen goods, slices, and straw bonnets.

    Distance from Concord, 13 miles ; from Boston, 20.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                101


Inc. 1642.] 6. WOBURN. [Pop. 2,993.

    Woburn, when a part of Charlestown, was called Charlestown Village.

    Horn Pond, a beautiful resort for parties of pleasure, is on a quite elevated ground, so that the Middlesex Canal, which passes along its banks, has six locks within a few rods of each other.

    The chief manufactures are boots, shoes, and leather.

   Distance from Concord, 12 miles; from Boston, 10.

Inc. 1649.]  7. MALDEN.   [Pop. 2,514.

     Malden lies on Mystic River, and was originally a part of Charlestown.

    Its chief manufactures are shoes, boots, and leather. Distance from Concord, 12 miles; from Boston 4.

Inc. 1738.] 8. WALTHAM. [Pop. 2,504.

    Waltham was formerly the western part of Watertown.

    This town is built on Charles River, which furnishes water power for several important cotton factories. Its manufactures are various and valuable.

    The main village is built on a plain, although the Waltham Hills are .considerable elevations.

    Distance from Concord, 9 miles; from Boston, 10.

Inc. 1630.] 9. MEDFORD. [Pop. 2,478.

    Medford, before it was settled by the English, bore the Indian name of the River Mystic, on which it is situated. It was originally spelled Meadford.



102                ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The Mystic, which is here wide enough to admit of ship building on its banks, becomes a very narrow stream above the main village.

    After the capture of General Burgoyne's army, at Saratoga, they were stationed at Winter Hill on the borders of this town.

    John Brooks, an active officer of the Revolution, and a Governor of Massachusetts, lived and died here.

    Medford has always been celebrated for the excellence of its ship holding. The other chief manufactures are hats and bricks.

    Distance from Concord, 14 miles; from Boston, 5.

Inc. 1715.] 10. HOPKINTON. [Pop. 2,245.

    The Indian name of this town was Quansigomog. The greater part of the town was purchased of the Indians with a fund left to Harvard College by Edward Hopkins, in honor of whom the town was named.

    From Ponds in this town one or more sources of Concord, Charles, and Blackstone rivers all rise, though they run in such different directions. The chief factories are in the village of Unionville.

    A mineral spring, near White Hall Pond, has some celebrity as a place of fashionable resort in the warm season.

     Boots, shoes, and cotton goods are the chief manufactures.

    Distance from Concord, 24 miles ; from Boston, 30.

Inc. 1769.] 11. READING.  [Pop. 2,193.

    Reading was set off from Lynn in Essex county, and was once joined to South Reading, which latter is really the older settlement.

    The chief manufactures are boots and shoes.

    Distance from Concord, 17 miles ; from Boston, 13.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                103


Inc. 1702.] 12. DRACUT. [Pop. 2,188.

    This is chiefly an agricultural town, situated on the north bank of the Merrimack, opposite Lowell, where it finds a market for its produce.

    Two excelent bridges connect Dracut with Lowell and Chelmsford, that over Pawtucket Falls being quite picturesque.

    Distance from Concord, 16 miles ; from Boston, 27.

Settled 1655.] 13. GROTON. [Pop. 2,189.

    The name of Groton was given to part of the Indian district of Petapaway, in honor of a town in England from which Governor Winthrop's family came.

    This town, and several others in its vicinity, were included in a grant, eight miles square, made by the General Court to Dean Winthrop, a son of the governor.

    Groton suffered so much from the Indians in Philip's War, that the settlement was entirely abandoned for two years.

    The boundary line of Groton is very irregular, and little or none of it remains as it was originally drawn.

    This is a farming town, and some attention has been paid to the cultivation of hops.

    Distance from Concord, 17 miles; from Boston, 84.

Inc. 1660.] 14. MARLBOROUGH. [Pop. 2,101.

    Marlborough was probably first settled by the people of Sudbury, to which town it belonged before it was incorporated.

    The Indian name was Okommakamesit, and the young settlement suffered so severely, that, during Philip's War, the inhabitants abandoned the town altogether.


104                   ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Marlborough was originally a very large township, and included Northborough, Westborough, and Southborough, now in Worcester County. It depends chiefly on agriculture.

    Distance from Concord, 14 miles; from Boston, 25.

Inc. 1732.] 15. TOWNSEND. [Pop. 1,892.

    Townsend is situated at the northwestern extremity of the county, and were it not for Ashby, it would be the end of the towns, as its name implies.

    Several small streams unite in this town and form the Squanicook, which is a branch of the Nashua.

    A considerable village in the eastern part of the town, is called Townsend Harbor.

    The chief manufactures are palm-leaf hats, and leather, but the chief dependence is upon agriculture.

    Distance from Concord, 22 miles ; from Boston 38.

Inc. 1630.] 16. WATERTOWN. [Pop. 1,810.

    The Indian name was Pigsguesset. When the first settlers of Charlestown scattered in search of water, some removed to Boston, and others to Water-town, and hence the name is probably derived.

    This ancient town originally included Waltham, Weston, and part of Lincoln. The Territory is small, but the manufactures are considerable, and the land well cultivated.

    Watertown is chiefly situated on the north bank of the Charles, which is navigable for small vessels only to the U. S. Arsenal, about a mile below the village.

    During the siege of Boston, the Provincial Congress, of which Warren, Hancock, and Samuel Adams were members, held two sessions in Watertown; and one object of the expedition to Lexing-

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                105


ton and Concord, was probably to surprise and capture some of these patriots.

    Distance from Concord, 10 miles ; from Boston, 7.

Inc. 1635.] 17. CONCORD. [Pop. 1,784.

    The Indian tract called Musketaquid was peacefully purchased of the Indians, and, from this circumstance, called Concord.

    Concord originally included the towns of Acton, Carlisle, and part of Bedford.

    The county courts meeting alternately at Concord and Cambridge, these are generally called Half-Shire-Towns.

    Assabeth and Sudbury rivers unite in this town, and form Concord River, which flows northwardly into the Merrimack.

    As the British forces and the Royal Governor were stationed at Boston, just before the Revolution, the Provincial Congress, as the Representatives of the people were called, sometimes held its sessions in Concord, and the public military stores and provisions were deposited here.

    To destroy the stores the British went in boats from Boston to Cambridge, and thence marched through Lexington to Concord, April 19, 1775 ; but their object was in a great measure defeated.

    A monument is erected on the spot where the first Britons in the war of the Revolution were killed on that memorable day. The first Americans had been killed in Lexington, a few hours before.

    Distance from Boston, 17 miles.

Inc. 1724.] 18. HOLLISTON. [Pop. 1,782.

    Holliston, which belonged to Sherburne until it was incorporated, was named in honor of Thomas Hollis, of London, an early patron of Harvard College..


106                     ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    One source of Charles River is in this town, and affords a good water power.

    The chief manufactures are shoes, boots, and straw bonnets. Distance from Concord, 21 miles; from Boston, 21.

Inc. 1655.] 19. CHELMSFORD. [Pop. 1,697.

    This town was named from Chelmsford in England, and originally included the town of Westford, and the settlement of the Pawtucket tribe of Indians called Wamesit, now the city of Lowell.

    The Middlesex Canal joins Merrimack River in this town; but its business has been much diminished by the railroad from Boston to Lowell.

   Chelmsford has long had a manufactory of glass, and its granite is extensively used for building.

    Distance from Concord, 9 miles ; from Boston, 25.

Inc. 1713.] 20. LEXINGTON. [Pop. 1,642.

    Lexington is famed for being the spot where the first American blood was shed, at the commencement of the war of Independence. The British troops, on their way to destroy the military stores at Concord, fired upon the citizens and killed eight of them. A monument is erected on the spot where they fell.

    The inhabitants are chiefly farmers, but they pay some attention to manufactures, especially articles of fur.

    Distance from Concord, 7 miles; from Boston, 10.

Settled 1653.] 21. BILLERICA. [Pop. 1,632.

    The Indian name of this town was Shawshine or Shawsheen, the same as that of a branch of the Merrimack, that runs through it.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.               107


    Billerica is probably a corruption of Villa-rica, though it may have been named after Billericay in England, a still worse corruption.

    It was originally granted to Cambridge, and settled by families from that town, and from England.

    The inhabitants are chiefly farmers, but some woollens, boots, and shoes are manufactured here.

    Distance from Concord, 10 miles ; from Boston, 18.

Inc. 1753.] 22. PEPPERELL. [Pop. 1,571.

    This town was named after Sir William Pepperell, who commanded the expedition which New England sent in 1745 against Louisburg, in the Island of Cape Breton, then a French fortress of great strength.

    Pepperell was originally a part of Dunstable.

   Nisitissit River runs through the town into the Nashua, which forms the eastern boundary, both rivers affording valuable sites for mills.

    The chief manufactures are paper, shoes, and palm-leaf hats.

    Colonel Prescott, who commanded the Americans at the battle of Bunker Hill, was a citizen of this town.

    Distance from Concord, 17 miles; from Boston, 33.

Settled 1644.
     Inc.
1812.
23. SOUTH READING. [Pop. 1,517.

    This town was once a part of Lynn, in Essex county, and was called Lynn Village. It is a much older settlement than Reading, although but lately set off and incorporated.

     A very large number of the inhabitants are engaged in the manufacture of shoes.

    Distance from Concord, 18 miles ; from Boston, 10.


108                    ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1842.] 24. SOMERVILLE. [Pop.1,500.

     This new town, lately set off from Charlestown, was the agricultural part of the township.

    Somerville lies on the western bank of Mystic River; and Prospect Hill, and part of Winter Hill, to which the Americans retreated after the noble struggle at Bunker Hill, are in Somerville.

    The McLean Asylum for the Insane, a noble monument of philanthropy and munificence, is in this town.

    Distance from Concord, 14 miles; from Boston, 2.

Inc. 1729.] 25. WESTFORD. [Pop. 1,436.

    Westford was so called probably from its having been the western precinct or parish of Chelmsford.

    This town furnishes a large quantity of what is called Chelmsford Granite for building, but agriculture is the principal employment of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Concord, 10 miles; from Boston, 25.

Inc. 1807.] 26. BRIGHTON. [Pop. 1,425.

    Brighton was a part of Cambridge, and was called Little Cambridge, until it was incorporated and named after the town which contains a royal palace in England.

    This town is chiefly celebrated for the great Cattle Fair, which is held here every Monday; immense numbers of cattle, sheep, pigs, &c. being slaughtered here and in the vicinity for the supply of Boston market, and for exportation.

    Distance from Concord, 16 miles ; from Boston, 5.

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Inc. 1639.] 27. SUDBURY. [Pop. 1,422.

    Sudbury once included Marlborough and Wayland, which is separated from it by Sudbury River, a source of the Concord.

    This town was once a frontier settlement, and suffered greatly in Philip's War. It contains a modest monument to the memory of Capt. Wadsworth, and about fifty gallant soldiers, who left Boston to relieve Marlborough, but were drawn into an ambush and all killed while pursuing the enemy to Sudbury.

    Its manufactures are chiefly of boots, shoes, and paper.

    Distance from Concord, 8 miles ; from Boston, 19.

Inc. 1807.] 28. WEST CAMBRIDGE. [Pop. 1,363.

   Before its incorporation, this town was part of Old Cambridge, and retained its Indian name, Menotomy.

    The ponds of West Cambridge, though small, are beautiful; and Sucker Brook, though small, is a very useful stream.

    The town is well cultivated, and it has valuable manufactories of shoes, saws, drugs, and calicoes.

    Amos Whittemore, the ingenious inventor of a machine for making Wool Cards, was a native of this town.

   Distance from Concord, 12 miles; from Boston, 6.

Inc. 1781.] 29. NATICK. [Pop. 1,285.

    Natick is one of the few towns of Massachusetts that retain their original Indian names. The word Natick is said to mean 'The Hill Country.'

    Natick is well watered by Charles River and several ponds, of which Long Pond is the largest, and which will probably be selected to supply Boston with fresh water.


110                  ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The first regular church of converted Indians, was formed here by the apostle Eliot, in 1660, after an unsuccessful attempt at Nonantum Hill, in Newton.

    It was into the language of the Natick Indians, that the venerable Eliot translated the whole Bible, which was printed at the college press at Cambridge, in 1663 ; but not an Indian is left to read the work that cost so much labor, nor to speak a word of what has become a dead language.

    Shoes, to a large amount, are manufactured here.

    Distance from Concord, 12 miles ; from Boston, 16

Inc. 1767.]  30. ASHBY. [Pop. 1,246.

    Ashby is situated at the northwest corner of the county. The soil is very fertile, though the land is elevated ; and the chief employment of the inhabitants is agriculture.

    The only manufacture, of any importance, is that of palm-leaf hats. Distance from Concord, 25 miles ; from Boston, 42.

Inc. 1683.]  31. STOW.  [Pop. 1,230.

    Stow was called by the Indians, Pompsiticut, and Shabbukin, which were the names of two of its hills.

     It had but two male settlers at the breaking out of Philip's War, and one of these was killed, and the other, with both families, for a time fled to other settlements.

    Until the incorporation, the plantation, as these unincorporated settlements were generally called, was governed by a committee of the inhabitants.

    Woollen goods, shoes, and boots, are manufactured here to a considerable amount.

     Distance from Concord, 8 miles; from Boston, 24.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.         111. 


Inc. 1735.]  32. ACTON.  [Pop. 1,121.

    Acton, from its settlement in 1656, till its incorporation, was apart of Concord.

    The soil is uneven and not fertile, yet the chief resource of the inhabitants is agriculture.

    Barrels are the only article manufactured to any considerable amount.

    Distance from Concord, 5 miles; from Boston, 21.

Inc. 1713.] 33. WESTON. [Pop. 1,092.

    Previously to its incorporation, Weston was the West precinct of Watertown, whence probably came its name.

    A portion of the town is considerably elevated.

    Boots and shoes are the chief articles manufactured, but these not to any large amount. The inhabitants are farmers.

    Distance from Concord, 9 miles; from Boston, 14.

Inc. 1725.  34. STONEHAM.  [Pop. 1,017.

    Stoneham is said to have been named from its rocky soil. In the south part of the town is a beautiful pond, called Spot Pond, from which the city of Boston once thought of building an aqueduct.

    The principal occupation of the inhabitants is the manufacture of shoes.

    Distance from Concord, 15 miles; from Boston, 10.

Inc. 1780.]  35. WAYLAND. [Pop. 998.

    The name of East Sudbury was changed to Wayland in 1835,


112                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


probably in honor of Francis Wayland, President of Brown University.

    This town is separated from Sudbury by Sudbury River, a sluggish branch or source of the Concord, which annually overflows its banks, enriching the lowlands, and producing large crops of hay.

    Boots and shoes are manufactured here, but not to a very large amount.

    Distance from Concord, 7 miles; from Boston, 16.

Inc. 1674] 36. SHERBURNE. [Pop. 995.

    Sherburne originally included Holliston within its limits. It lies on the western bank of Charles River, is somewhat elevated, and has a good soil.

    Shoes, and straw bonnets, next to agriculture, employ the inhabitants.

    Distance from Coneord, 15 miles; from Boston, 18.

Inc. 1753.] 37. SHIRLEY. [Pop. 957.

    Shirley was named in honor of William Shirley, Governor of the State, who was bom in England, but died at Roxbury, Norfolk county, in 1771.

    A society of Shakers, in the southern part of the town, have acquired some reputation for raising and preparing herbs and garden seeds.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, paper, and palm-leaf hats.

    The town is well watered by the Nashua and its branches.

     Distance from Concord, 16 miles ; from Boston, 32.

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Inc. 1729.] 38. BEDFORD. [Pop. 925.

    This town belonged in part to Concord.

   The Shawshine has one of its sources in Bedford, and the Concord bounds it on the west.

    Agriculture is the chief employment, but shoes are extensively manufactured here.

    Distance from Concord, 5 miles ; from Boston, 15.

Inc. 1715.] 39. LITTLETON. [Pop. 923.

    This town, which had previously been an Indian settlement, called Nashoha, was named in honor of Lord Lyttleton, an English statesman, who is said to have sent the town a Bell, which it never received, in consequence of being misdirected to Littleton instead of Littleton.

    Littleton is an agricultural town, and contains several fine ponds.

    Distance from Concord, 10 miles; from Boston, 27.

Inc. 1734.] 40. TEWKSBURY. [Pop. 906.

    The Indian name of this town was Wamesit, and It was probably called Tewksbury after a town of this name in England.

     A thriving village, called Belvidere, has lately been separated from Tewksbury, and annexed to Lowell.

    The soil is not very fertile, though large quantities of hops have been raised here, and the inhabitants depend upon agriculture-Distance from Concord, 12 miles; from Boston, 19.

Inc. 1809.]  41. TYNGSBOROUGH. [Pop. 870.

    Tyngsborough was a part of Dunstable, till its incorporation. It


114                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


was named in honor of the family of Tyng, from a member of which it received a ministerial and school Fund.

    This is the only town in the State that is situated on both sides of the Merrimack, which is here a beautiful stream.

    Large quantities of Granite have been sent to Boston by the Middlesex Canal.

    The soil is light and sandy, and the river affords no aid to manufactures.

    Distance from Concord, 16 miles; from Boston, 29.

Inc. 1730.]  42. WILMINGTON. [Pop. 859.

    This town was composed of the adjacent corners of several towns ; and, though incorporated more than a century ago, it has yet no central village.

    A chief source of Ipswich River rises here ; Wilmington borders on the Shawshine, a branch of the Merrimack, and the Middlesex Canal runs through it; and all contribute to give it a pleasant appearance.

    A large quantity of hops is raised here, and the inhabitants are generally farmers, though the soil does not well reward them.

    Distance from Concord, 12 miles; from Boston, 14.

Inc. 1754.] 43. LINCOLN. [Pop. 686.

    This town was chiefly taken from Concord, and it was named after a town in England, and not, as many suppose, in honor of General Lincoln, of the revolutionary army.

    It is watered by Sudbury River, a source of the Concord, and by Sandy Pond, valuable for its fish.

    One part of the town is very elevated, and the surface is rough and uneven, though in some places fertile.

    Distance from Concord, 3 miles; from Boston, 16.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                           115


Inc. 1673.] 44. DUNSTABLE. [Pop. 603.

    Dunstable, though now a small town, once comprehended Pepperell, Tyngsborough, and much land that is now in New Hampshire.

    This town was the home of Captain Lovewell, the celebrated leader in that bloody fight with the Indians on the borders of what is called Lovell's Pond, in Fryeburgh, Maine. Both leaders and nearly all their followers were slain, but the whites were victorious.

    Distance from Concord, 18 miles; from Boston, 37.

Inc. 1805.] 45. CARLISLE. [Pop. 556.

    Carlisle was originally a part of Concord.

    The soil is unfavorable to agriculture, and yet this is the principal dependence of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Concord, 5 miles ; from Boston, 18.

Inc. 1799.] 46. BURLINGTON. [Pop. 510.

    This little town is watered by Vine Brook, a branch of the Shawshine, which runs into the Merrimack, through Andover. Its soil is not rich, and its manufactures not extensive. Distance from Concord, 10 miles; from Boston, 13.

Inc. 1783.] 47. BOXBOROUGH. [Pop. 426.

    The land is hilly, but there are no important streams, and very little fertile land.

    Hops are raised, and good limestone found in the town.

    Distance from Concord, 9 miles ; from Boston, 25.


116                     ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Norfolk

    The present County of Norfolk, was a part of Suffolk County until 1793, when it was separated. Previously to that date the towns north of the Merrimack, with a portion of what is now New Hampshire, were called Norfolk County.

    The surface of the country is uneven, and the Blue Hills are the highest in the eastern part of the State. That part of the county nearest to Boston is highly cultivated.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                    117


    The chief streams are the Charles, which waters several towns; the Neponset, which is entirely in Norfolk, and the Maniquot, all of which rivers run into Boston Harbor.

    The largest hrcmch of manufactures, is that of boots and shoes, but the greater number of inhabitants depend on agriculture.

Inc. 1630.] 1. ROXBURY. [Pop. 9,089.

    Roxbury, the largest town in Norfolk County, is the only town naturally united to Boston by land.

    On a level tract, called Jamaica Plain, is a beautiful pond, about four miles from Boston centre, from which many families in Boston are supplied with fresh water, by means of an aqueduct of logs and iron pipes under ground.

    The first minister of Roxbury was John Eliot, so distinguished as a missionary among the neighboring Indians that he was called the Apostle.

    General Joseph Warren, who was killed at Bunker Hill, was born here in 1740, and his mansion is still standing in Warren Street. William Heath, also a General in the Army of the Revolution, was a citizen of Roxbury.

    Roxbury was the birth-place of Governors Thomas Dudley, Joseph Dudley, and Increase Sumner, and the residence of Governors Shirley, and Eustis.

    Its vicinity to the metropolis causes it to be highly cultivated, and rapidly to increase in population.

    Distance from Dedham, 7 miles ; from Boston, 3.

Inc. 1630.] 2. DORCHESTER. [Pop. 4,875.

    Dorchester was named after Dorchester in England, from which some of the first settlers came. The Indian name was Matapan.


118                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


   Dorchester originally included what aie now the towns of Milton, Stoughton, Sharon, Foxborough, and Canton.

    The Burial Ground contains some of the oldest and most curious memorials to be found in the State.

    Lieutenant-Governor William Stoughton was a citizen of Dorchester ; and Richard Mather, one of its earliest ministers, was the father of Increase Mather, and the grandfather of the learned Cotton Mather, of Boston.

    Dorchester is celebrated for its country-seats, and the delightful prospect from its hills. The place was selected by the settlers, because that peninsula of it, which is now South Boston, was ' a safe place for keeping sheep.'

    Distance from Dedham, 7 miles ; from Boston, 4.

Set. 1622.
    Inc.
1635.
3. WEYMOUTH. [Pop. 3,738.

    Weymouth was named from Weymouth in England, from which some of the second company of settlers came. The Indian name was Wessagusset.

    Next to Plymouth, it is the oldest town in the State. The first settlers under Mr. Weston were disorderly, and would all have been destroyed by the Indians, had not Massasoit revealed the plot.

    Part of the town was burned by the Indians, in Philip's War.

    The chief manufactures are boots, shoes, and leather.

    Weymouth Village includes a part of Braintree, and is a thriving settlement.

    Distance from Dedham, 14 miles ; from Boston, 11.

Inc. 1792.] 4. QUINCY. [Pop. 8,486.

    This town was originally settled in 1625, and was the first parish of Braintree.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                     119


    It was called Mount Wollaston, after Captain Wollaston, the chief settler; then Merry Mount, by some licentious persons led by one Morton ; and, finally, Quincy, from the distinguished family of that name.

    Quincy has had the rare fortune to give birth to two Presidents of the United States, John Adams, and John Quincy Adams, his son.

    The hills of Quincy furnished the stone of which Bunker Hill Monument, and many other splendid structures, are built; and the railroad, that conveys the stone to the landing, was the first in the United States.

    Next to stone the most valuable manufacture is boots and shoes.

    Distance from Dedham, 10 miles; from Boston, 7.

Inc. 1635.]  5. DEDHAM.  [Pop. 3,290.

    For some time the first settlers called this town Contentment. Its name was changed to Dedham in honor of the martyr, John Rogers, who preached at Dedham in England, and was probably known to some of the first settlers here.

    From Dedham have at various times been formed the towns of Medfield and Medway, Wrentham and Franklin, Needham, Bellingham, Walpole, and Dover.

    Dedham is watered by the Neponset and Charles; and, as early as 1639, the citizens dug the first canal in the State, now called Mother Bjook, to connect Charles and Neponset riveib, and furnish suitable sites for mills.

    The chief manufactures are cotton, woollen, and silk goods, paper, shoes, bonnets, and cards.

    The Ancient Oak, older than the town, is a curiosity, as is also the pedestal of William Pitt's Pillar, at the corner of Court House Square.

    Fisher Ames, an accomplished orator and profound statesman, was born in Dedham.


120                            ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Dedham is the county town, where the courts are held and the records kept.

    Distance from Boston, 10 miles.

Inc. 1793.] 6. RANDOLPH. [Pop. 3,213.

    Randolph, originally a part of Braintree, was probably named after Peyton Randolph, the President of the first American Congress, in 1774.

    This town is distinguished for its extensive manufacture of boots and shoes.

   Punkepog Pond, between Randolph and Canton, is a pleasant resort of fishing parties and sportsmen.

    Distance from Dedham, 12 miles ; from Boston 14.

Inc. 1673.]  7. WRENTHAM. [Pop. 2,915.

    Before its incorporation, Wrentham was part of Dedham. It was named from Wrentham, in England, whence some of the first settlers came.

    During Philip's War the settlement was burned by the Indians, and deserted by the inhabitants.

    The chief manufactures are cotton, bonnets, shoes, and boots.

    Distance from Dedham, 15 miles ; from Boston, 27.

Inc. 1610.] 8. BRAINTREE. [Pop. 2,168.

    Braintree formerly included Quincy and Randolph. The town of Quincy contains the oldest settlement. John Hancock was born here.

    The Maniquot river passes through the town, and unites with Weymouth Fore river, at Braintree Landing.

    The chief manufactures are boots, shoes, nails, and paper.

    Distance from Dedham, 12 miles; from Boston, 10.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                         121


Inc. 1726.] 9. STOUGHTON. [Pop. 2,142.

    Stoughton was named after Lieutenant-Governor Stoughton, of Dorchester, of which town it was originally a part.

    It was once called Punkapoag, and contained a village of Praying Indians, as the converts used to be called. Its chief manufacture is boots and shoes. Distance from Dedham, 10 miles ; from Boston, 20.

Inc. 1713.]  10. MEDWAY. [Pop. 2,043.

    Medway, originally a part of Medfield, and, with that, of Dedham, is situated upon Charles River.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen cloth, boots, shoes, and bonnets.

    Distance from Dedham, 12 miles; from Boston, 22.

Inc. 1797.] 11. CANTON. [Pop. 1,995.

    Canton was formerly the south parish of Dorchester, and was called Dorchester Village.

    It is situated upon Neponset River, and is extensively engaged in the manufacture of woollen and cotton cloth, and copper.

    The granite viaduct, or structure on which the Providence railroad crosses a deep valley, is an object of curiosity.

    Distance from Dedham, 5 miles; from Boston, 15.

Inc. 1662.] 12. MILTON. [Pop. 1,822.

    Milton, called by the Indians, Uncataquisset, was originally a part of Dorchester, and probably not named in honor of John Milton, the Great Author of Paradise Lost, but Mill-ton, from its Mills.


122                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The Blue Hills in this town and Canton, are the highest land in the county, being 710 feet above the level of the sea.

    The first paper-mill in the United States was established here, on the Neponset, by some Boston merchants, in 1728.

    A house, still standing on what is called Milton Hill, was the residence of Thomas Hutchinson, who wrote a valuable History of Massachusetts, and governed the State just before the Revolution, when he went to England, and died in 1780.

    Distance from Dedham, 6 miles ; from Boston, 7.

Inc. 1778.] 13. FRANKLIN. [Pop. 1,717.

    Before its incorporation, Franklin was a part of Wrentham.

    It was named after Dr. Franklin, who acknowledged the honor by a present of books. He had been advised to give them a Bell, but he said, ' He hoped they preferred sense to sound.'

    Dr. Nathaniel Emmons, a venerable theologian, spent a long life and a long ministry here.

    The chief manufactures are straw bonnets and cotton cloth.

    Distance from Dedham, 17 miles ; from Boston, 27.

Inc. 1724.]  14. WALPOLE. [Pop. 1,491.

    Walpole was originally a part of Dedham.

    Three considerable sources of the Neponset unite in this town, on which are several cotton, woollen, and paper mills.

    Distance from Dedham, 10 miles; from Boston, 20.

Inc. 1711.] 15. NEEDHAM. [Pop. 1,488.

    Needham was originally a part of Dedham.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                         123


    Charles River forms the greater part of its boundary, and enables it to have factories of paper, and woollen and cotton cloth. Distance from Dedham, 4 miles; from Boston, 12.

Inc. 1770.] 16. COHASSET. [Pop. 1,471.

    Cohasset was originally a part of Hingham, which belongs to Plymouth County.

    Its seashore is girt with dangerous rocks, and distinguished for numerous distressing shipwrecks.

    Shipbuilding and the fisheries give employment to many of the inhabitants.

    Of late, Cohasset has become a pleasant summer retreat for the citizens of the metropolis.

    The little town of Hull, though joined to Cohasset, belongs to Plymouth County.

    Distance from Dedham, 20 miles ; from Boston, by water, 16.

Inc. 1705.] 17. BROOKLINE. [Pop. 1,365.

    Brookline, so called, it is supposed, because separated from Cambridge and Roxbury by Brooks, was once a part of Boston, and called Muddy River.

    In 1821, it was connected with Boston by the Mill Dam, or Western Avenue, on which is one of the best roads in the country.

   Brookline is distinguished for its beautiful country-seats, and its high state of cultivation.

    Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, an eminent Physician, who introduced Inoculation for the Small Pox into America, was a native of Brookline ; and his name was given to a town in Worcester County.

    Distance from Dedham, 6 miles; from Boston, 4.


124                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1778.] 18. FOXBOROUGH. [Pop. 1,298.

    Foxborough was originally a part of Stoughton, and, with that, a part of Dorchester.

    Its chief manufactures consist of straw bonnets, cotton and woollen goods, and iron.

    Distance from Dedham, 15 miles; from Boston, 24.

Inc. 1765.] 19. SHARON. [Pop. 1,076.

    Sharon was once a part of Stoughton, and, with it, a part of Dorchester.

    The Indians called it Mashapoag, and from a pond of the same name issues one of the chief sources of Neponset River.

    It manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, and straw bonnets.

    Distance from Dedham, 8 miles ; from Boston, 18.

Inc. 1719.] 20. BELLINGHAM. [Pop. 1,055.

    Bellingham, originally a part of Dedham, was named after Richard Bellingham, one of the early Governors of Massachusetts.

    The chief stream is a branch of the Charles.

    Its manufactures are boots and shoes, and some cotton and woollen goods.

    Distance from Dedham, 18 miles; from Boston, 28.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                       125


Inc. 1651.] 21. MEDFIELD. [Pop. 883.

    Medfield was originally a part of Dedham, and is supposed to have been named from rich meadows on the banks of the Charles and its branches.

    The greater part of the town was burnt by the Indians under King Philip, in 1776. One of the houses that escaped is still standing, and considered a curiosity.

    Agriculture is the principal business, but many straw bonnets are made here.

    Distance from Dedham, 8 miles; from Boston, 17.

Inc. 1784.] 22. DOVER. [Pop. 520.

    Dover was originally a part of Dedham.

    It is situated on the Charles, and its chief manufactures are of iron. The land is well wooded and uneven; one elevation, called Pine Hill, rising 400 feet above Charles River.

    Distance from Dedham, 5 miles ; from Boston, 14.



126                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Plymouth

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                        127


PLYMOUTH COUNTY.

    Plymouth Colony was not divided into Counties until 1685, when, under Governor-General Andross, it was divided into the present Counties of Plymouth, Barnstable, and Bristol.

    In 1692, the colony was permanently united to Massachusetts by the new charter of William and Mary.

    The chief streams are Taunton River, (A.) which flows southwest into Bristol County, and North River, (B.) which flows eastwardly into Massachusetts Bay.

    The soil is generally level, and, at the south especially, it is sandy.

    Those not engaged in agriculture are generally engaged in the Jtshei ies, or in ship-building.

Inc. 1620.] 1. PLYMOUTH. [Pop. 5,281.

    Plymouth, the oldest town in the State, was called Patuxet by the Indians, and Plymouth by the Puiitans, in remembrance of Plymouth in England, where the Plymouth Company was formed, and whence the May Flower sailed to bring over the first settlers of this colony.

    Plymouth is still one of the largest townships in the State, although Marshfield, Plympton, Kingston, and Wareham have been taken from it.

    Plymouth Harbor is formed by what is called Plymouth Beach, in front of the village, and by a long strip of land, called the Gurnet, which proceeds from Marshfield and Duxbury. The harbor is capacious, but not deep enough for large vessels.


128                                  ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The first settlement was in or near Leyden Street. Those who died the first winter were buried on a small square at the foot of Middle Street, called Cole's Hill.

    A large pond west of the village is called Billington's Sea, because Billington, who first saw it from the top of a tree, thought it was an arm of the sea.

    At the south is a tract of woodland many miles square, in which wild deer are still frequently killed.

    On Burying Hill, the outline of the Fort, built in Philip's "War, may still be traced.

    Many curious relics of the Puritan Fathers are preserved by the Pilgrim Society in their Hall, in front of which is a part of Forefather's Bock, transported thither from the wharf in which the rest has been irreverently buried.

    Plymouth is the County Town, as well as the largest. Its chief manufactures are nails and cotton cloth. It is also extensively engaged in the fisheries.

    Distance from Boston, 35 miles.

Inc. 1669.] 2. MIDDLEBOROUGH. [Pop. 5,085.

    This town was called Namasket by the Indians.

    The township is one of the largest in the State, and the chief village is called Four Corners.

    It contains many ponds, of which Assawamset and Long Pond are the largest, and empty into Taunton River.

    Cotton goods, shovels, nails, straw bonnets, and tacks, are the principal manufactures.

    Rev. Isaac Backus, who wrote a valuable history of the Baptists, was settled in Middleborough in 1748.

    Distance from Plymouth, 14 miles; from Boston, 34.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                       129


Inc. 1636.]  3. SCITUATE. [Pop. 3,886.

    Scituate is supposed to be a corruption of the Indian word Satuit, meaning Cold Brook.

    Nineteen houses in this town were burned in Philip's War. One of the oldest houses in New England, supposed to have been a Garrison House, is still standing.

    Its harbor is small, and the soil is fertile, but it is extensively engaged in the fisheries, and in ship-building.

    Distance from Plymouth, 20 miles ; from Boston, 17.

Inc. 1686.] 4. ROCHESTER. [Pop. 3,864.

    This is a very large township, originally called by the Indians Sippican, and named Rochester, after Rochester in England, from which some of its first settlers came to Scituate, and thence hither.

    The chief village, called Mattapoiset, has a good harbor on an arm of Buzzard's Bay, and is largely concerned in the whale fishery.

    Ship-building is extensively carried on in this town, and at Sippican Village much salt is manufactured.

    Distance from Plymouth, 16 miles; from Boston, 48.

Inc. 1635.]  5.  HINGHAM.  [Pop. 3,564.

    Hingham was named from Hingham in England, whence the first minister, and some of the first inhabitants came. Before the settlement it was called Bear Cove, or Barecove,

    In Philip's War, some houses were burned, and some persons killed in the town. The Church of the first parish, said to be the oldest in the State, was built in 1680.

    Benjamin Lincoln, a Major General in the army of the Revolu-


130                    ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


tion, and Commander of the forces afterwards raised to suppress the Shays' Insurrection in Massachusetts, was a native of Hingham.

    Hingham has long been celebrated for the manufacture of wooden ware, but its industry is not confined to that branch. It is also largely concerned in the fisheries.

    Distance from Plymouth, 24 miles ; from Boston, 14.

Settled 1668.
     Inc.
1712.
6. ABINGTON. [Pop. 3,214.

     The Indian name of Abington was Manamooskeagin, which means Many Beavers, a name which has no application now but to the industrious inhabitants who have displaced the animals.

    Boots and shoes are manufactured to a very large amount.

    Abington is said to be the best grazing town in the county.

    Distance from Plymouth, 22 miles ; from Boston, 19.

Inc. 1637.] 7. DUXBURY. [Pop. 2,798.

    Its Indian name was Mattacheeset. Duxbury is supposed to be derived from Dux, which means Leader, and Borough or Bury ; Miles Standish, the prompt and fearless military Leader, or Dux, of the Puritans, having been one of the earliest settlers of this town. Captain's Hill, so called, was part of his farm.

    The first settlement was at the southerly part, near Plymouth. A strip of land, called the Gurnet, shelters the harbor of Duxbury, as well as that of Plymouth from the ocean.

   Duxbury is largely engaged in ship-building, in the fisheries, and in the manufacture of boots and shoes.

    Distance from Plymouth, 6 miles: from Boston, 29.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                       131


Inc. 1821.] 8. NORTH BRIDGEWATER. [Pop. 2,616.

    This town was a part of Bridgewater, until it was incorporated in 1821.

    It is watered by several small branches of Taunton River.

    It is a large and flourishing place, and its chief business is the manufacture of boots and shoes.

    Distance from Plymouth, 24 miles; from Boston, 20.

Inc. 1656. 9. BRIDGEWATER. [Pop. 2,131.

    The Indian name was Saughtucket, and the Ancient Town, which included North, East, and West Bridgewater, was purchased by Captain Miles Standish of Massasoit, and for several years formed a part of Duxbury. It was called Bridgewater, after the English Duke of that name.

    To show how much towns cost in that day, it may be stated that the Four Bridgewaters cost 7 coats, 9 hatchets, 8 hoes, 20 knives, 4 moose skins, and 10 and a half yards of cotton.

    This town, before the separation, was called South Bridgewater. Its soil is good, and well watered by Taunton River.

    Its chief manufactures are boots and shoes, machinery, nails, anchors, &c.

    One of the State Normal Schools is established here. Distance from Plymouth, 20 miles; from Boston, 27.

Inc. 1739.] 10. WAREHAM. [Pop. 2,002.

    Wareham was called Agawam by the Indians, which name seems to have been common to several places, and meant 'A place of resort for migratory fish.'


132                      ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Its first permanent settlers came from Hingham. It belonged to Plymouth until it was incorporated.

    Wareham has a good harbor at the head of Buzzard's Bay, and the British attempted to burn the village in 1814.

   Its commerce is considerable, its water privileges good, and its chief manufactures are nails, and other articles of iron.

    Distance from Plymouth, 16 miles; from Boston, 50.

Inc. 1823.] 11. EAST BRIDGEWATER. [Pop. 1,950.

    This town was a part of the ancient Bridgewater,

    It manufactures many boots and shoes, and on a branch of Taunton River are several factories of cotton, nails, &c.

    The cannon cast here during the war of the Revolution were of great service to the continental army.

    Distance from Plymouth, 17 miles ; from Boston, 24.

Inc. 1641.]  12. MARSHFIELD. [Pop. 1,761.

    Marshfield belonged to Plymouth till 1640, and was called Rexham.

    It is pleasantly situated on North and South Rivers, and does something in ship-building, navigation, and manufactures.

    It is chiefly distinguished as the burial-place of Peregrine White, the first child born after the arrival of the Pilgrims; and as the residence of Daniel Webster, usually called 'The Defender of the Constitution,' and, in a higher sense, the first son of New England.

    Distance from Plymouth, 15 miles ; from Boston, 25.

Inc. 1727.] 13. HANOVER. [Pop. 1,488.

    Hanover was probably named in compliment to the Duke of Hanover, who had lately been called to the English throne, under the title of George the First.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                      133


    The principal village is called 'The Four Corners' Some business is done in ship-building, and in the manufacture of shoes, and bar iron.

    Distance from Plymouth, 12 miles; from Boston, 23.

Inc. 1726.]  14. KINGSTON. [Pop. 1,440.

    Kingston, while a part of Plymouth, was called Jones River Parish, after Captain Jones of the May Flower, the vessel that brought over the first settler^.

    This village was the residence of John Thomas, a Major-General in tiie revolutionary army, who succeeded to the command of the troops before Quebec, after the death of Montgomery, and died soon after of the small pox.

    Kingston pays some attention to ship-building, the fisheries, and to manufactures in iron.

   Distance from Plymouth, 4 miles ; from Boston, 31.

Inc. 1712.] 15. PEMBROKE. [Pop. 1,258.

    Pembroke, originally a part of Duxbury, was itself the parent of Hanson and Halifax.

    Two principal sources of North River issue from ponds in this town.

   Excellent ships are built here, and the streams afford sites for a few factories.

    Distance from Plymouth, 12 miles; from Boston, 27.

Inc. 1822.] 16. WEST BRIDGEWATER. [Pop. 1,201.

    This town was the oldest settlement of Ancient Bridgewater, and the first interior settlement in the colony of Plymouth.

    A branch of Taunton River gives it some valuable mill sites.


134                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The inhabitants valiantly defended the town in Philip's War, and suffered less than many that were less exposed. It has manufactures of shoes and iron. Distance from Plymouth, 19 miles ; from Boston, 25.

Inc. 1820.] 17. HANSON. [Pop. 1,040.

    This town was separated from Pembroke. It is watered by a branch of North River, and several ponds. Shoes and nails are the principal manufactures, and iron ore abounds in the vicinity.

    Distance from Plymouth, 15 miles ; from Boston, 24.

Inc. 1790.]  18. CARVER. [Pop. 995.

    Carver, once a part of Plympton, was named after John Carver, the Governor of Plymouth Colony, who was chosen on board the May Flower, and died in a few months after the settlement was begun at Plymouth.

     Carver contains more land than Plympton, from which it v»as separated, but it is much less valuable.

    Manufactories of cast-iron were early established here.

    Distance from Plymouth, 8 miles ; from Boston, 38.

Inc. 1707.] 19. PLYMPTON. [Pop. 834.

    Plympton was originally the northwestern parish of Plymouth, and contained what is now the town of Carver, and the southern portion of Halifax.

    The town has a few manufactories of wood and iron ; and a h anch of Taunton River gives it some rich meadow land.

    Distance from Plymouth, 8 miles ; from Boston, 32.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                    135


Inc. 1734.] 20. HALIFAX. [Pop. 734.

    Halifax was composed of the north part of Plympton, the northeast of Middleborough, and the south of Pembroke, which then included Hanson.

    It was probably named in compliment to the Earl of Halifax, an able minister of Queen Anne.

    Lumber, shoes, cotton and woollen goods, aie the chief sources of industry.

    Distance from Plymouth, 12 miles ; from Boston, 28.

Inc. 1644. 21. HULL. [Pop. 231.

    Hull is a little township at the extremity of Nantasket Beach, by which it is joined to Cohasset, a town of Norfolk County.

    It consists of five small hills, which, at high tides, are almost islands.

   It has no meeting-house, is far from every other town, and often difficult of access.

    It forms one of the capes or points that enclose the harbor of Boston, called Point Alderton, after one of the Pilgrims who came in the May Flower.

    Distance from Boston, by water, 9 miles, by land, 22.


136                             ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Barnstable

    Barnstable County was once a part of Plymouth Colony, and was made a separate county, when Plymouth Colony was united to that of Massachusetts, in 1685.

    The whole county is a peninsula, joined to Plymouth County by an isthmus only five miles across.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                   137


    The whole county is a mass of sand, covered at best by a very thin coat of soil, which does not produce enough for the consumption of the inhabitants.

    The inhabitants in a great measure depend upon commerce and fishing, and are a hardy race, frugal and moral, and not unworthy of their Pilgrim ancestors.

    There are few streams in the county, and the chief manufacture is that of salt which of late, has greatly declined.

Inc. 1639.] l. BARNSTABLE. [Pop. 4,301.

    The Indian name was Mattacheeset, which nearly resembles the name of the State. Barnstable is the County Town.

    This town extends across the peninsula, being from five to nine miles wide, and it contains several ponds, of which the largest is called Great Pond.

    Sandy Neck, a strip of land extending from Sandwich in front of Barnstable, forms the harbor of Barnstable, which is capacious, but does not admit large vessels in conseqaence of a sand bank at its entrance.

    Besides the main village there is Hyannis, a good harbor at the south ; Osterville at the southeast; and Cotuit at the west.

    James Otis, a distinguished patriot just before the Revolution, was born here. He was killed by lightning when there was no appearance of a cloud in the sky.

    The inhabitants are engaged in commerce, the fisheries, and the manufacture of salt.

    Distance .from Boston, by land, 65 miles.

Inc. 1639.] 2. SANDWICH. [Pop. 3,719.

    Sandwich was settled by persons from Saugus, then a part of Lynn.


138                      ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The soil is better than that of other towns in the county, which grows more sandy and barren as it goes east, until there is hardly any verdure.

   Glass, and the fisheries, employ the inhabitants.

    The ponds and brooks furnish abundance of fish and game.

    A ship canal across the isthmus was once seriously contemplated, the distance being only five miles.

    Distance from Barntable, 12 miles ; from Boston, by land, 53.

Inc. 1793.] 3. DENNIS. [Pop. 2,942.

    Dennis was named after its first minister; and was formerly the eastern part of Yarmouth.

    The town extends across the peninsula, North and South Dennis being on the opposite sides.

    Most of the inhabitants are concerned in navigation, the fisheries, or the manufacture of salt, which last important business is said to have been first attempted in Dennis.

    The soil is sandy, and the highest hill in the county is in this town.

    Distance from Barnstable, 8 miles; from Boston, by water, 60.

Inc. 1694.] 4. HARWICH. [Pop. 2,930.

    Harwich once included Brewster, which was the oldest settlement of the two.

    Long Pond has an outlet, called Herring River, of which some use is made for mills.

    The soil is sandy, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the fisheries, or business connected with them.

    Distance from Barnstable, 13 miles ; from Boston, by water, 75.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                      139


Inc. 1686.] 5. FALMOUTH. [Pop. 2,589.

    Falmouth is the southwest point of the peninsula, of which the Elizabeth Islands, now part of Dukes County, seem to have been a continuation.                                                             
    The town contains a great number of ponds, and at the southwest point, on a small peninsula, is a good harbor, called Wood's Hole.

    The inhabitants are somewhat extensively engaged in the whale and other fisheries, and in the manufacture of salt.

    Distance from Barnstable, 22 miles; from Boston, by land, 71.

Inc. 1639.] 6. YARMOUTH. [Pop. 2,554.

    Yarmouth extends across the peninsula, and has a harbor on each shore, they being about 4 miles apart.

    The soil is light and sandy, and much of the land begins to look desert, being unfenced.

    The people are extensively engaged in the manufacture of salt, and in the fisheries.

    There are several ponds from which a small stream called Bass River issues, and runs south.

    Distance from Barnstable, 4 miles ; from Boston, by water, 60.

Inc. 1763.] 7. WELLFLEET. [Pop. 2,377.

    Wellfleet was formerly the north part of Eastham, and extends across the peninsula.

    From this town to the extremity of Cape Cod, is a range of Hills, all composed of sand except one, which is of solid clay, and on the seashore.

    The town has many ponds among its sands, and the harbor is a good one for small vessels.


140                             ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The fisheries, and the manufacture of salt, employ most of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Barnstable, 33 miles, from Boston, by water, 60.

Inc. 1712.] 8. CHATHAM. [Pop. 2,334.

     Chatham was called, by the Indians, Monamoy.

    Between the sand-hills are numerous ponds, and one hill, called Great Hill, is a prominent object from the ocean.

    A spit of land, proceeding from Orleans, forms a considerable bay north of Chatham, and defends both Orleans and Chatham from the ocean.

    This spit is evidently extending southwardly, and the sand has gradually been filling up the harbor of Chatham.

     Though the soil is mere sand, the town is thrifty, the people being largely engaged in commerce, the fisheries, and the manufacture of salt, from sea-water, as usual, by evaporation in the open air.

     Distance from Barnstable, 22 miles ; from Boston, by land, 77.

Inc. 1727.] 9. PROVINCETOWN. [Pop. 2,122.

    Provincetown was originally a part of Truro. It lies at the very extremity of the peninsula, forming a sort of claw, to an arm, which the county is said to resemble in form.

    The town is composed of sand-hills, but the harbor is large, deep, safe, and of so great importance to mariners, that the Government of the United States has expended large sums in its improvement.

    The May Flower, that brought the first freight of pilgrims to New England, put in here before proceeding to Plymouth ; and here the pilgrims signed a form of government, and chose a governor.

    Some years after its settlement the town was almost abandoned by its inhabitants, but, after the Revolutionary War, it revived.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                             141


    The inhabitants are extensively engaged in the fisheries, and in the manufacture of salt.

    Distance, in a straight line from Barnstable, 30 miles; from Boston, by water, 50, and by land, 116

Inc. 1797.]  10. ORLEANS. [Pop. 1,974.

    Orleans was formerly the south part of Eastham.

    The town is very irregularly shaped, has a small harbor on Massachusetts Bay, and an agreeable arm of the sea, called Pleasant Bay, at the southeast.

    The soil is sandy and barren, and the inhabitants are engaged in the fisheries, and the manufacture of salt.

    Chatham Beach, a long spit of land, extends south about 12 miles, and its annual increase, by the action of the Atlantic Ocean, has been calculated.

    Distance from Barnstable, 20 miles ; from Boston, by land, 85.

Inc. 1709.]  11. TRURO. [Pop. 1,920.

    The Indian name of Truro was Pamet. It is situated at the northern part of the peninsula, and is so sandy that little or no verdure is ever seen.

    Near the light-house is a singular hill of clay, called the Clay Pounds, because, it is said, many vessels have been pounded to pieces against it.

    The inhabitants are engaged in the fisheries, and in the manufacture of salt.

    Distance from Barnstable, 42 miles; from Boston, by land, 109.

Inc. 1803.]  12. BREWSTER. [Pop. 1,522.

    Brewster, formerly the north parish of Harwich, was named after


142                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


William Brewster, the venerable elder, who acted as minister to the Plymouth Pilgrims.

    Notwithstanding the sandy soil, Brewster has a water power, supplied by several ponds, sufficient to turn several mills.

    The town does somewhat in the manufacture of salt, and in fishing, but many of the citizens sail from other ports.

   Distance from Barnstable, 16 miles ; from Boston, by water, 69.

Inc. 1646.]  13. EASTHAM. [Pop. 955.

    The Indian name of Eastham was Nauset, and the sea beach still retains the name.

    Eastham originally was owned by Plymouth, and included Wellfleet and Orleans.

    The ravages of the ocean on the coast are distinctly seen, and the sand-hills are constantly increasing in height.

    The manufacture of salt, and the fisheries, give employment to the inhabitants.

   Distance from Barnstable, 23 miles; from Boston, in a straight line, 68.


(M.) MARSHPEE.

    Besides the towns in Barnstable County, there is a tract still belonging to the Indians, and called Marshpee.

    This tract is situated between Barnstable, Sandwich, and Falmouth, is full of ponds, and a pleasant residence for the few descendants of the natives, who once swarmed in that vicinity.

    The Indians, in part, govern themselves, and are under the special care of the Legislature of the State.

    Distance from Barnstable, 12 miles; from Boston, 65.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                       143


Dukes

    Duke's County, which at first included Nantucket also, was so named in honor of the Duke of York, to whom the king had granted New York, and who claimed these iblands as under his jurisdiction.

    Thomas Mayhew, the first proprietor, and an early settler, was the Governor from 1641 till 1644, from which time, till 1664, the islands were dependent upon Massachusetts. In 1664, they were restored to New York, and continued so until 1692, when they were permanently annexed to Massachusetts.

    Duke's County now consists of the Island of Martha's Vineyard (V) ; Chappaquiddick (4) ; No-Man's Land (5); and the Elizabeth Isles (6, 7, 8, and 9).


144                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Martha's Vineyard, the principal island, contains three towns, being about 19 miles long, and, on an average, 5 miles broad.

     It was so named by Gosnold, its discoverer, but what Martha it was named for does not appear. The Indian name was Capawock, or, as some think, Nope.

    Chappaquidick (4) belongs to Edgartown.

    No-Man's Land (5) feeds a few sheep and belongs to Chilmark.

    The Elizabeth Islands, 16 in number, were named by Captain Gosnold, after Queen Elizabeth. The chief of them are : —

    Nashawn (6).

    Nashawenna (7).

    Pasque (8).

    Cuttahunk (9).

    The other islands are very small, and the largest only contains a few families, and affords pasture to a few sheep.

    When first settled by the English, Martha's Vineyard was well peopled with Indians, who all became so far Christians as to remain quiet during Philip's War, in which the Indians of the main land generally took a hostile part.

Inc. 1671.] 1. EDGARTOWN. [Pop. 1,736.

    Edgartown, being the oldest settlement on Martha's Vineyard, has also been called Old-town. It lies at the west end.

    It was settled in 1641, but not incorporated till 1671, while belonging to New York.

    The strait which separates the town from Chappaquiddiek Island, forms one of the best harbors in the United States.

    The inhabitants pay some attention to whaling, and to the manufacture of salt, and many articles of wool.

    Distance from Boston, by the way of New Bedford, 80 miles.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                           145


Inc. 1671.] 2. TISBURY. [Pop. 1,520.

    Tisbury occupies the middle part of Martha's Vineyard.

    In an inlet of the sea, at the north, is an excellent harbor called Holmes's Hole

    The inhabitants raise many sheep, and manufacture some salt, shoes, hats, &c.

    Distance from Boston, by the way of New Bedford, 75 miles.

Inc. 1714.] 3. CHILMARK. [Pop. 702.

    Chilmark occupies the west end of Martha's Vineyard, and includes the isle of No-man's Land and the Elizabeth Isles.

    The highest land on the island is in this town, and terminates in a cliff, called Gay Head, because of the gay appearance given to it by the stripes of variegated clay and sand of which it is composed.

    The land around Gay Head still belongs to the remnant of Indians settled on it, and the cliff is extremely interesting to Geologists, from the fossil remains of whales, sharks, crocodiles, and other animals, belonging to 'the world before the flood,' that are found in it.

    Distance from Boston, by the way of New Bedford, 75 miles.

__________

NANTUCKET COUNTY.

     The County of Nantucket is composed of Five Islands, only one of which (N) is of any importance.

     The main island is about 15 miles long, and, on an average, about 4 miles wide, the soil being low and very sandy.


146                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Nantucket Island has a somewhat triangular or three-sided form, the northeastern angle being called Sandy Point; the southeastern, Sancoty Head; and the westei-n, Smith's Point, near to which is Tuckanuck Island, with the other small ones belonging to the county.

Inc. 1687.] NANTUCKET TOWN. [Pop. 9,012.

    The town-of Nantucket (marked n) is situated at the west end of a sort of bay, on the north side of the island, and there are few other houses, except at the small village of Siasconset (S) at the eastern end of the Island.

    The harbor is capacious and safe, but a bar of sand before its mouth prevents the entrance of large vessels, unless they are buoyed up or unloaded.

    The great business of Nantucket is the whale fishery, which was first introduced in 1690, by a whaleman from Cape Cod, and was long carried on in boats near the shore. As the whales gradually retired from the coast, the enterprising islanders pursued them to the most distant seas,

    Thomas Mayhew obtained the first grant of this island in 1641, and Thomas Macy was the first settler, in 1659. In 1695, after Duke's County, in which Nantucket was included, was taken from New York and given to Massachusetts, Nantucket was made a separate county.

    The town, under the name of Sherburne, was incorporated in 1687, but after 1795, the Indian name, Nantucket, was given to the County, Island, and Town.

    Distance, in a straight line from Boston, about 90 miles ; and by the way of New Bedford, about 107.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                             147


Bristol

    This county was a part of the old colony of Plymouth, until the union with Massachusetts, In 1685.

    The surface of the county is quite even and sandy. It has good harbors, and many of the inhabitants are engaged in navigation.



148                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

    Taunton River (A) and Pawtucket or Blackstone River (B), with their branches, water the county, and afford excellent water power for manufacturing purposes.

   Iron ore is found here, and extensively manufactured.

   The county or shire towns are New Bedford and Taunton.

Inc. 1787.] 1. NEW BEDFORD. [Pop. 12,087.

    This town, called by the Indians Acushnet, was once a part of Dartmouth.

    The first settlers are supposed to have belonged to the Society of Friends or Quakers, one of whom named it after the Duke of Bedford; the word New being afterwards added to distinguish it from Bedford in Middlesex County.

     The town is situated on an arm of Buzzard's Bay, into which the small river Acushnet falls, by which it is separated from Fairhaven, and across which is a long bridge uniting the two towns.

    The great business of New Bedford is the whale fishery, in which it has no rival but Nantucket.

    A considerable portion of the town, then Dartmouth, was burned by the British, because it afforded shelter to American privateers, during the revolutionary war.

    Distance from Taunton, 24 miles; from Boston, 52.

Inc. 1639.] 2. TAUNTON. [Pop. 7,645.

    The Indian name of this ancient town was Cohannet. It included within its limits, Berkeley, Raynham, Dighton, Norton, Easton, and Mansfield, about one third of the whole county.

   It was named by Miss Elizabeth Poole, who came from Taunton in England, and was the principal owner and founder of the settlement.


FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                         149

    Taunton is situated on both sides of Taunton River, the Tetiquet of the Indians; and small vessels can go up the river as far as Taunton,

    Canoe and Rumford Rivers, two branches of the Great Taunton, give excellent water power to the town.

    Among the numerous manufactures are cotton cloth, nails and other articleb of iron, straw bonnets, bricks, &c.

     Taunton River is celebrated for the great number of alewives that annually visit it, and for the numerous laws that have been passed by the legislature, to regulate the fishery among the several towns on its banks.

    Distance from New Bedford, 24 miles; from Boston, 32.

Inc. 1803.] 3. FALL RIVER. [Pop. 6,738.

    Fall River, once a part of Freetown, was called Troy, till 1834, when it was named after the outlet of a large pond, on which its numerous manufactories are situated.

   The harbor is excellent, and its location, for both commerce and manufactures, almost unequalled.

    A skeleton found here, with some brazen ornaments, unlike any known to our Indians, have led to some wild conjectures in regard to the original inhabitants of this spot. A Rock once in Dighton but now in Berkeley, with figures rudely carved on it, has also led to similar conjectures.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, and nailss, and other articles of iron. Several whaling vessels belong to Fall River.

    Distance from Taunton, 17 miles; 14 from New Bedford; and 49 from Boston.


150                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1664.] 4. DARTMOUTH. [Pop. 4,155.

    Dartmouth once included the great towns of New Bedford, Fairhaven, and Westport, and still its dimensions and population are considerable.

   Some of its vesseL are engaged in the whale fishery, but the inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the cod fishery, in farming, and in the manufacture of salt.

    Distance from New Bedford, 3 miles; from Taunton, 21; and from Boston, 56

Inc. 1812.] 5. FAIRHAVEN. [Pop. 3,951.

    Fairhaven was a part of New Bedford once, and, with New Bedford, was a part of Dartmouth.

   It was named Fairhaven from the beauty of its situation.

    Its chief business is the whale fishery; but the Acushnet, that separates it from New Bedford, furnishes water-power for a few mills.

    Distance from Taunton, 25 miles; from Boston, 53,

Settled 1694.] 6. ATTLEBOROUGH. [Pop. 3,585.

    Attleborough, once a part of the ancient town of Rehoboth, is watered by a considerable branch of Blackstone River, and by other small streams, which are used for manufacturing purposes.

    Being a frontier town, Attleborough suffered much during the war with King Philip, of Mount Hope. The colonists kept a strong garrison here.

    The principal manufactut es are cotton cloth, metal buttons, jewelry, boots and shoes.

    Distance from Taunton, 11 miles ; from Boston, 21.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.              151


Inc. 1787.] 7. WESTPORT. [Pop. 2,820.

    Westport, the western part of the county, lies on an arm of the sea, at the mouth of Buzzard's Bay.

    It was formerly a part of the town of Dartmouth.

    Some attention is paid to the Whale Fishery, and to the manufacture of cotton cloth and yarn.

    Distance from New Bedford, 8 miles; from Taunton, 25; and from Boston, 60.

Inc. 1828.]  8. PAWTUCKET. [Pop. 2,184.

    What should be the town of Pawtucket is divided by Pawtucket River, so that half falls into the town of North Providence, in Rhode Island.

    This town is one of the few that retains its Indian name. It was originally a part of Seekonk.

    Pawtucket river is navigable to the village, and above the village it takes the name of Blackstone river.

    Pawtucket is a manufacturing town, and sends forth large quantities of cotton goods and iron.

    Distance from Taunton, 16 miles ; from Boston, 86.

Settled 1645.] 9. REHOBOTH. [Pop. 2,169.

    This ancient town, called Saconet, by the Indians, originally included the towns of Seekonk, Pawtucket, Attleborounli, part of Swansey, and much more land that is now a part of Rhode Island.

    The first white settler was probably the Rev. Wm. Blackstone. who first settled on the peninsula now called Boston, and advised Gov. Winthrop and his company to cross thither from Charlestown.


152                             ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    In 1634 he sold his lands in Boston, and removed the next year to Rehoboth. Blackstone River was named in honor of this worthy minister. His house and grave fell on the Rhode Island side of the boundary line.

    The first settlers came from Weymouth, in Norfolk county, in 1644.

    A large rock in Rehoboth is celebrated as the spot near which the colonists, under the famous Capt. Church, captured Annawon, the principal chief that remained after the death of Philip, in 1676.

   Farming is the chief employment, though there are various manufactures to a small amount.

    Distance from Taunton, 10 miles; from Boston, 40.

Inc. 1725.] 10. EASTON. [Pop. 2,074.

    Easton, formerly a part of Norton, and, of course, of Taunton, is the north-eastern town of the county.

    Its chief manufactures are of iron, but boots, shoes, cotton goods, and straw bonnets, are manufactured to a considerable amount.

   Distance from Taunton, 10 miles; from Boston, 22.

Inc. 1812.] 11. SEEKONK. [Pop. 1,996.

    Seekonk is one of the few towns that retain their Indian name. Seekonk is said to mean ' a wild goose.'

   This town was the most ancient part of Rehoboth, and was reduced to ashes in Philip's War. Captain Pierce, of Scituate, and his company of sixty-three men, had been surprised and slain in the vicinity two days before.

    The chief article of manufacture is cotton, but to no great amount.

    Distance from Taunton, 14 miles; from Boston, 41.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                       153


Inc. 1683.] 12. FREETOWN. [Pop. 1,772.

    This town lies on an arm of Taunton River, and is somewhat irregularly shaped. It was the mother of Troy or Fall River.

   The soil is light, but good for grazing.

    Something is done in various manufactures of iron, and a few vessels are built here.

    Distance from Taunton, 12 miles ; from Boston, 40.

Inc. 1711.]  13. NORTON. [Pop. 1,545.

    Norton was probably named after the Rev. John Norton, who came to Plymouth with Gov. Winslow, in 1635, and was settled over the first church in Boston for many years.

    This town once included Easton and Mansfield, and with them was originally a part of Taunton.

   The chief manufactures are of copper, iron, and cotton. The soil requires industrious men to make it profitable.

    Distance from Taunton, 8 miles ; from Boston, 30.

Inc. 1667.] 14. SWANSEY. [Pop. 1,484.

    The name of this town came from Swansea, in Wales. Part of it once belonged to Rehoboth, and part of it fell within the bounds of Rhode Island. Somerset was taken from it in 1790.

    It was originally settled by Baptists, who seceded from the church in Rehoboth, and were obliged to retire hither.

   The nearness of Swansey to Mount Hope, the residence of the Indian king Philip, caused it to be attacked early in Philip's War, and the first blood was shed in this town.

    Something is done in navigation and shipbuilding, and there are a


154                                 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


few factories on Palmer's river, which crosses the town before it enters Rhode Island.

    Distance from Taunton, 14 miles; from Boston, 46.

Inc. 1770.]  15. MANSFIELD. [Pop. 1,382.

    Mansfield was named after Earl Mansfield, then lord chief-justice of Great Britain. It was formerly a part of Norton, and with that town a part of Taunton.

    Mansfield is watered by three branches of Taunton river, the Rumford, Cocasset, and Canoe, on which are cotton-mills, nail-factories, &c.

    Straw bonnets, palm-leaf hats and baskets are also manufactured here.

    Indications of extensive beds of anthracite coal have been found in this town.

    Distance from Taunton, 12 miles; from Boston, 23.

Inc. 1712.]  16. DIGHTON. [Pop. 1,378.

    This town was originally a part of Taunton, and included the town of Berkley, from which it is separated by Taunton River.

   The Dighton Rock, remarkable for its mysterious hieroglyphics, is now in Berkley.

    Dighton has some navigation, and some factories of cotton and woollen goods, nails, &c.

   Distance from Taunton, 7 miles; from Boston, 43.

Inc. 1731.] 17. RAYNHAM.  [Pop. 1,329.

    Raynham is situated, upon Taunton River, above Taunton, of which it was once a part.

    The outlets of certain ponds give a water-power that is used for the manufacture of nails, and other articles of iron.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                                155


    King Philip is said to have had a summer residence in this town, and, during the war in which he fell, this town was several times molested.

     Distance from Taunton, 3 miles; from Boston, 30.

Inc. 1790.]  18. SOMERSET. [Pop. 1,005.

    Somerset, before its incorporation, was a part of Swansey, known as the Shawamet Purchase.

    It is pleasantly situated on the bank of Taunton River, which is navigable to this place for considerably large vessels.

    The inhabitants pay some attention to shipbuilding, and the manufacture of stone and earthenware.

   Distance from Taunton, 13 miles; from Boston, 45.

Inc. 1735. 19. BERKELEY* [Pop. 886.

    This town was probably named in honor of George Berkeley, an Irish bishop, of great learning and philaathropy, who had visited this country a few years before for the purpose of benefiting the Indians.

     Berkeley was once a part of Dighton and of Taunton, and contains the curious Dighton Rock, on which are many rude hieroglyphics, supposed to have been made by a people who existed before the Indian tribes that the Pilgrim Fathers found here. The meaning of the characters is as much a mystery as their origin.

     The rock is on the bank of Taunton River, and is almost covered at high tide. Some have supposed that it was related to certain skeletons found at Fall River, a few miles below Berkeley.

     Distance from Taunton, 5 miles; from Boston, 37.


    * This name is often improperly spelled Berkley.



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Worcester

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                      157


WORCESTER COUNTY.

    Worcester County was incorporated in 1731.

    It is the largest county in the State in extent of territory, and number of towns, but in population it only ranks the third.

   Being an inland county, of course it has no navigation, but its excellent soil, and its numerous streams give it a high rank in agriculture and manufactures.

    Though not remarkably hilly, Wachusett, in Princeton, is the highest mountain east of the Connecticut.

    The principal rivers in the county are :

    A.   The Blackstone, which runs southeasterly into Rhode Island, there taking the name of Pawtucket.

    B.   Ware River; E. Swift River; the most important branches of F. the Chickopee, a branch of the Connecticut.

    C.  Miller's River, a branch of the Connecticut.

    D.   The Nashua, a branch of the Merrimack.

    G. The Quinebaug ; H. French River, two sources of the Thames, a river of Connecticut.

Inc. 1684.] 1. WORCESTER. [Pop. 7,497.

    Worcester was called Quinsigamond by the Indians, who joined with Philip against the colonists in the bloody war of 1675.

    In 1701, Worcester was deserted by the inhabitants, through fear \ of the Indians.

    In 1786, Worcester was disturbed by the insurrection of Daniel Shays, to suppress which the State was obliged to raise an army. Besides the ordinary buildings of a county town, Worcester con-


158                                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


tains the State Lunatic Hospital, a splendid monument of philanthropy, and the Hall of the Antiquarian Society, whose cabinet and library are very curious and valuable.

    The sources of the Blackstone meet in Worcester, and furnish valuable privileges.

   The Blackstone Canal extends from Worcester to Providence, in Rhode Island, but the subsequent construction of rail-roads has rendered the canal unprofitable.

    The chief manufactures are woollen and cotton goods, boots and shoes, hats and bonnets, paper, and iron ware.

    Distance from Boston, 40 miles.

Inc. 1735.] 2. GRAFTON. [Pop. 2,943.

    Grafton was a tract four miles square, reserved for the Indians, until it was incorporated. In 1671, an Indian church was established here by the apostle Eliot and others, but in 1825, not one unmixed descendant of those Indians was known to be living.

    The Blackstone river and one of its branches flows through the town, affording good sites for factories of woollen and cotton goods. The manufacture of boots and shoes is very extensh ely carried on.

    Distance from Worcester, 8 miles; from Boston, 36.

Inc. 1774.] 3. BARRE. [Pop. 2,751.

    Barre, (pronounced Barry), was a part of Rutland, and called Hutchinson from 1774 to 1777, when its name was changed to Barre, in honor of Colonel Barre, a member of the British parliament, who defended the cause of the American colonies when Gov. Hutchinson was betraying it.

   The soil is excellent, and the produce considerable. The most important manufactories are situated on Ware river and its branches,

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                          159


and the chief articles made are cotton and woollen goods, gunpowder, and palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Worcester, 21 miles; from Boston, 60.

Inc. 1764.] 4. FITCHBURG. [Pop. 2,604.

    Fitchburg, originally a part of Lunenburg, and including a part of Ashby, was probably named after John Fitch, one of its own citizens at the time of its incorporation.

    This and the whole of Lunenburg were at first called Turkey Hills, in consequence of the great number of wild turkeys that resorted hither. Dr. Franklin is said to have proposed the wild turkey us the emblem of this country, instead of the eagle.

    The soil is good, though hilly. A branch of the Nashua furnishes water-power for the manufacture of cotton and woollen goods, papar, and scythes. The 6th Railroad from Boston is named from this town.

    Distance from Worcester, 24 miles; from Boston, 47.

Inc. 1845.] 5. BLACKSTONE. [Pop. in 1840, 2,517.

    Blackstone, was the south parish of Mendon, until its incorporation as a separate town. It was named in honor of the Rev. Mr. Blaxton or Blackstone, who was the fiist settler of Boston, and who removed into this vicinity in 1634.

   This new town is watered by Mill and Blackstone rivers, and is extensively engaged in the manufacture of cotton and woollen goods, and boots and shoes.

    Distance from Worcester, 20 miles; from Boston, 84.

Inc. 1673.] 6. BROOKFIELD. [Pop. 2,472.

    Brookfield was originally granted to persons from Ipswich, in Essex county, and it was long a connecting link between the eastern towns and those on the Connecticut.


160                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    North Brookfield, Warren and part of New Braintree, were taken from Brookfield.

    Brookfield is situated on the Chicopee, which is connected with three considerable ponds, and the town, for a time, was named Quaboag.

   Brookfield suffered greatly in Philip's War, and every house was  burned. On their return, after the death of Philip, the inhabitants continued to be annoyed by the French and Indians as late as the year 1710.

    The soil is excellent. The chief manufactures are boots, shoes, and iron ware.

   Distance from Worcester, 18 miles; from Boston, 68.

Inc. 1715.]   7. SUTTON.  [Pop. 2,370.

    The settling of Sutton was retarded by the Indian wars.

    It is a pleasant town, situated on the Blackstone and its branches.

    Sutton originally contained Millbury and part of Upton .and of Auburn.

    Its chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, and boots and shoes.

    Distance from Worcester, 10 miles ; from Boston, 44.

Inc. 1813.] 8. MILLBURY. [Pop. 2,171.

    Millbury was formerly a part of Sutton, and derived its name from its numerous mills, Bury and Borough and Burg meaning the same thing as Town or Ville.

    The soil is good, though hilly. The town is well watered by the Blackstone and a large pond which empties into it.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, muskets, scythes, boots, shoes and paper.

    Distance from Worcester, 6 miles; from Boston, 42.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                         161


Inc. 1754.]  9. CIIARLTON.  [Pop. 2,117.

    Charlton once included a part of Southbridge, and with it belonged to Oxford.

    This is an agricultural town, and well watered by several sources of Quinebaug river.

    Distance from Worcester, 14 miles; from Boston, 53.

Inc. 1740.] 10. LEOMINSTER. [Pop. 2,019.

    Leominster was once a part of Lancaster,

    The soil is good, and watered by a branch of the Nashua.

    The inhabitants are mostly farmers, but large quantities of paper and combs are manufactured here.

    Distance from Worcester, 7 miles; from Boston, 41 miles.

Inc. 1816.]  11. SOUTHBRIDGE. [Pop. 2,031.

    Southbridge was composed of portions of Sturbridge, Charlton, and Dudley.

    The Quinebaug passes across the township, and affords abundance of water-power.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen cloths, boots and shoes.

    Distance from Worcester, 20 miles ; from Boston, 60,

Inc. 1653.]  12. LANCASTER. [Pop. 2,019.

    Lancaster is the oldest town in the county, and was called Nasho-way by the Indians, who early invited white settlers from Watertown.

    During Philip's War, the town was reduced to ashes, and entirely deserted. The Indians were led on by Philip himself. A decided stand was made by the inhabitants, at the house of Mr. Rowlandson, 


162                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


their minister, who was in Boston; but the house was burned, and all the inmates killed or carried into captivity,

    A narrative of the numerous and painful removals of Mrs. Rowlandson from place to place, as her captors fled or advanced, was published; and when any family removes often, it is com-mon, even now, to say, 'They have as many removals as Mary Rowlandson.' She returned in a few months to her friends.

    Lancaster also suffered greatly in the French and Indian Wars that followed, and had no rest until 1710.

    The north and south branches of the Nashua meet in this town, and enrich the soil by annual inundations.

    The manufactures are numerous, and among them are cotton and woollen goods, combs, cabinet ware, &c.

    Distance from Worcester, 16 miles ; from Boston, 35.

Inc. 1738.] 13. STURBRIDGE. [Pop. 2,005.

    The first settlers of Sturbridge were chiefly from Medfield, in Norfolk county, and the settlement at first was called New Medfield.

    The Quinebaug has its sources in several ponds of this town, and furnishes good water-piivileges.

    The chief manufactures are cotton goods, boots, shoes and rifles.

    Distance from Worcester, 18 miles ; from Boston, 58.

Inc. 1727.] 14. UXBRIDGE. [Pop. 2,004.

    Uxbridge was the western part of Mendon, and included part of Northbridge.

    The Blackstone unites with two of its branches in this town, and they afford excellent water-power for factories of cotton and woollen goods.

    Distance from Worcester, 18 miles; from Boston, 38.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                           163


Inc. 1741.] 15. HOLDEN. [Pop. 1,874.

    Holden was separated from Worcester, and named in honor of an English gentleman, whose family were benefactors of Harvard College, and of the colony.

    Branches of the Nashua and Blackstone water the town.

    The manufactures consist nf cotton and woollen goods, boots and shoes.

    Distance from Worcester, 7 miles ; from Boston, 48.

Inc. 1739.] 16. HARDWICK. [Pop. 1,789.

    Hardwick was originally purchased of the Indians by Thomas Lamb and others, and called Lambstown till its incorporation.

    Ware River and one of its branches water the town.

The soil is good, though uneven. The inhabitants are mostly farmers, but they manufacture excellent paper, a few boots and shoes, and palm-leaf hats.

    Part of Dana and New Braintree were taken from Hardwick.

    Distance from Worcester, 24 miles; from Boston, 64.

Inc. 1767.] 17. HUBBARDSTON. [Pop. 1,784.

    This town, once a part of Rutland, was named after Thomas Hubbard, of Boston, a large proprietor of its lands.

    The situation of Hubbardston is quite elevated, and it furnishes several of the sources of Ware River.

    The inhabitants are chiefly concerned in agriculture, and the manufactures are not to any great amount.

    Distance from Worcester, 17 miles; from Boston, 53.


164                           ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1762.] 18. TEMPLETON. [Pop. 1,776.

    This town was granted to some of the heroes of Philip's War, in compensation for their services.

    It was probably named in honor of the Temple family, to which Gov. Winthrop was related, and it originally contained Phillipston, and part of Gardner.

    It is watered by sources of Miller's, Swift, and Ware rivers, on which are a factory and many saw-mills.

    Boots, shoes, cabinet ware, and palm-leaf hats are the chief articles manufactured.

    Distance from Worcester, 24 miles; from Boston, 58.

Inc. 1754.] 19. PETERSHAM. [Pop. 1,775.

    This town was granted to certain persons as a reward for services in the Indian wars, and it was called by its Indian name Nichewaug, till its incorporation.

    The land is elevated, and the inhabitants are principally farmers.

    Swift River waters the town, and. affords sites for factories of iron and woollen articles.

    Distance from Worcester, 29 miles ; from Boston, 62.

Inc. 1780.] 20. MILFORD.       [Pop. 1,773.

    This was once the northeasterly part of Mendon, and when so, was called Mill River.

    One source of the Charles, and one of Mill River, a branch of the Blackstone, run through the town.

    The inhabitants are chiefly farmers; but, besides a great amount of produce sent to market, they manufacture a very large number of boots and shoes.

    Distance from Worcester, 18 miles; from Boston, 28.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                         165


Inc. 1764.] 21. WINCHENDON. [Pop. 1,754.

    This town was granted to certain persons of Ipswich, in Essex county, for services in Canada, in 1690, and it was called Ipswich-Canada, until it was incorporated.

    Several important sources of Miller's River meet in Winchendon, and afford excellent mill-sites.

    The soil is excellent. The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods.

    Distance from Worcester, 33 miles; from Boston, 60.

Inc. 1713.] 22. OXFORD. [Pop. 1,742.

    Oxford was granted to Gov. Dudley, Lieut. Gov. Stoughton, and others, in 1682, and included the whole of Charlton, and a part of Auburn, Dudley, and Webster.

    The first settlers, in 1686, were about thirty families of French Protestants, called Huguenots, who were driven from France by religious persecution. They were so annoyed by the Indians, that, in the course of twenty years, they all removed, and most of them went to Boston, where others of their countrymen had founded a church.

    French River, one of the sources of the Thames, runs through Oxford, and owes its name to the above circumstance.

    Though possessed of a good soil, Oxford is distinguished for its manufactures, the principal of which are cotton and woollen goods, and boots and shoes.

    Distance from Worcester, 10 miles ; from Boston, 45.  

Inc. 1714.] 23. LEICESTER. [Pop. 1,707.

    Leicester originally included Spencer, and part of Auburn and Paxton.


166                                      ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    During the Revolution, a society of (about 70) Jews came hither from Newport, R. I., and erected the first, if not the only synagogue ever built in the State, but now not one of the society remains.

    Sources of the Blackstone, Chicopee and French River rise in Leicester.

    The main village is on a high hill, and Clappville, a manufacturing village, is about four miles from it.

    The chief manufactures are woollen goods, and machine and hand cards.

    Distance from Worcester, 6 miles; from Boston, 46.

Inc. 1765.] 24. ROYALSTON. [Pop. 1,667.

    Royalston was named after Col. Isaac Royal, one of those to whom the town was originally granted.

    Several streams unite in this town, forming Tully River, which falls into Miller's, in Athol.

    The soil is good, and well diversified for tillage and grazing.

    Here are several active saw-mills; and woollen goods, cabinet furniture, and palm-leaf hats are manufactured.

    Distance from Worcester, 34 miles; from Boston, 70.

Inc. 1717.] 25. WESTBOROUGH. [Pop. 1,658.

    Westborough was probably so named because, when taken from Marlborough, in Middlesex county, it formed the west part of that town. Northborough was taken from Westborough afterwards.

    The soil is good, and well watered by Sudbury and Concord rivers.

    The chief manufactures are boots and shoes.

    Eli Whitney, the inventer of the Cotton-Gin, a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton, by which one man can do the work of a thousand, was born here.

    Distance from Worcester, 12 miles ; from Boston, 32.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                              167


Inc. 1765.] 26. ASHBURNHAM. [Pop. 1,652.

    This town was grafted to certain inhabitants of Dorchester, for services in Canada, in 1690, and it was called Dorchester-Canada, till incorporated. Part of Gardner was taken from this town.

    Ashburnham being on the ridge between the Connecticut and the Merrimack, some of the sources of the former run west into Miller's River, and other streams run east into the Nashua. It has several large ponds.

    The chief manufactures are leather, cabinet furniture and palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Worcester, 30 miles ; from Boston, 50- .

Inc. 1781.]  27. STERLING. [Pop. 1,647.

    Sterling was once a part of Lancaster, and called Chockset. Its present name, though misspelled, was given in honor of Lord Stirling, a Major-General in the war of Independence.

    Still River, a gentle branch of the Nashua, runs through the town.

    The soil is good, and the inhabitants turn their attention to agriculture, though they manufacture a corsiderable amount of cabinet furniture and palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Worcester, 11 miles; from Boston, 40-

Inc. 1770.] 28. WESTMINSTER. [Pop. 1,645.

    This town was granted to the soldiers who had served in Philip's War. Long afterwards, it was greatly exposed to the Indians from Canada, who never failed to molest the English colonies, whenever there was a, war between France and England.

    Westminster is on the highlands between the Connecticut and the Merrimack. It once contained part of Gardner.


168                          ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Agriculture is the chief employment, but much cabinet furniture and many straw bonnets are manufactured.

    Distance from. Worcester, 26 miles; from Boston,. 50.

Inc. 1746] 29. DOUGLASS.  [Pop. 1,617.

    Douglass was settled by persons from Sherburne, in Middlesex county, and was called New Sherburne, until its incorporation, when it was named Douglass, in honor of William Douglass, an eccentric physician of Boston, who wrote a sort of history of the British colonies, and opposed inoculation for the small pox; but who was a benefactor to this town.

    Mumford River, a branch of the Blackstone, rises in Douglass.

    Cotton goods, axes and hatchets, are the chief manufactures.

    Distance from Worcester, 18 miles; from Boston, 47.

Inc. 1753.] 30. SPENCER. [Pop. l,604.

    Spencer was originally a part of Leicester.

    The town is on elevated ground,, but the soil is good, and watered by several small streams belonging chiefly to the Chicopee.

    The manufactures are boots and shoes, woollen goods, gunpowder, wire, and palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Worcester, 11 miles; from Boston, 51.

Inc. 1762] 31. ATHOL.  [Pop. 1,591.

    Poquoiag, the Indian name of this place, and of Miller's River, was retained until it was incorporated.

    Miller's River receives Tully's River, which is a branch of it, in this town, and both afford fine sites for factories.

    The chief manufactures are cotton goods and boots and shoes.

    Distance from Worcester, 32 miles; from Boston, 70.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                      169


Inc. 1732.] 32. HARVARD. [Pop. 1,571.

    This town was taken from Lancaster, Stow and Groton, and named in honor of Rev. John Harvard, the noble founder of Harvard College, who died in Charlestown.

    Harvard is hilly, but the soil is good, and watered by small streams that run into the Nashua. Agriculture is the chief employment.

    The Shakers have a thriving village in the northeast part of the town.

    Distance from Worcester, 22 miles; from Boston, 30.

Inc. 1812.] 33. NORTH BROOKFIELD. [Pop. 1,485.

    This was once the north part of Brookfield.

    Boots and shoes are manufactured here to a very great amount, and the agricultural products sent to market are very considerable. Distance from Worcester, 18 miles; from Boston, 58.

Inc. 1727.] 34. SHREWSBURY. [Pop. 1,481.

    This town was originally granted to some citizens of Marlborough, in Middlesex county, and included the whole town of Bolyston, and part of West Boylston, Sterling, Westborough, and Grafton.

    Long Pond, the principal feeder of the Blackstone Canal, lies between Shrewsbury and Worcester.

    General Artemas Ward, who commanded the whole American army before the appointment of Washington, was a native of Shrewsbury.

    In 1784, Levi Pease, a citizen of Shrewsbury, started the first line of mail-coaches between New York and Boston. The mail, or letter-bag, had been previously carried once a fortnight, on horseback,


170                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


in a pair of common saddle-bags. Now, it goes at least once a day, and often weighs several tons.

    The town depends mainly upon agriculture, but many shoes and much clothing are made here.

    Distance from Worcester, 6 miles; from Boston, 36.

Inc. 1735.]  35. UPTON. [Pop. 1,466.

    Upton was taken from Mendon, Sutton, Uxbridge and Hopkinton. West River, a small stream, runs through Upton, into the Blackstone.

    Woollens, boots, shoes and straw bonnets are the chief manufactures. Distance from Worcester, 14 miles; from Boston, 35.

Inc. 1772.] 36. NORTHBRIDGE. [Pop. 1,449.

    Northbridge was once the north part of Uxbridge.

    The Blackstone, Mumford's and West River fertilize the town and furnish abundant water-power.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, machinery, and boots and shoes.

     Distance from Worcester, 12 miles; from Boston, 35.

Inc. 1832.] 37. WEBSTER. [Pop. 1,403.

    This town was taken from Dudley and Oxford, and named in honor of Daniel Webster, the distinguished statesman of Massachusetts.

    Webster is a manufacturing town, its water-power being derived from the outlet of a large pond, which runs into French River.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods and thread.

    Distance from Worcester, 16 miles; from Boston, 50.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                      171


Inc. 1732.] 38. DUDLEY. [Pop. 1,352.

    This township was granted to Paul and William Dudley, of Roxbury, sons of Governor Dudley.

    Dudley once contained part of Southbridge and Webster.

    The land is fertile, and well watered by several ponds and by French and Quinebaug rivers.

    Woollen cloths and shoes are the principal articles manufactured.

    Distance from Worcester, 18 miles ; from Boston, 60.

Inc. 1771.] 39. PRINCETON. [Pop. 1,347.

    Princeton was made up of some land belonging to the State and of a portion of Rutland. It was named in honor of the Rev. Thomas Prince of Bolton, who left a valuable but unfinished Chronology of New England.

    This town is on the high lands that separate the waters of the Merrimack and the Connecticut, and it sends streams into both of them.

    Wachusett Mountain, the highest land in the county, is in Princeton, and the town itself was once called Wachusett.

    Agriculture is the main occupation, but large quantities of shoes and palm-leaf hats are made.

    Distance from Worcester, 15 miles ; from Boston, 45.

Inc. 1742.] 40. WARREN. [Pop. 1,290.

    This town was taken partly from Brookfield, and partly from Brim-field and Palmer, in Hampden county.


172                              ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    It was at first called Western, but, in 1834, its name was changed to Warren, in honor of Gen. Joseph Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill, in 1775.

    The river Chicopee runs through the town into Hampden County, affording good sites for factories.

    The land is productive, and there are some manufactures of cotton and woollen goods, and palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Worcester, 24 miles; from Boston, 64.

Inc. 1728.] 41. LUNENBURG. [Pop. 1,272.

    This town was named in compliment to King George the Second, who had been Duke of Luneburg, not Lunenburg.

    Lunenburg originally included Fitchburg, and with it was called Turkey Hill.

    The town is watered by two branches of the Nashua, its situation is elevated, its soil is good, and agriculture is the chief employment of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Worcester, 25 miles; from Boston, 40.

Inc. 1785.] 42. GARDNER. [Pop. 1,260.

    Gardner waa made up of four corners cut from the neighboring towns of Westminster, Templeton, Winchendon and Ashburnham.

    It was named in honor of Col. Thomas Gardner, who fell in the battle of Bunker Hill.

    The town is part of the high lands that separate the waters of the Connecticut from those of the Merrimack, and a source of Miller's River, called Otter River, issues from Gardner.

    The land is adapted to agriculture, and the only considerable manufactures are cabinet furniture and palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Worcester, 20 miles; from Boston, 54.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                 173


Inc. 1722.] 43. RUTLAND. [Pop. 1,260.

    Rutland, though a small town, has been the fruitful mother of many towns, for her bounds once included Barre, Hubbardston, Oakham, part of Princeton, and part of Paxton.

    Rutland was considerably annoyed by the French and Indians, about the time it was incorporated.

    The land is elevated, and its streams run both cast and west. Rutland is well adapted to grazing, and produces fine beef, butter, and cheese.

    The only manufactures are boots, shoes, and some woollen goods.

    Distance from Worcester, 12 miles; from Boston, 51.

Inc. 1766.] 44. NORTHBOROUGH.  [Pop. 1,248.

    Northborough was so calledbecause it was taken from the north part of Westborough, after Westborough was taken from Marlborough.

    This town was settled before any part of Westborough, and suffered some during the French wars, while a part of Marlborough.

    The Rev. Peter Whitney, of this town, wrote a valuable History of Worcester county.

    The chief manufactures are cotton goods, boots and shoes. Distance from Worcester, 10 miles ; from Boston, 32.

Inc. 1808.  45. WEST BOYLSTON. [Pop. 1,187.

     West Boylston, once a part of Boylston, Holden, and Sterling-, was named in honor of the family of Boylston.

    The soil is excellent, and the town agricultural.

    Two sources of the southern branch of the Nashua meet in West Boylston, fertilize the soil, and afford sites for several cotton-mills.

    Distance from Worcester, 7 miles; from Boston, 42.


174                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1738.] 46. BOLTON. [Pop. 1,186.

    Bolton once included the greater part of Berlin, and with. Berlin once belonged to Lancaster.

    The land is elevated, and its hills separate the streams of the Nashua and the Concord. The soil is productive.

    Combs, boots and shoes, are the principal manufactures.

    Distance from Worcester, 16 miles ; from Boston, 31.

Inc. 1778.] 47. AUBURN. [Pop. 1,183.

    This small town was a part of Worcester, Sutton, Leicester, and Oxford.  Until 1837, it was named Ward, in honor of Artemas Ward, who was Commander-in-Chief of the American army around Boston, when the battle of Bunker Hill was fought, before Washington arrived; and who, after the war, was distinguished for his uprightness and firmness as a judge, particularly during the Shays' rebellion.

    The town is well watered by several sources of Blackstone River, which furnish a few mill-sites; agriculture, however, is the chief employment of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Worcester 5 miles ; from Boston, 45.

Inc. 1727.] 48. SOUTHBOROUGH. [Pop. 1,145.

    This town was called Southborough because, before it was incorporated, it was the south part of Marlborough.

    Several little streams run into Sudbury river; and the soil repays the cultivator.

    Some shoes and straw bonnets are the chief manufactures.

    Distance from Worcester, 15 miles; from Boston, 30.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.               175


Inc. 1762.]  49. OAKHAM. [Pop. 1,038.

    Oakham was once a part of Rutland.

    Ware River and the Quaboag have sources in this town.

    The soil is adapted to grazing rather than tillage.

    Some palm-leaf hats and straw bonnets are manufactured.

    Distance from Worcester, 16 miles; from .Boston, 56.

Inc. 1667.] 50 MENDON. [Pop. in 1840, 1,007.

    Mendon was first attached to Middlesex county, and was settled by emigrants from Braintree and Weymouth, in Norfolk county.

    This town was once eight miles square, but its territory has been greatly diminished to form the towns of Milford, Uxbridge, North-bridge, Bellingham, part of Upton, and, last of all, Blackstone.

    After Lancaster, Mendon is the oldest town in the county. In 1675, it was destroyed by the Indians, but the inhabitants returned in 1680.

    What remains of Mendon is essentially agricultural.

    Distance from Worcester, 18 miles ; from Boston, 34.

Inc. 1786.] 51. PHILLIPSTON. [Pop. 919.

    Phillip ston was chiefly taken from Templeton.

    It was first named Gerry, in honor of Elbridge Gerry, a Signer of the Declaration of Independence ; but his measures, when Governor of the State, displeasing the inhabitants, they changed the name to Phillipston, in honor of a family long distinguished for its wealth and its munificence.

    The soil is good, but uneven. Small branches of Swift, Ware, and Miller's River water the town, and afford a few good mill-sites.


176                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Some cotton and woollen goods, and palm-leaf hats, are manufactured.

    Distance from Worcester, 30 miles; from Boston, 58.

Inc. 1786.] 52. BOYLSTON. [Pop. 797.

    Boylston was once a part of Shrewsbury, and was named after Zabdiel, Nicholas, and Ward Nicholas Boylston, three citizens of Brookline, distinguished for learning or for the liberal encouragement of it.

    The south branch of the Nashua runs through Boylston, and receives several small streams.

    The land is hilly but fertile, and agriculture is the chief employment of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Worcester, 8 miles; from Boston, 45.

Inc. 1812.] 53. BERLIN. [Pop. 763.

    Berlin was taken in part from Marlborough, but chiefly from Bolton.

    Berlin is entirely agricultural, and one of its chief products is Hops. Distance from Worcester, 14 miles; from Boston, 30.

Inc. 1751.] 54. NEW BRAINTREE. [Pop. 752.

    Part of New Braintree was granted to the inhabitants of old Braintree, in Norfolk county, for public services, and this tract, with a portion of Hardwick and Brookfield, made the new town.

    This town was a rendezvous of the Indians in Philip's War, when they burned Brookfield and Lancaster.

    It is well watered by Ware River, and its sources, and agriculture is the chief business of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Worcester, 18 miles; from Boston, 58.

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Inc. 1801.]  55. DANA.  [Pop. 691.

    Dana was composed, of portions of Greenwich, Hardwick, and Petersham, and was named after the Chief-Justice of the State when the town was incorporated.

    This small town lies upon two branches of Swift River, and the inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agriculture.

    Distance from Worcester, 27 miles; from Boston, 67.

Inc. 1765.] 56. PAXTON. [Pop. 670.

    This little town was taken from parts of Rutland and Leicester, and assumed the rank of a town without any act of the legislature.

    The inhabitants chiefly subsist by agriculture, but they also manufacture a large number of boots.

    Distance from Worcester, 7 miles ; from Boston, 47.

__________

HAMPSHIRE COUNTY.

Hampshire County was incorporated in 1662, and then included only three towns, Northampton, Springfield, and Hadley.

Franklin and Hampden counties were part of Hampshire until 1811-12, when old Hampshire, the largest county in the State, was divided into three.

The surface is hilly, the Green Mountain, or Hoosack range, bordering the county on the west, while the range of Mount Tom, in the central part, runs south into Connecticut.

The best lands are on the banks of the Connecticut (A), which separates the county nearly in the middle.


178                            ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Hampshire

    Ware River (B) waters the eastern part of the county, and Westfield River (C) waters the western towns, and both run through Hampden county into the Connecticut.

    Mount Tom (D) and Mount Holyoke (E) stand like two giants on opposite sides of the Connecticut, which seems to have forced a passage between them.

Inc. 1654.] 1. NORTHAMPTON. [Pop. 3,750.

    Northampton, whose Indian name was Nonotuck, formerly included East, West, and Southampton, and is the county town as well as the largest in the county.

    The chief village is about a mile from Connecticut River, on the banks of which are some of the richest meadows in New England.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                     179


    The foot-prints of immense birds in the rocks of this town and the towns south of it are exceedingly curious, as no such birds are now known to exist.

    The scenery is beautiful, and the public and private buildings ornamental.

    The Farmington Canal connects New Haven, on Long Island Sound, with Northampton, on the Connecticut.

    Mill River, which runs through the town, affords excellent sites for factories of woollen cloth, silk, paper, &c, before it joins the Connecticut-Northampton, though long in the wilderness, was not disturbed by the Indians until Philip's War, when a few houses were burned. In the subsequent French and Indian wars, the whole town was fortified with a trench and palisades.

    During the Shays' Rebellion, the holding of courts of law in this town was entirely prevented by the rebels.

    Northampton was the birth-place of Caleb Strong, one of the most popular governors of the State; and among its ministers, besides other distinguished men, was Jonathan Edwards, much celebrated for his theological and metaphysical writings.

    Distance from Boston, 92 miles.

Inc. 1761.]  2. BELCHERTOWN. [Pop. 2,554.

    Belchertown, with Ware and Pelham, were once granted to Connecticut as an equivalent for four towns in Connecticut, that were claimed by Massachusetts.

    Connecticut sold the greater part of this town to Jonathan Belcher (a native of Cambridge, and afterwards governor) and five associates, who gave the tract the name of Belchertown, it having previously been called Cold Spring.

    Swift River separates Belchertown from Ware, and a small branch of Ware river runs through the whole township,


180                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The soil is good, and agriculture and the raising of sheep are the chief employment of the inhabitants, the only considerable article of manufacture being that of pleasure-wagons.

    Distance from Northampton, 15 miles; from Boston, 77.

Inc. 1759.]  3. AMHERST. [Pop. 2,550.

    Amherst was once the eastern part of Hadley,

    A flourishing college was established here in 1821.

    Two small streams that fall into the Connecticut afford excellent mill-sites, and the manufactures are valuable and numerous.

    The town was probably named in honor of the celebrated British General Amherst, who was Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in America, and who conquered Canada from the French in 1760.

    Distance from Northampton, 7 miles; from Boston, 82.

Inc. 1761.] 4. WARE. [Pop. 1,890.

    This township was originally granted to a military company, for services in the Indian wars.

    It is situated on Ware River, a powerful branch of the Chickopee.

    The establishment of factories at what is called Ware village, has greatly increased the growth and activity of the town.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, boots and shoes, straw bonnets and palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Northampton, 25 miles ; from Boston, 67.

Inc. 1661.]  5. HADLEY. [Pop. 1,874.

    Hadley was founded by emigrants of great respectability from Connecticut, and originally included Amherst, South Hadley, Granby, Hatfield, and Sunderland and Whately, two towns now in Franklin county.

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    This is an agricultural town, and its meadows, on the banks of the Connecticut, are extremely fertile.

    Brooms and palm-leaf hats are the chief manufactures.

    The most interesting event in the history of Hadley is the concealment in the minister's house of two or three of the judges who signed the death-warrant of king Charles the First, and fled to New England when Charles the Second came to the throne.

    When the town was sorely beset by the Indians, in Philip's War, one of these concealed judges suddenly appeared, animated the people, fought \aliantly, drove off the Indians, and so suddenly disappeared again, that an angel was said to have saved the village.

    Distance from Northampton, 3 miles; from Boston, 88.

Inc. 1783.] 6. MIDDLEFIELD. [Pop. 1,717.

    Middlefield was composed of portions of the five towns that surround it, viz., Chester, Becket, Washington, Peru and Worthington.

    Middlefield is situated on the declivity of the Hoosaek or Green Mountain range, and lies between two branches of Westfield river.

    The town has a fine breed of sheep, and manufactures woollen cloth to a considerable amount.

    Distance from Northampton, 24 miles; from Boston, 110.

Inc. 1753.] 7. SOUTH HADLEY. [Pop. 1,458.

    This town was originally the south part of Hadley.

    The original church, which contained but nine pews, is now a dwelling-house.

    Opposite South Hadley the Connecticut has a fall of fifty feet, around which a canal is constructed.

    Mount Holyoke, probably named in honor of one of the early presidents of Harvard College, is in this town, and from its summit affords one of the most delightful views in the world.


182                       ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Mount Holyoke Seminary for the education of female teachers is pleasantly situated, and has a high reputation.

    The chief manufactures are woollens, paper, pearl buttons and leather.

    Distance from Northampton, 5 miles; from Boston, 90.

Inc. 1771.] 8. WILLIAMSBURG. [Pop. 1,309.

    This town was once the west part of Hatfield, and was granted to heirs of volunteers against those Indians who destroyed Deerfield in 1704.

    Williamsburg is watered by the same stream that runs through Northampton into the Connecticut, affording fine sites for factories.

    The chief manufactures are woollen goods, buttons, axes and other tools.

    Distance from Northampton, 8 miles; from Boston, 103.

Inc. 1779.] 9. CUMMINGTON. [Pop. 1,237.

    This town was named after Col. John Cummings, of Concord, who bought it of the General Court in 1762. It originally included Plainfield.

    A branch of Westfield river passes through the town, affording excellent water-power for mills and factories.

    The chief manufactures are woollen and cotton goods, and leather. Some attention is paid to the rearing of a fine quality of sheep, the land being elevated, and excellent for grazing.

    Distance from Northampton, 20 miles; from Boston, 110.

Inc. 1768.] 10. WORTHINGTON. [Pop. 1,197.

This township is mountainous, the soil excellent, and fitted for grazing. It is well watered by the sources of Westfield river.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                           183


    Agriculture, merino sheep, and leather, occupy the attention of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Northampton, 17 miles; from Boston, 110

Inc. 1753.]  11. SOUTHAMPTON. [Pop. 1,157.

    Southampton was originally a part of Northampton.

    It is watered by the Manhan, a branch of the Connecticut, that curves through the town.

    The chief curiosity is a tunnel under a hill, excavated by miners in search of lead. The search did not repay the labor; but many curious persons pass under the hill in a boat, which gives no faint idea of the fabled passage-boat of Charon to the under world.

    Distance from Northampton, 8 miles; from Boston, 97.

Inc. 1762.] 12. CHESTERFIELD. [Pop. 1,132.

    This town was chiefly granted to soldiers in the Narraganset and Canada wars.

    Chesterfield is a mountainous district, and is watered by the north branch of Westfield river.

    Its soil is well adapted for grazing, and its hills are covered with valuable sheep.

    Beryls, emeralds, and other valuable minerals, are found in this town.

    Distance from Northampton, 12 miles; from Boston, 105.

Inc. 1816.]  13. ENFIELD. [Pop. 976.

    Enfield was taken from Greenwich and Belchertown. It is watered by Ware River and one of its branches. Its chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, wool-cards, boots and shoes, and palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Northampton, 15 miles; from Boston, 75.


184                                 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1768.] 14. GRANBY. [Pop. 971.

    Granby, named in honor of the Marquis of Granby, an English statesman, was once the second parish of South Hadley, and, of course, was once a part of Hadley, also.

    A small stream, that crosses the town, and runs into the Connecticut, affords some water-power for factories.

    Some attention is paid to the raising of sheep, but agriculture is the main dependence of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Northampton, 9 miles; from Boston, 90.

Inc. 1743.] 15. PELHAM. [Pop. 956.

    Pelham, when a part of the Equivalent Lands granted to Connecticut, was sold by that State to Col. Stoddard, of Northampton, and called after him, Stoddard's Town.

    Part of Prescott was taken from this town in 1822,

    The soil is good, but elevated and uneven.

    A branch of Swift River waters the eastern part of Pelham, but palm-leaf hats are the only considerable article of manufacture.

    Distance from Northampton, 13 miles; from Boston, 80.

Inc. 1670.] 16. HATFIELD. [Pop. 933.

    Hatfield, though west of the Connecticut, was originally a part of Hadley, and one of the oldest settlements in the county.

    This town suffered considerably from the Indians, especially in Philip's War.

    A convention of discontented persons met here, and passed several seditious resolutions, which led to what was called the Shays' rebellion, in 1786,

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                      185


Hatfield is distinguished for its fine cattle, and for the manufacture of brooms.

Distance from Northampton, 5 miles; from Boston, 95.

Inc. 1807.]  17. PLAINFIELD. [Pop. 910.

    Plainfield was originally the north part of Cummington.

    The land is elevated, but the soil is good, especially for grass.

    Several small streams and some beautiful ponds water the town.

    The chief manufactures are woollen goods and palm-leaf hats.

    The hills feed numerous flocks of valuable sheep.

    Distance from Northampton, 20 miles; from Boston, 110.

Inc. 1754.] 18. GREENWICH. [Pop. 824

    Greenwich is situated on the east and west sources of Swift river, and originally included a part of Plainfield.

    Some woollen cloth, scythes, and palm-leaf hats are manufactured here.

    Distance from Northampton, 17 miles; from Boston, 75.

Inc. 1822.]  19. PRESCOTT. [Pop. 780.

    Prescott was taken from Pelham and New Salem. It was named in honor of Col. Prescott, of Peperell, who was the actual commander at the battle of Bunker Hill.

    Its soil is rough and hilly, but well watered by two sources of Swift river.

    A large number of palm-leaf hats are made here, but the inhabitants are generally farmers.

    Distance from Northampton, 16 miles; from Boston, 76.


186                    ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1778.]  20. WESTHAMPTON. [Pop. 759.

    Westhampton was taken from Northampton. It is an agricultural town, and some attention is paid to sheep. Manhan river, a small branch of the Connecticut, rises in this town. Distance from Northampton, 8 miles ; from Boston, 100.

Inc. 1773.]  21. NORWICH. [Pop. 750.

    Norwich was originally a part of what is now Chester.

    This town is crossed from north to south by a north branch of Westfield River.

    The township is hilly, and the inhabitants farmers.

    Distance from Northampton, 12 miles; from Boston, 108.

Inc. 1809.]  22. EASTHAMPTON. [Pop. 717.

    Easthampton was taken from Northampton and Southampton.

    Manhan River enters the Connecticut in this town.

    Mount Tom, the head and highest peak of a range of mountains running south into Connecticut, is in this town.

    The village was broken up by the Indians in 1704.

    The chief manufactures are buttons and woollen cloths.

    Distance from Northampton, 5 miles ; from Boston, 90.

Inc. 1781.]  23. GOSHEN. [Pop. 556.

    Goshen was chiefly taken from the north part of Chesterfield.

    This small town is somewhat mountainous, and some attention is paid to sheep.

    Its manufactures are unimportant.

    Distance from Northampton, 12 miles ; from Boston, 105.

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Hampden

    This county wag separated from Hampshire, and incorporated in 1812.

    It was named in honor of John Hampden, an able advocate for liberty, in the time of Charles the First.

    The Connecticut (A) crosses Hampden County, from north to south, nearly in the middle; the Chickopee (B) and its branches water the eastern part, and run west into the Connecticut; Westfield River (C) and its branches water the western part, and run east into the Connecticut.


188                             ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The soil is good, and, until lately, agriculture was the main business of the inhabitants.

    The streams, especially the Chickopee, have given rise to very important manufacturing establishments.

    The New Haven and Northampton Canal crosses the western half of the county, but the Western Railroad has diminished its usefulness.

    A range of the Green or Hoosack Mountains runs along the western border of the county, separating it from Berkshire.

Inc. 1636.] 1. SPRINGFIELD. [Pop. 10,985.

    Springfield was called Agawam by the Indians.

    The township was originally very extensive, including Longmeadow, Wilbraham, and Ludlow, on the eastern side of Connecticut River; West Springfield, Westfield, and Southwick, on the western side; with Suflield, Enfield, and Somers, which fell into the State of Connecticut, when the new boundary line was run.

    Besides the old village, Chickopee and Cabotville are large manufacturing settlements.

    William Pynchon, who came over with Gov. Winthrop, was the principal founder of the town, and the few who first accompanied him came from Roxbury, in Norfolk county.

    The greater part of what is now Springfield, was burnt in Philip's War.

    The United States have had an arsenal and manufactory of firearms in Springfield ever since the Revolution.

    The chief stand made by the insurgents in Shays' Rebellion, in 1787, was made at Springfield, where they stopped the Courts, and provoked the government troops to fire upon them. The first shot killed three and scattered the rest. The main army, under

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                           189


    General Lincoln, arrived the next day, and put an end to the insurrection.

    Springfield and Northampton were half shire towns till 1793, when the Courts and records were all transferred to Northampton. When Hampshire was divided, Springfield became the county town of Hampden county.

    The manufactures are very numerous and extensive. Fire-arms, cotton goods, paper, and iron utensils, are the most valuable.

    The water-power is furnished by Chicopee River, which divides the town as it enters the Connecticut, and by Mill Eiver, a small stream south of the Chicopee.

    Distance from Boston, 87 miles.

Inc. 1774.]  2. WEST SPRINGFIELD. [Pop. 3,626.

    West Springfield was originally a part of Springfield.

    It is divided by Westfield River, and lies on the w est bank of the Connecticut, occupying the whole width of the county.

    Some woollen and cotton goods are manufactured here, but the town is essentially agricultural, and the soil is generally good.

    Distance from Springfield, 6 miles; from Boston, 87.

Inc. 1669.] 3. WESTFIELD [Pop. 3,526.

    This town was called Warronoco by the Indians, and Westfield by the English, because it was the most westerly settlement of the colony. It once included Southwick and Russell, and was united to Springfield.

    Little River, a branch of Westfield River, unites with it near the main village.

    The settlers were few in number at the time of Philip's War, but they suffered considerably.


190                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The soil is good, though various. The only manufactures of note are whips and gunpowder. A State Normal School is here. Distance from Springfield, 10 miles; from Boston, 97.

Inc. 1760.] 4. MONSON. [Pop. 2,151.

    Monson was once a part of Brimfield.

    The Chicopee bounds the town on the north, and a small branch of it affords excellent water-power.

    The chief manufactures are cotton and woollen goods. Distance from Springfield, 13 miles; from Boston, 74.

Inc. 1752.] 5. PALMER. [Pop. 2,139.

    Palmer was originally settled by Protestant emigrants from the north of Ireland.

    Swift, Ware, and Chicopee rivers unite in this town, and fernifch abundant water privileges.

    The chief manufactures at present are woollen and cotton goods.

    Distance from Springfield, 16 miles ; from Boston, 71.

Inc. 1763.] 6. WILBRAHAM. [Pop. 1,864

    Wilbraham was once a part of Springfield, and was called Springfield Mountains till its incorporation.

    This town is hounded on the north by the Chicopee, and is watered by several small streams.

    It is chiefly an agricultural town.

    Distance from Springfield, 10 miles; from Boston, 83.

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Inc. 1765.] 7. CHESTER. [Pop. 1,632.

    A factory village is at the southeastern corner of the township, but the rest of the town is agricultural.

    Westfield River runs through Chester, and affords good water-power. The chief manufactures are cotton cloth, leather, and window-blinds. Distance from Springfield, 21 miles; from Boston, 118.

Inc. 1741.] 8. BLANDFORD. [Pop. 1,427.

    This town was first settled by Protestant emigrants from the north of Ireland.

    The town lies on the eastern declivity of the Green Mountains, and is watered by small branches of Westfield River.

    Some woollen cloth and paper are manufactured, but the dairy occupies the chief attention of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Springfield, 15 miles; from Boston, 114.

Inc. 1731.]  9. BRIMFIELD.  [Pop. 1,419.

    Brimfield was originally granted to certain inhabitants of Springfield, and then included Monson, Wales, and Holland.

    Branches of the Chicopee and Quinebaug water the town. The chief manufactures are boots, shoes and cotton cloth. Distance from Springfield, 19 miles; from Boston, 70.

Inc. 1754.]  10. GRANVILLE. [Pop. 1,414.

    Granville once included a part of the town of Tolland.

    The surface is mountainous, and is watered by a branch of Little


192                         ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


River, which runs into the Westfield, and one of Farmington River, which runs into the Connecticut.

    The inhabitants depend upon agriculture.

    Distance from Springfield, 13 miles ; from Boston, 110.

Inc. 1783.] 11. LONGMEADOW. [Pop. 1,270.

    Longmeadow was originally a part of Springfield. It lies on the eastern bank of the Connecticut, and is a very pleasant agricultural town.

    Distance from Springfield, 4 miles; from Boston, 97.

Inc. 1774.] 12. LUDLOW. [Pop. 1,268.

    Ludlow was once a part of Springfield, and was probably named after one of Oliver Cromwell's generals, who publibhed valuable memoirs of his life and times.

    There is a factory village on the Chicopee, but the town is essentially agricultural.

    Distance from Springfield, 10 miles; from Boston, 84.

Inc. 1779.] 13. SOUTHWICK. [Pop. 1,214.

    Southwick was once a part of Westfield.

    A portion of this town, about two miles square, projects into Connecticut, and breaks the regular course of the boundary line. The whole line once was supposed to be as far south as this projection extends; but when the true line was drawn, the inhabitants on this tract would not submit, as the rest did, to the government of Con-

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                         193


necticut, and that State finally left it to Massachusetts in the year 1800.

    Southwick is watered by a small branch of Westfield River, and by some fine p«?.nds, which feed the Farmington Canal as it passes through the town.

    Most of the people are farmers, but some gunpowder, cigars and whips are manufactured here.

    Distance from Springfield, 11 miles ; from Boston, 103.

Inc. 1792.] 14. RUSSELL. [Pop. 955.

    Russell was once a part of Westfield and Montgomery.

    This town is watered by Westfield and Little River, and it manufactures some cotton and other articles; but the inhabitants rely chiefly upon their farms.

    Distance from Springfield, 14 miles; from Boston, 100.

Inc. 1780.] 15. MONTGOMERY. [Pop. 740.

    Montgomery was once a part of Westfield and Southampton.

    This town was named after General Montgomery, who was slain in an unsuccessful attack upon Quebec, at the commencement of the Revolutionary War.

    It is a small agricultural town among the mountains, and its chief produce is wool and beef-cattle.

    Distance from Springfield, 12 miles ; from Boston, 100.

Inc. 1762.] 16. WALES. [Pop. 686.

    This town, formerly the south part of Brimfield, was named after one of its principal citizens, and not after the Principality.


194                                ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    One of the sources of the Quinebaug issues from a pond in this town.

    Some woollen cloth, boots and shoes, are manufactured here. Distance from Springfield, 20 miles; from Boston, 67.

Inc. 1810.} 17. TOLLAND. [Pop. 627.

    This town was taken from Granville, and from Sandisfield, which is now in Berkshire county.

    Tolland is watered by the sources of Farmington River.

    The land is elevated, and adapted to grazing. Butter and cheese are the chief products, and some agricultural implements are the only manufactures of importance.

    Distance from Springfield, 20 miles; from Boston, 110.

Inc. 1796.] 18. HOLLAND. [Pop. 423.

    Holland was once a part of Brimfield.

    This little town is watered by a source of the Quinebaug, and it manufactures some cotton cloth.

    Distance from Springfield, 20 miles; from Boston, 70.

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Franklin

    Franklin, until 1811, was the northern part of Hampshire County.

    Connecticut River (A) divides the county from north to south; Miller's River (B) divides the eastern half, and Deerfield River (C) divides the western.

    The hills are verdant, and well adapted to grazing, the plains are fertile, the valleys rich.

    The manufactures are increasing, but the agricultural interest still predominates.

    This county, being on the frontier, suffered severely during the war with King Philip, and in the subsequent wars with the French and Indians.


196                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1761.] 1. COLERAINE. [Pop. 1,971.

    Coleraine, the most populous town, was probably named from a town in the north of Ireland, some of its early settlers being Protestants from that vicinity. Before its incorporation it was called Boston Plantation, No. 2.

    Coleraine was not settled in Philip's War, but it was often attacked by the French and Indians in what were called the French wars; for, whenever England and France were at war, their colonies were always involved; and the French, of Canada, always contrived to keep the Indians on their side, as the British have done since they conquered Canada and lost the United States.

    Green River separates this town from Leyden, on the east, and North River, a branch of the Deerfield, supplies water-power for the factories.

    A considerable quantity of wool is produced here, and the manufacture of cotton goods and that of iron are important,

    Distance from Greenfield, 9 miles; from Boston, 100.

Inc. 1682.] 2. DEERFIELD. [Pop. 1,912.

    Deerfield was called Pocumtuck by the Indians, and was granted by the General Court to certain inhabitants of Dedham.

    It is the oldest town in the county, and once included Greenfield, Shelburne, Conway and Gill.

    The town is beautifully situated on Connecticut and Deerfield River. Green River also unites with the Deerfield in this town.

    Deerfield Mountain rises about seven hundred feet above the river, and Sugar-Loaf Mountain, so called from its conical shape, is almost as lofty.

    During Philip's War it was burned, and a fine body of about one hundred men, under Captain Lothrop, who went thither from Hadley

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                          197


to recover some grain that had escaped the fire, were surprised, and nearly all slain, at a place called Bloody Brook, in this town, where a monument is erected to their memory.

    Deerfield was again surprised in 1704 by the French and Indians, who killed many, made prisoners of one hundred and twelve, and burned every house but one, which is still standing.

    The minister, Rev. John Williams, was afterwards ransomed, and published an account of his captivity and that of his companions.

    Deerfield is an agricultural town, but its manufactures of cutlery, palm-leaf hats, corn-brooms and pocket-books are quite extensive.

    Distance from Greenfield, 3 miles ; from Boston 95.

Inc. 1753]
3. GREENFIELD. [Pop. 1,756.

    Greenfield was once a part of Deerfield, and is now the county town.

    It is situated on the western bank of the Connecticut, and is divided by Green River, a branch of the Deerfield.

    In 1676, Captain Turner, with about one hundred and sixty mounted men, returning from a successful slaughter of the Indians, at the Falls between Gill and Montague, was killed here with many of his men. The remnant, under Captain Holyoke, escaped to Hatfield, through Deerfield, which had been burned the year before.

    The chief part of Greenfield is built on an elevated plain. The soil is generally good, some sheep are raised, and the chief article manufactured is satinet.

    Distance from Boston 88 miles.

Inc. 1714.] 4. NORTHFIELD. [Pop. 1,673.

    Northfield was called Squakheag by the Indians, and originally extended some miles into what is now New Hampshire and Vermont.


198                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Northfield is the only town of Massachusetts that is situated on both sides of Connecticut River.

    During Philip's War the town was burnt, and the settlement broken up. After the inhabitants returned, it was again burnt by the French and Indians, and continued deserted until 1713.

    The soil is good, and the village handsome and well situated.

    Distance from Greenfield, 12 miles; from Boston, 83.

Inc. 1765.]  5. ASHFIELD.  [Pop. 1,610.

    Ashfield was granted to Captain Ephraim Hunt, of Weymouth, for military services in the expedition against Canada, in 1690, and it was called Huntstown before its incorporation.

    The surface is hilly, and the inhabitants are chiefly farmers.

    Distance from Greenfield, 18 miles; from Boston, 105.

Inc. 1783.] 6. ORANGE. [Pop. 1,501.

    Orange was originally taken from Warwick, from a tract called Ervingshire, and from Athol and Royalston, in Worcester county. The surface of the town is uneven, and fitted for grazing.

    The north part of New Salem has lately been added to Orange, so that Miller's River, that used to bound the town at the south, now runs nearly through its centre, aflording good water privileges.

    The manufactures are various, but not to a great amount; agriculture is the chief business of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Greenfield, 20 miles ; from Boston, 75.

Inc. 1767.] 7. CONWAY. [Pop. 1,409.

    Conway is nearly divided by South River, a branch of Deerfield River, and it is chiefly situated in a valley between two hills. It was once a part of Deerfield.

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    Some cotton and woollen cloth is manufactured, and the wool produced is considerable.

    Distance from Greenfield, 7 miles; from Boston, 100.

Inc. 1753.] 8. NEW SALEM. [Pop. 1,305.

    This town was named by the first settlers, because some of them came from Danvers, which was then a part of Salem.

    Some palm-leaf hats are manufactured, but the chief business is agriculture.

    Distance from Greenfield, 19 miles; from Boston, 73.

Inc. 1753.] 9. MONTAGUE. [Pop. 1,255.

    Before it was incorporated, the northern part of Montague belonged to the State, and the southern part to Sunderland.

    Saw-mill River, a small branch of the Connecticut, ivaters the south part of the town. In the northwest is a canal, three miles long, by which lumber and goods pass round Turner's Falls, which obstruct the Connecticut

    Lumber and building-stone abound, but the manufactures are not extensive.

    Distance from Greenfield, 7 miles; from Boston, 80.

Inc. 1765.] 10. CHARLEMONT. [Pop. 1,127.

    Charlemont once contained a part of Buckland and Heath, and was composed of Boston Plantation, No. 1, and the largest part of a tract called Zoar.

    Deerfield River, flows through this mountainous town, presenting much beautiful scenery.


200                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    Mount Peak, the highest hill, is above one thousand feet high.

     The town being on the frontiers, was considerably annoyed by the Indians, in the French wars.

     Agriculture and the raising of sheep are the chief employment of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Greenfield, 17 miles; from Boston, 104.

Inc. 1779.] 11. BUCKLAND. [Pop. 1,084.

    A part of Buckland was taken from Charlemont. Clesson's River, a small stream, runs into the Deerfield, which forms the northern boundary of the town.

    Agriculture is the principal business. The surface is hilly. Distance from Greenfield, 12 miles ; from Boston, 105.

Inc. 1771.] 12. WHATELY. [Pop. 1,072.

    Whately was taken from Hatfield, in Hampshire county, and with that town was originally a part of Hadley.

    The chief settlement lies about two miles from Connecticut River, Whately Swamp being between them. The western part of the township is hilly.

    Mill River crosses the town, affording good water-power for factories.

    The chief manufactures are woollen cloth, gimlets and pocket-books.

    Distance from Greenfield, 11 miles; from Boston, 92.

Inc. 1763.] 13. WARWICK. [Pop. 1,071.

    Warwick was at first called Roxbury Canada, because granted to the heirs of Roxbury troops who perished in the Canada expedition of 1690.

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    Mount Grace is quite an elevated hill, but there is no stream of any magnitude.

    Many palm-leaf hats are made here, but agriculture is the chief resource of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Greenfield, 14 miles; from Boston, 78.

Inc. 1768.] 14. SHELBURNE. [Pop. 1,022.

    Shelburne was originally a part of Deerfield, and was named after Lord Shelburne, a British statesman.

    This town is pleasantly situated on Deerfield River, the falls of which afford abundance of water-power.

    Woollen cloth and scythes are the chief manufactures.

    Distance from Greenfield, 9 miles: from Boston, 100.

Inc. 1762.] 15. BERNARDSTON. [Pop. 992.

    This town, with Leyden, was originally granted by the State to the officers and soldiers who were in the battle at Turner's Falls, in the town of Gill.

    It was named Bernardston, in honor of Francis Bernard, who was Governor of the State from 1760 to 1769, and, by his attachment to the crown, unintentionally hastened the Resolution.

     Fall River, a small stream, runs through the town, and falls into the Connecticut at Turner's Falls, between Gill and Greenfield.

    The inhabitants are generally farmers.

    Distance from Greenfield, 7 miles; from Boston, 96.

Inc. 1761.] 16. SHUTESBURY. [Pop. 987.

    This town was named after Samuel Shute, who was a worthy Governor of the State from 1716 to 1723.


202                              ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    It was at first settled by persons from Sudbury, one of whom lived to the great age of one hundred and sixteen years.

    On a branch of Swift River are some small manufactories. The land is elevated, and the inhabitants mostly farmers. Distance from Greenfield, 16 miles; from Boston, 78.

Inc. 1792.] 17. HAWLEY. [Pop. 977.

    This town is situated on the Green Mountain range, and is watered by several small branches of Deerfield River.

    Some sheep are raised, and some leather manufactured, but agriculture is the main concern.

    Distance from Greenfield, 20 miles; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1785.] 18. HEATH. [Pop. 895.

    The southern part of Heath was taken from Charlemont.

    This town was named in honor of William Heath, a Major-General in the Revolutionary army, who belonged to Roxbury, and wrote memoirs of himself.

    This is an agricultural town, the only manufacture of any importance being palm-leaf hats.

    Distance from Greenfield, 13 miles; from Boston, 125.

Inc. 1774.] 19. LEVERETT. [Pop. 875.

    Leverett was once the eastern part of Sunderland.

    This town was named in honor of John Leverett, a popular Governor of the State from 1673 to 1678 ; and of his grandson, an excellent Presidcnt of Harvard College from 1707 to 1724.

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    A few scythes and palm-leaf hats are manufactured, but the chief business is agriculture.

    Distance from Greenfield, 10 miles; from Boston, 85.

Inc. 1781.]  20. WENDELL. [Pop. 875.

    This town was named in honor of the Hon. Oliver Wendell, and was once a part of Shutesbury and of a tract called Ervingshire.

    It is well watered by Miller's River and its branches.

    The inhabitants are mostly farmers, and are not collected into any considerable village.

     Some palm-leaf hats, boots and shoes, are made here.

     Distance from Greenfield, 14 miles; from Boston, 80.

Inc. 1793.] 21. GILL.  [Pop. 798.

    This town, originally a part of Deerfield, was named in honor of Moses Gill, Lieut. Governor of the State at the time the town was incorporated.

     Gill is situated on the point made by a great bend of the Connecticut, and is separated from Greenfield by a small stream, called Fall River, because it enters the Connecticut near Turner's Falls, the most interesting falls in the State.

    Just above these falls, a Captain Turner, with one hundred and sixty men, from Hadley, surprised and killed about three hundred Indians; but soon afterwards King Philip, with about one thousand Indians, came upon them, and Turner was killed in Greenfield, on the retreat. The rest, under Captain Holyoke, were routed, and many were slain before they reached Hatfield, through Deerfield, which afforded them no shelter, having been burned the year before.

    The land is fertile, and agriculture is the main business of the inhabitants.

    Distance from Greenfield, 5 miles; from Boston, 86.


204                                    ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1714.] 22. SUNDERLAND. [Pop. 719.

    This town was once a part of Hadley, and contained a part of Montague and the whole of Leverett.

    Sunderland lies on the eastern bank of the Connecticut, over which is a bridge eight hundred and fifty-eight feet long. 

    East of the village, and partly in Leverett, is Mount Toby, an elevation remarkable for its geological structure. The scenery of the town is generally very picturesque.

    Corn-brooms, to a considerable amount, are made here, but the inhabitants are chiefly farmers.

    Distance from Greenfield, 10 miles ; from Boston, 85.

Inc. 1785.] 23. ROWE. [Pop. 703.

    This town was originally composed of several grants, and in 1838, the Legislature annexed to it part of a tract of land called Zoar.

    Deerfield River bounds Rowe on the west, and one of its branches, Pelham Brook, waters the town.

    When the State found it necessary to establish a chain of forts along the northern frontier, to defend the settlements from the French and Indians, Fort Pelham was established here.

    The land is elevated, and some wool is produced, but the inhabitants chiefly depend on agriculture.

    Distance from Greenfield, 22 miles, from Boston, 117.

Inc. 1809.] 24. LEYDEN. [Pop. 632.

    Leyden was taken from Bernardston.

    It was named in honor of that town in Holland, where the Pilgrim Fathers resided during their exile from England, before they sailed for Plymouth.

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    Green River, a branch of the Deerfield, separates Leyden from Coleraine. The Glen, where a branch of Green River narrows and passes between high rocks, is very beautiful.

    Some wool is raised here, but the inhabitants are chiefly fanners.

    Distance from Greenfield, 7 miles; from Boston, 100.

Inc. 1838.] 25. ERVING. [Pop. 309.

    This little town, until lately, was known as Erving's Grant, and was probably named in honor of John Erving, a Boston merchant, to whom the tract was sold by the government.

    The town lies on Miller's River and the Connecticut, where they unite.

    Some woollen cloth, and boots and shoes are made here, but the main resource is agriculture.

    Distance from Greenfield, 10 miles ; from Boston, 85.

Inc. 1822.]  26. MONROE.  [Pop. 282.

    This smallest town in the county was named in honor of James Monroe, who was President of the United States, at the time the town was incorporated.

    It was composed of a part of Rowe and of a tract called Zoar. Monroe is an elevated region, and raises some sheep, but its few inhabitants depend upon the produce of their farms.

    Deerfield River separates the town from Rowe.

    Distance from Greenfield, 23 miles; from Boston, 125.



206                                    ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

Berkshire

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BERKSHIRE COUNTY.

    This county was separated from Hampshire in 1761, when Hampshire included what are now the counties of Franklin and Hampden also.

    This county is the most western, and extends entirely acros3 the State.

    Berkshire is a mountainous region, more elevated than any other county.

    A range of mountains, called the Hoosack, and which is a continuation of the Green Mountain range of Vermont, crosses the eastern part of this county, separating it from Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden counties. [C]

    A second range, called the Taconic Mountains, crosses the western part of the county, separating it from the State of New York. [D]

    The chief rivers are the Hoosick (A), which runs north into Vermont and the Housatonic (B), which runs south into Connecticut.

   Much of the land is only fit for grazing, but there are many excellent farming tracts in the valleys, and the value of the streams for manufacturing purposes has of late been rapidly increasing.

Inc. 1761.] 1. PITTSFIELD. [Pop. 8,747.

     Pittsfield was granted to Boston, and called Boston Plantation, No. 3.

     The Indian name of this town was Poontoosuck, and it was named Pittsfield, in honor of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, an English statesman, who eloquently defended the colonies against the oppressive measures of the British government.


208                                  ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The inhabitants were twice driven away by the Indians and French.

    The town is situated in a valley, between two ranges of mountains, and the soil is excellent.

    Several branches of the Housatonic unite in this township, and furnish abundant water-power.

     The chief manufactures are woollen and cotton goods, muskets and carriages.

     Much wool also is raised, and the land is highly cultivated.

     Distance from Lenox, 6 miles ; from Boston, 125.

Inc. 1778.] 2. ADAMS.  [Pop. 3,703.

     It was called East Hoosick or Hoosack, until it was incorporated, and named after the patriot Samuel Adams.

    Adams was settled from Connecticut and Rhode Island, and many of the early settlers were Friends or Quakers.

     The natural bridge of rock over Hudson's Brook is a great curiosity.

     Saddle Mountain, probably the highest land in the State, is remarkable for being a single mountain with two peaks, running between the great ranges on each side of it.

    During the French wars, Fort Massachusetts, in this town, was repeatedly attacked by the French and Indians.

     Adams is situated on the Hoosick River, and is the greatest manufacturing town in the county, having numerous cotton and woollen mills, and calico-printing works.

     Distance from Lenox, 27 miles ; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1761.] 3. GREAT BARRINGTON. [Pop. 2,704

    Great Barrington was once a parish of Sheffield, and was the shire or county town from 1761 to 1787, when the courts were removed to Lenox.

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    The town is well watered by the Housatonic and one of its branches. Alum Hill and Monument Mountain are interesting to lovers of fine scenery.

    The chief manvfactures are of cotton, wool, and iron.

    Distance from Lenox, 14 miles ; from Bolton, 125.

Inc. 1777.] 4. LEE. [Pop. 2,428.

    Part of Lee was taken from Washington, part from Great Barrington, and the rest was made up of tracts that had boen granted by the General Court.

    The town was named Lee in honor of Charles Lee, a Major-General in the army of the Revolution at the time of its incorporation.

   Lee is situated on the Housatonic, which with its branches supplies it with abundant water-power. The surface is hilly, if not mountainous, and iron ore and good marble are found here.

    The chief article manufactured is paper, but there are also factories of cotton, wool, and iron.

     Distance from Lenox, 5 miles; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1733.] 5. SHEFFIELD. [Pop. 2,322.

    Sheffield was originally the lowest of certain tracts called the Housatonic townships, and originally included the southern part of Great Barrington. For many years it was claimed by New York.

    The Housatonic divides the town from north to south, and often widely overflowing its banks, enriches the soil, and makes the town essentially agricultural.

    Sheffield is mountainous, and Bald Peak Mountain on the western border, is very elevated. Iron oie and an excellent white marble are found here.

    Distance from Lenox, 20 miles; from Boston, 125.


210                                   ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1765.] 6. WILLIAMSTOWN. [Pop. 2,153.

    This town, once called West Hoosick, was named after Colonel Ephraim Williams, a native of Newton, in Middlesex county, who bequeathed a sum of monev, which led to the foundation of Williams' College, in 1793.

    The town is situated on the Hoosick, and on Green River, one of its branches.

    The surface is elevated, and the Taconic range separates the town from New York.

    The land is generally good for grazing or tillage. Some cotton and woollen goods are made, but agriculture is the main business of this beautiful town.

    Distance from Lenox, 25 miles; from Boston, 135.

Inc. 1739.] 7. STOCKBRIDGE. [Pop. 1,992.

    Stockbridge was originally set apart for the Housatonic or Mohe-gan tribe of Indians, and it was a missionary station from 1735 to 1788, when the last of the tribe removed to western New York, from whence, in 1822, they removed to Green Bay, in Michigan. After the town was incorporated, the tribe weie generally known as the Stockbridge tribe.

    These Indians were quite civilized under the ministry of John Sergeant, Jonathan Edwards, and other missionaries, and they rendered essential service to their white neighbors during the French wars, and to the States during the war of Independence.

    Stockbridge is on the Housatonic, north of Monument Mt. which was so called from a small mound of stones raised at its foot over the grave of some Indian. The scenery of the town is much admired.

    The chief manufactures are of cotton, wool, and iron.

    Distance from Lenox, 6 miles; from Boston, 130.

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Inc. 1759.] 8. NEW MARLBOROUGH. [Pop. 1,682.

    New Marlborough was called Housatonic Township, No. 2, until its incorporation.

    It was named by the first settlers, who chiefly came from Marlborough, in Middlesex county.

    The surface is hilly, and in some places stony.

   Here are some fine ponds whose outlets water the town, and run into the Housatonic.

    A cavern in the west part of the town, and a rocking-stone near the centre, are great natural curiosities.

    Distance from Lenox, 20 miles; from Boston, 130.

Inc. 1762.] 9. TYRINGHAM. [Pop. 1,477.

    Tyringham was named after a town in England.

    It is hilly, and watered by ponds and their outlets, which run into the Housatonic.

    Hop-Brook Valley is a beautiful spot, and near it is a considerable village of Shakers.

     The manufactures, on a small scale, are various, but the chief business is agriculture.

    Distance from Lenox, 14 miles ; from Boston, 125.

Inc. 1762.] 10. SANDISFIELD. [Pop. 1,464.

    Sandisfield was greatly enlarged in 1819, by the annexation of a district at the south, containing eleven thousand acres.

    It is separated from Tolland, in Hampden county, by Farmington River, on the bank of which Hanging Mountain presents an almost perpendicular front, four hundred and fifty feet high.


212                                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The land is hilly, and good for grazing. Some wool is raised, and much leather tanned. Distance from Lenox, 20 miles ; from Boston, 116.

Inc. 1774]  11. WEST STOCKBRIDGE. [Pop. 1,448.

    This town was taken from Stockbridge, and before its incorporation was called Queensborough. It belonged to the Stockbridge tribe of Indians.

    Stockbridge Mountain separates West Stockbridge from the old town, and Williams River, a branch of the Housatonic, affords mill-sites for the sawing of marble, of which the town furnishes many beautiful varieties.

    Distance from Lenox, 5 miles; from Boston, 135.

Inc. 1765.]  12. BECKET. [Pop. 1,312.

    Part of a district, called Bethlehem, was annexed to Becket in 1810. Becket is on the Green or Hoo&ack range, and a healthful region, though cold and not very fertile.

    Distance from Lenox, 15 miles; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1767.]  13. LENOX. [Pop. 1,313.

    Lenox was the family name of the Duke of Richmond, in honor of whom, Richmond, to which Lenox once belonged, was named. The Indian name was Yokun.

    Lenox is the county or shire town of Berkshire county.

    The town is situated on the Housatonic: the mountain-scenery is picturesque, and the village beautiful.

    Iron ore and marble abound, and are extensively manufactured.

    Distance from Boston, 130 miles.

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Inc. 1784.] 14. DALTON. [Pop. 1,255.

    This town was named after the Hon. Tristram Dalton, then Speaker of the House of Representatives.

    It is situated on the eastern branch of the Housatonic, and the land is generally productive.

    Paper and woollen goods are the chief manufactures.

    Distance from Lenox, 10 miles; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1773. 15. OTIS. [Pop. 1,177.

    This town was called Loudon till 1810, when it was named Otis, in honor of Harrison Gray Otis, a distinguished citizen of Boston, then Speaker of the House of Representatives.

    In 1809, part of a district, called Bethlehem, was annexed to this town.

    Otis lies among the Green Mountains, and is watered by sources of the Housatonic and Farmington. The ground is rough, and sq rocky, as to render cultivation difficult.

    Distance from Lenox, 15 miles ; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1765.] 16. LANESBOROUGH. [Pop. 1,140.

    Lanesborough was first granted to some citizens of Framingham, in Middlesex county, and it once included a part of Cheshire.

    The first settlers were somewhat troubled during the French and Indian wars, but did not suffer seriously.

    The town is situated on a source of the Housatonic, which runs through a large and beautiful pond. A source of the Hoosick also rises in Lanesborough.


214                             ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The land is good, and agriculture is the main employment. Many valuable sheep graze upon the hills, and iron ore and excellent marble abound beneath them.

    Distance from Lenox, 11 miles ; from Boston, 125.

Inc. 1765.] 17. RICHMOND. [Pop. 1,097.

    Richmond once included Lenox, and was named after the Duke of Richmond.

    Several branches of the Housatonic issue from Richmond. The land is fertile, and the scenery delightful.

    The raising of sheep and the manufacture of iron, next to agriculture, are the chief concern.

    Distance from Lenox centre, 5 miles; from Boston, 135.

Inc. 1760.] 18. EGREMONT. [Pop. 1,038.

    The soil is generally good, though somewhat mountainous, and the inhabitants are farmers.

    Some small streams, that finally reach the Housatonie, water the town.

    Many of the people of Egremont engaged in the rebellion of Shays, and this long destroyed the harmony of the town.

    Distance from Lenox, 15 miles ; from Boston, 130.

Inc. 1777.] 19. WASHINGTON. [Pop. 991.

    This town is one of the many hundreds that show the veneration with which the name of the Father of his Country is every where regarded by this grateful nation; but this town, in point of time, is behind few or none of them.

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    The whole township is mountainous, and watered by sources of the Housatonic and Westfield River, and the soil is well adapted for grazing.

    Distance from Lenox, 8 miles; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1793.] 20. CHESHIRE. [Pop. 985.

    This town was formed from parts of Lanesborough, New Ashford, Adams, and Windsor.

    The town rises from the centre into hills well adapted for grazing; and the products of the dairy, rivalling those of Cheshire in England, probably suggested the name.

    The greatest event in the history of this town was the manufacture of a cheese, weighing over twelve hundred pounds, which was sent to the President of the United States, in the year 1801.

    The Hoosic River passes northwardly through Cheshire.

Distance from Lenox, 16 miles ; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1804.] 21. HINSDALE. [Pop. 955.

    Hinsdale is composed of portions of Dalton and Peru, and was named after its first minister.

    A source of the Housatonic waters the town, whose elevated soil is adapted to grazing.

    A considerable quantity of wool is raised and manufactured here.

    Distance from Lenox, 15 miles ; from Boston, 124.

Inc. 1776.] 22. HANCOCK. [Pop. 922.

    Before its incorporation, this long strip of land was called Jericho, because walled in by mountains; but its present name was given in honor of the patriot, John Hancock, then President of the Provincial Congress, and afterwards Governor of Massachusetts.


216                                 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


    The township is sixteen miles long, and about two broad, but it was not so narrow until the running of the boundary line gave part of it to New York.

    The Shakers have a flourishing village at the south part of Hancock, and the citizens generally live by farming. Distance from Lenox, 15 miles ; from Boston, 129.

Inc. 1797.] 23. SAVOY. [Pop. 915.

    This township was originally granted to the heirs of soldiers who were in the Canada expedition of 1690, and it was probably named Savoy, because, like Savoy in Sardinia, it is a mountainous region.

    Branches of Deerfield and Westfield Rivers rise in this town.

    The inhabitants are mostly farmers, who raise cattle and keep large dairies.

    Distance from Lenox, 25 miles; from Boston, 125.

Inc. 1771.]  24. WINDSOR.    [Pop. 897.

    This town was at first called Gageborough, in honor of the last British Governor of the Province; but, just after the Revolution commenced, the name was changed to Windsor.

    Windsor originally contained a part of Cheshire,

    Branches of the Housatonic and Westfield River rise within a few rods of each other. On the Housatonic, is a beautiful fall of water.

    The soil is various, but is best adapted to grazing. Distance from Lenox, 18 miles ; from Boston, 120.

Inc. 1771.] 25. PERU. [Pop. 576.

    Peru included the greater part of Hinsdale, and was called Partridgefield, after one of its two owners, until 1806.

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    The surface is mountainous, and gives rise to several sources of the Housatonic and Westfield River, which run in opposite directions.

    The soil is cold and often sterile, but not unfit for grazing. Excellent lime is found in the town.

    Distance From Lenox, 18 miles ; from Boston, 111.

Inc. 1778.]  26. ALFORD. [Pop. 481.

    This small, irregularly shaped town was composed of land purchased of the Stockbridge tribe of Indians, and of a part of Great Barrington.

    The western part of the town is mountainous, but the soil in the valleys is good, and the inhabitants are chiefly farmers. Distance from Lenox, 14 miles; from Boston, 136.

Inc. 1805.]  27. FLORIDA.  [Pop. 441.

    This mountainous town has an irregular surface, and a severe climate. It is composed of several grants. Deerfield River forms the eastern boundary.

    The inhabitants depend upon the produce of their dairies, and the raising of cattle.

    Distance from Lenox, 27 miles; from Boston, 125.

Inc. 1779.] 28. MOUNT WASHINGTON. [Pop. 438.

    This town was formerly called Taconic Mountain; and it was claimed by New York, as part of the Livingston Manor.

    The whole town is very elevated, rocky, and barren.

    The inhabitants keep some sheep, make some charcoal, and make up in health and contentment for many things that their climate and soil deny them.

    Distance from Lenox, 22 miles; from Boston, 135.


218                                        ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


Inc. 1798.] 29. CLARKSBURG. [Pop. 370.

    This town was named after the family of Clark, which is numerous in the settlement.

    The mountain land is cold and rocky. A branch of the Hoosick waters the central part, but the principal resource of the inhabitants is lumber.

    Distance from Lenox, 27 miles; from Boston, 125.

Inc. 1801.] 30. NEW ASHFORD. [Pop. 227.

    New Ashford, the smallest town in the State, lies between Saddle Mountain and the Taconic range. Branches of the Housatonic and Hoosick issue in opposite directions from the town.

    After long wringing a living from the unwilling soil, the inhabitants have lately found employment in their valuable quarries of marble.

    Distance from Lenox, 18 miles; from Boston, 130.

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RAILROADS.

    [The lesson on Railroads may be made a useful exercise. The little pupils may be invited to travel, and to name the several towns, with their distances from Boston. These distances are from dep6t to depot, and not from the centre of towns, as distances are computed in the previous lessons on the towns.

    The author, at first, did not intend to notice the railroads, or their tracks would have been marked on the county maps; but, if the teacher thinks it necessary, the pupils can dot the track with a pen, after the teacher has dotted one book according to the State map, or some other correct one.]

    At present (1845) six principal Railroads start from Boston, and run in different directions, some of them sending off branches almost as important as themselves.

    The figures opposite the names show that there is a depot in that town, and give its distance from Boston.

1. THE WORCESTER AND WESTERN RAILROAD.

    This road starts from Boston, and runs almost a westerly course, to Albany, in the State of New York. The towns of Massachusetts through which it passes, are as follows :

Suffolk Co. Boston,
  
Middlesex Co.  Natick, 17
Norfolk Co. Roxbury,


Framingham, 21

Brookline,


Hopkinton, 24
Middlesex Co. Brighton, 5

Worcester Co. Southborough, 28

Newton, 9


Westborough, 33

Weston,


Grafton, 38
Norfolk Co. Needham, 13


Millbury,



220                    ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY

 
Worcester Co. Worcester, 44
  
Hampden Co. Russell
116

Auburn,



Montgomery,


Leicester,
53


Norwich,


Oxford,



Chester,
119

Charlton,
57


Middlefield,


Spencer,
62

Berkshire Co.
Becket,
135

Brookfield, 69


Washington,
135

Warren,
73


Hinsdale,
143
Hampden Co.
Palmer,
83


Dalton,
146

Monson,



Pittsfield,
151

Wilbraham,
89


Richmond,
159

Springfield,
98


W. Stockbridge,
162

West Springfield,
100


Albany, State of


Westfield,
108


     New York
200

    The Worcester and Norwich Branch Railroad runs from Worcester to Norwich in Connecticut, and passes in a southerly direction through Worcester, Auburn, Oxford and Webster, into Connecticut.

    The Berkshire and Housatonic Railroad enters Berkshire county from Connecticut, and, after passing through Sheffield and Great Barrington, unites with the Western Bailroad in West Stockbridge.

    A Branch passes through Springfield, south, to Hartford and New Haven, in Connecticut, and another Branch goes north to Northampton and Deerfield, in Hampshire and Franklin counties.

2. THE BOSTON AND PROVIDENCE RAILROAD.

    This railroad, the second in point of age, starts from Boston, and passes in a direction a little west of south, through the following towns, to Providence in Rhode Island.

Norfolk Co. Roxbury, 5
  
Bristol Co. Mansfield, 24

Dorchester,


Attleborough, 30

Dedham, 9


Pawtucket, 35

Canton, 14


Seekonk, 38

Sharon, 17


Providence, R. I. 42

Foxborough, 21





FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.                     221


This railroad is continued beyond Providence, to Stonington, in Connecticut.

The Taunton and New Bedford Branch Railroads start from Mansfield, and pass, in a southeasterly direction, through the following towns, all of which are in Bristol county.
Mansfield, Middleborough,
Norton, Freetown,
Taunton, New Bedford,
Berkeley,

Total fiom Boston, 55 miles.


A branch of this Branch goes from Taunton to Fall River, in Bristol county.

3. THE LOWELL AND NASHUA RAILROAD.

This third principal railroad starts from Boston, in a northwesterly direction, and passes through the following towns in Middlesex county, into New Hampshire.

Cambridge, ½

Billerica, 19
Somerville,

Tewksbury, 22
Medford, 5

Lowell, 26
Woburn, 8

Chelmsford, 31
Wilmington, 15

Tyngbborough, 34

 4. THE EASTERN RAILROAD.

This fourth principal railroad starts from East Boston, in a direction a little east of north, and passes through the following towns of Essex county into New Hampshire, and thence to Portland, in Maine.

Chelsea,
  
Hamilton,
Saugus,

Ipswich, 25
Lynn, 9

Rowley, 29
Salem, 14

Newbury,
Beverly, 16

Newburyport, 34
Wenham, 20

Salisbury, 36



222                    ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY


5: THE MAINE EXTENSION RAILROAD.

    This fifth principal railroad, like the fourth, goes to Portland, in Maine, but its course is north of the other, with which, however, it unites at South Berwick, in Maine. It starts from Boston, and before it reaches New Hampshire, passes through the following towns:

Middlesex Co. Charlestown,
  
Middlesex Co. Wilmington,
15

Somerville,

Essex Co. Andover, 23

Malden, 5


Bradford, 31

South Reading, 10


 Haverhill, 32

Reading, 12


 into New Hampshire.
6. THE FITCHBURG RAILROAD.

This sixth principal railroad starts from Charlestown, opposite Boston, and passes, in a direction somewhat north of west, through the following towns:

Middlesex Co. Charlestown,
  
Middlesex Co.
Acton,
27

Somerville,


Boxborough,


Cambridge,


Littleton,
31

West Cambridge, 6


Groton,
35

Watertown,


Shirley,
40

Waltham, 10

Worcester Co.
Lunenburg,


Weston, 13


Leominster,
46

Lincoln, 17


Fitchburg,
48

Concord, 20




     A seventh railroad is nearly finished from Boston to Plymouth. Its course is southeasterly, and it will probably pass through the following towns:

Norfolk Co. Dorchester, 3
  
Plymouth Co. Hanson, 24

Quincy, 8


Halifax, 28

Braintree, 11


Plympton, 29

Weymouth, 14


Kingston, 32
Plymouth Co. Abington, 18


Plymouth, 37

     All the above railroads have important branches, and will probably be extended as far as possible.

FOR MASSACHUSETTS CHILDREN.      223


PRONUNCIATION OF PROPER NAMES.

    [No names are introduced that are not in this Geography, and of these only such as have something peculiar in their pronunciation.]

Spelled,

Pronounced.

Spelled,

Pronounced.

Af ghan is tan,

Af-gan-i-stan.'

Dnie per,

Nee'-per.

Al ta ma ha,

Al-ta-ma-haw'.

Dnies ter,

Nees'-ter.

A mour,

A-moor'.

E cua dor,

Ec-wa-dor'.

Ar kan sas,

Ar-kan-saw'.

Fauk land,

Fawk-land.

Ba hi a,

Bah'-e-ah.

Fez zan,

Fez-zan'.

Bher ing,

Ber' ring.

Fin is terre,

Fin-is-tare'.

Bor deaux,

Bor-do'.

Gen o a,

Gen'o-ah.

Bor nou,

Bor-noo'.

Guar da fui,

Gar-daf-we'.

Bour bon,

Boor' bon.

Gui a na,

Guee-an'-ah.

Bue nos Ay res,

Boo-a'nōs A'-rez.

Guay a quil,

Gooa-ya-keel'.

Ca bul,

Ca' bul

Hamp den,

Ham'den.

Cas tile,

Cas-teel'.

Hin dos tan,

Hin-doo-stan'.

Cay enne,

Ca-yen'.

Hou sa ton ic,

How-sa-ton-ic.

Cel e bes,

Cel'e-bees.

Il li nois,

Il'le-noy.

Cham plain,

Sham-plane.

I o wa,

I-o-waw'.

Chi ca go,

Chi-caw'go.

Jo an nes,

Jo-an'nez.

Chi li,

Che'le.

Ja va,

Jah-vah.

Con nect i cut,

Con-net'-e-cut.

Kamts chat ka,

Kamts-chat'-kah.

Crim e a,

Crim-e'ah,

Leg horn,

Le-gorn'.




224                    ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.


Spelled.

Pronounced

Spelled.

Pronounced.

Leices ter,

Les'-ter.

Ra leigh,

Raw'ley.

Leom in ster,

Lem'in-ster.

Read ing,

Red'ding.

Ley den,

Lȳ-dn.

Rio Ja nei ro,

Ree'o Ja-ne'-ro.

Loire,

Loo-ah'.

Sal is bury,

Sawlz'-bu-ry.

Ma dei ra,

Mah-da'-rah,

Sen e gal,

Sen'e-gall.

Ma drid,

Ma-drid'.

Su ma tra,

Su-mah'-trah.

Ma gel lan,

Ma-jel'lan,

Tay mour,

Tay'-moor.

Mei nam,

Mi'nam.

Tchad,

Chad.

Mich e gan,

Mish'-e-gan.

Te he ran,

Te-he-ran'.

Mis sou ri,

Miz-zoo'-re.

Ten e riffe,

Ten-e-reef.

Mo bile,

Mo-beel'.

Ter ra del

Ter'rah del

Mon te Vi de o,

Mon-te Ve'-da-o.

      Fu e go,

     Foo-a'go.

Mon tre al,

Mon-tre-all'.

Thames,

Temz.

Mo zam bique,

Mo-zam-beek'.

Thibet,

Te-bet'.

Ni ag a ra,

Ne aw'ga-rah

U ra guay,

Oo-r ah-gway '.


Ne ag-a-rah

Ural,

Oo'-ral.

Or le ans,

Or'le-ans.

Wa bash,

Waw'bosh.

Pan a ma,

Pan-a-mah'.

Wo burn,

Woo'burn.

Par a guay,

Par-a-gooay'.

Wor ces ter,

Woos'ter.

Par i mar i bo,

Par-e-mar'-e-bo.

Xin gu,

Zin'goo.

Quito,

Kee'to.

Yen i sei,

Yen'e-see.

     [The pupil who has mastered this Geography may pursue his studies in the Common School Geography, by the same author, who gives notice that he intends immediately to prepare Large Outline Maps adapted to this work, and, as soon as may be, to pursue the same plan in regard to other States.]

END.





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